[photo, Captain John Smith, engraving by Simon van de Passe, 1616, Havre de Grace Maritime Museum, 100 Lafayette St., Havre de Grace, Maryland] Aided by Robert J. Brugger, Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980 (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988).
  • 10,000 B.C. - 1599
  • 1600 - 1699
  • 1700 - 1799
  • 1800 - 1899
  • 1900 - 1999
  • 2000 -

  • Captain John Smith, engraving by Simon van de Passe, 1616, Havre de Grace Maritime Museum, 100 Lafayette St., Havre de Grace, Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

    1600 - 1699

    [portrait, Charles I, King of England, Studio of
Anthony Van Dyke, c.1640] 1608, June 2 & July 24.
    Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) led two voyages exploring the Chesapeake Bay.

    c. 1620. Earliest appearance in Maryland of European objects in archeological context.

    1629. George Calvert (1578/9-1632), 1st Lord Baltimore, sailed from Newfoundland to Virginia.

    1631, May. Kent Island trading post and farming settlement established by William Claiborne, member of Virginia Council.

    1632, June 20. Charles I (1600-1649), King of Great Britain and Ireland, granted Charter to Cecilius Calvert (1605-1675), 2nd Lord Baltimore, who named Maryland after Charles' wife, Henrietta Maria (1609-1669).

    1633. William Claiborne opened trading post on Palmers Island (now Watson's Island) near mouth of Susquehanna River.

    Charles I, King of England, Studio of Anthony Van Dyke, c.1640 (MSA SC 1545-1099). Courtesy of Commission on Artistic Property, Maryland State Archives.

    1633, Nov. 22. English settlers, led by Leonard Calvert, set sail on Ark and Dove from Cowes, England, for Maryland. Calvert had been appointed Maryland's first Governor by his brother, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, following grant of Maryland Charter by Charles I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.

    1634, March 25. Landing of settlers at St. Clement's Island (Maryland Day). Calvert party celebrated Feast of Annunciation (March 25); later purchased land from Yaocomaco tribe, and built "Fort at St. Mary's City."

    1634-1644. Leonard Calvert, governor.

    1634/5, Feb. 26. First General Assembly (law-making assembly of freemen) met at St. Mary's City.

    1634-1694. St. Mary's City, established March 27, 1634, served as capital of Maryland.

    1635. Proprietary vessels clash with those of William Claiborne.

    1635, Sept. 8. A Relation of Maryland published by Jerome Hawley and John Lewger (London).

    1636. Leonard Calvert House (later, Country's House), East St. Mary's, served as state house and governor's residence.

    1637. St. Mary's County first cited in provincial records.

    1638. Assembly claimed protections of English law; Assembly and courts met at John Lewger's St. John's.

    1639. First elections in province for delegates to Assembly ordered by Governor Leonard Calvert on Kent Island, and in hundreds (political subdivisions or districts) of Mattapanient, St. Michael's St. Mary's, and St. George's.

    1641, Aug. 13. Governor Leonard Calvert surveyed and patented 100-acre plot of land, thereafter known as Governor's Field, for tobacco plantation at St. Mary's City.

    1642. Governor's residence in St. Mary's City, Calvert House, completed by this time and Assembly began to meet at that location.

    1642. Kent County first cited in records of commissioner appointments.

    1643-1644, Oct. Giles Brent, acting provincial governor.

    1645, Feb. 14-1646, Dec. Ingle's Rebellion: Richard Ingle led rebellion against proprietary government.

    1646, Dec.-1647, June 9. Leonard Calvert, governor.

    1647. At Piscataway Creek, Susquehannocks moved to Susquehannock Fort.

    1647/8, Jan. 21. Margaret Brent (1601-1671) denied right to vote in General Assembly.

    1647-1649. Thomas Greene, governor.

    1649-1652. William Stone, governor.

    1649. Governor Stone invited Virginia Puritans to settle in Maryland.

    1649. Town of Providence (later Annapolis) founded.

    1649, April 21. Religious toleration law (An Act concerning Religion) enacted.

    1650, April. Anne Arundel County created (Chapter 8, Acts of 1650).

    1650, April 6. General Assembly divided into an upper and lower house.

    1652, March 29. Parliamentary commissioners displaced proprietary regime.

    1652, July 5. Susquehannocks sign treaty at Severn River, ceding Eastern Shore and Western Shore lands (except Kent Island & Palmer's Island) to English.

    1654. Patuxent County (later Calvert County) formed by order in Council.

    1654, July 3. Calvert County formed by order in Council of Maryland. County originally encompassed most of Prince George's County, and parts of Anne Arundel and St. Mary's counties.

    1654, Oct. 20 General Assembly established Court in St. Mary's County.

    1654, Dec. 5. Provincial Court authorized St. Mary's County Courthouse to be built on property of John Hammond near Leonardtown.

    1655, March 25. Puritans from Virginia defeated Gov. William Stone's forces at Battle of the Severn.

    1656. John Hammond's Leah and Rachel, Or, the Two Fruitfull Sisters Virginia and Maryland published (London).

    1657. First European inhabitants recorded on Smith Island.

    1657. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, reestablished proprietary authority over Maryland.

    1657, Nov. 30. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) restored Maryland colony back to Calverts. Lord Baltimore's claim to Maryland reaffirmed. Lord Baltimore reestablished proprietary authority.

    1657-1660. Josias Fendall, governor.

    1658. Charles County created by order in Council.

    1659. "Seaside War" against Assateagues by Col. Edward Scarborough of Virginia.

