[photo, Captain John Smith, engraving by Simon van de Passe, 1616, Havre de Grace Maritime Museum, 100 Lafayette St., Havre de Grace, Maryland] Aided by Robert J. Brugger, Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980 (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988).
  • 10,000 B.C. - 1599
  • 1600 - 1699
  • 1700 - 1799
  • 1800 - 1899
  • 1900 - 1999
  • 2000 -

  • Captain John Smith, engraving by Simon van de Passe, 1616, Havre de Grace Maritime Museum, 100 Lafayette St., Havre de Grace, Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

    1600 - 1699

    [portrait, Charles I, King of England, Studio of
Anthony Van Dyke, c.1640] 1608, June 2 & July 24.
    Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) led two voyages exploring the Chesapeake Bay.

    c. 1620. Earliest appearance in Maryland of European objects in archeological context.

    1629. George Calvert (1578/9-1632), 1st Lord Baltimore, sailed from Newfoundland to Virginia.

    1631, May. Kent Island trading post and farming settlement established by William Claiborne, member of Virginia Council.

    1632, June 20. Charles I (1600-1649), King of Great Britain and Ireland, granted Charter to Cecilius Calvert (1605-1675), 2nd Lord Baltimore, who named Maryland after Charles' wife, Henrietta Maria (1609-1669).

    1633. William Claiborne opened trading post on Palmers Island (now Watson's Island) near mouth of Susquehanna River.

    Charles I, King of England, Studio of Anthony Van Dyke, c.1640 (MSA SC 1545-1099). Courtesy of Commission on Artistic Property, Maryland State Archives.

    1633, Nov. 22. English settlers, led by Leonard Calvert, set sail on Ark and Dove from Cowes, England, for Maryland. Calvert had been appointed Maryland's first Governor by his brother, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, following grant of Maryland Charter by Charles I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.

    1634, March 25. Landing of settlers at St. Clement's Island (Maryland Day). Calvert party celebrated Feast of Annunciation (March 25); later purchased land from Yaocomaco tribe, and built "Fort at St. Mary's City."

    1634-1644. Leonard Calvert, governor.

    1634/5, Feb. 26. First General Assembly (law-making assembly of freemen) met at St. Mary's City.

    1634-1694. St. Mary's City, established March 27, 1634, served as capital of Maryland.

    1635. Proprietary vessels clash with those of William Claiborne.

    1635, Sept. 8. A Relation of Maryland published by Jerome Hawley and John Lewger (London).

    1636. Leonard Calvert House (later, Country's House), East St. Mary's, served as state house and governor's residence.

    1637. St. Mary's County first cited in provincial records.

    1638. Assembly claimed protections of English law; Assembly and courts met at John Lewger's St. John's.

    1639. First elections in province for delegates to Assembly ordered by Governor Leonard Calvert on Kent Island, and in hundreds (political subdivisions or districts) of Mattapanient, St. Michael's St. Mary's, and St. George's.

    1639, May 28. Company of soldiers pressed into service for military expedition on "Indians of the Eastern Shore," per gubernatorial order.

    1639/40, Jan. 3. Governor Calvert declared war on Piscataway nation of "Maquantequats."

    1639/40, Jan. 24. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, declared peace with and offered protection to the Patuxent, by way of his brother and personal representative in Province, Governor Leonard Calvert.

    1641, Aug. 13. Governor Leonard Calvert surveyed and patented 100-acre plot of land, thereafter known as Governor's Field, for tobacco plantation at St. Mary's City.

    1642. Governor's residence in St. Mary's City, Calvert House, completed by this time; Assembly began to meet there.

    1642. Kent County first cited in records of commissioner appointments.

    1642, Sept. 13. Susquehannocks, Wicomisses, and Nanticokes declared "enemies" of Province by gubernatorial proclamation.

    1642/3, Jan. 26. Governor Calvert established peace with and rescinded his declaration of war on Nanticokes.

    1643-1644, Oct. Giles Brent, acting provincial governor.

    1643/4. Due to Indian attacks against English settlers at Patuxent in 1643, Acting Governor Giles Brent authorized settlers to warn off and then shoot Indians who approached but would not leave.

    1644, June 8. Acting Governor Giles Brent declared peace with and offered protection to the Patuxents.

    1645, Feb. 14-1646, Dec. Ingle's Rebellion: Richard Ingle led rebellion against proprietary government.

    1646, Dec.-1647, June 9. Leonard Calvert, governor.

    1647. At Piscataway Creek, Susquehannocks moved to Susquehannock Fort.

    1647-1649. Thomas Greene, governor.

    1647, July 4. Governor Thomas Greene authorized a military expedition against Nanticokes and Wicomisses.

    1647/8, Jan. 21. Margaret Brent (1601-1671) denied right to vote in General Assembly.

    1649-1652. William Stone, governor.

    1649. Governor Stone invited Virginia Puritans to settle in Maryland.

    1649. Town of Providence (later Annapolis) founded.

    1649, April 21. Religious toleration law (An Act concerning Religion) enacted.

    1650, April. Providence erected as Annarundell County (now Anne Arundel County) (Chapter 7, Acts of 1650); named for Lady Anne Arundell (1615-1649), wife of Cecelius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore.

    1650, April 6