    1659, Jan. 12. Writ issued to Sheriffs of Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Charles, Kent, and St. Mary's Counties ordering election by freemen of four delegates per county to Lower House.

    1660. Bohemia Manor established by Augustine Herrman (c. 1621-1686).

    1660-1661. Philip Calvert, governor.

    1661, May 16. At Spesutia Island, peace treaty with Susquehannocks signed by Gov. Philip Calvert.

    1661-1675. Charles Calvert, governor.

    1661. Baltimore County seat located at Old Baltimore on Bush River.

    1661/62, Feb. 18. Talbot County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

    1662. Treaty with Assateagues and Nanticoke.

    1663. Augustine Herrman, first naturalized citizen of Maryland.

    1664. Slavery sanctioned by law; slaves to serve for life.

    1666. Somerset County established by order in Council.

    1666. Assembly agreed to 1-year cessation on tobacco growing, but Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, vetoed bill.

    1666. A Character of the Province of Maryland, by George Alsop (c. 1636-c. 1673), published (London)

    1667. St. Mary's City incorporated.

    1668, May 1. Treaty with Nanticokes.

    1668/69. Feb. 16. Dorchester County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

    1669. Choptank Indian Reservation laid out near Cambridge.

    1670. Voting restricted by Governor to planters with 50-acre freehold or property worth 40 pounds; officeholding restricted to owners of 1,000 acres.

    1670. Authoritative map of Maryland (engraved, London, 1673) completed by Augustine Herrman.

    1672, Oct. George Fox (1624-1691), founder of Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), preached in Anne Arundel County. Friends form Baltimore Yearly Meeting.

    1674. Cecil County erected from Baltimore and Kent counties by proclamation of Governor.

    1675-1677. Maryland and Virginia war against remaining Susquehannocks.

    1676. Brick State House completed at St. Mary's City, replacing Country's House.

    1676. In Lower House, Proprietor limited delegates to two per county, though four for each county were elected.

    1676-1679. Thomas Notley, governor.

    1678, June 16. Treaty between Maryland and Assateague Emperor Amonugus ordered Assateagues onto five reservations along Pocomoke River.

    1679-1684. Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, governor.

    1679. Governor granted county courts jurisdiction over civil suits.

    1680. Piscataways abandoned Piscataway Fort on Piscataway Creek, moving to Zekiah Swamp to escape raids of Iroquois and Susquehannocks.

    1680. Zekiah Fort established east of present-day Waldorf near Piney Branch by Gov. Charles Calvert for protection of Piscataway from Susquehannock and Seneca.

    1681. Josias Fendall (c. 1628-1687) found guilty of conspiracy by Provincial Court, which fined and banished him.

    1681. Sheriffs of Counties instructed to elect two delegates per county to Lower House, despite 1678 law requiring four delegates.

    1682. Quakers began building Third Haven Meeting House (completed 1684), Talbot County.

    1682, Oct. 26. Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, announced that only two delegates would be sent from each county to the Lower House in order to reduce costs.

    1682, Dec. 13. William Penn met at Harwood with Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore.

    1683. Assembly passed Act for Advancement of Trade (town act).

    1683. Labadist community settled at Bohemia Manor.

    1683, May 15. Proprietor replaced headright system of land grants with "caution money" or outright purchase.

    1684. Presbyterians under Francis Makemie (1658-1708) built church at Snow Hill, first in colonies.

    1684-1689. Council of deputy governors ruled Maryland in the name of child Benedict Leonard Calvert.

    1685, Aug. 31. Printing press of William Nuthead (1654-1695) used at St. Mary's City by this date.

    1686. Indian reservation laid out at Askiminokonson, largest Indian town in Maryland, near Snow Hill, Worcester County.

    1689, July 27. Maryland Revolution of 1689. Protestant Associators under John Coode overthrew proprietary officers.

    1690, May-1692, April. Interim government of Protestant Associators.

    1692. Church of England made the established church. Royal assent to establishment act given in 1702.

    1692, March 12-1715. Crown rule; William III and Mary II declared Maryland a royal colony, rather than a proprietary province, and appointed Sir Lionel Copley as 1st Royal Governor (he arrived in St. Mary's County, April 6, 1692).

    1692, June 2. Assembly passed law requiring four delegates from each county to be elected to Lower House.

    1693, Sept. Sir Thomas Lawrence, governor.

    1693-1693/94. Sir Edmund Andros, governor.

    1693/94. Col. Nicholas Greenberry, governor.

    [photo, State House, Annapolis, Maryland]
    1694-1699. Sir Francis Nicholson, governor.

    1694/5, Feb. 28 - March 1. Capital moved from St. Mary's City to Anne Arundel Town. Gov. Francis Nicholson (1655-1727/8) laid out plan for capital city.

    State House, Annapolis, Maryland, May 1999. Photo by Diane P. Frese.

    1695. Prince George's County erected from parts of Charles and Calvert counties (Chapter 13, Acts of 1695, May session).

    1695. Lower House renamed House of Delegates.

    1695, May. Anne Arundel Town renamed Annapolis.

    1696. Construction began on new State House and probably on St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.

    1696. King William's School (later St. John's College) founded at Annapolis by Governor Nicholson and others.

    1698. Construction completed on new State House, Annapolis.

    1698. Monopoly of slave trade by Royal African Company abolished by Parliament; slave imports markedly increased.

    1698. Nanticoke Indian Reservation laid out near Vienna, Dorchester County.

    1698-1702. Nathaniel Blakiston (or his appointee), acting governor.

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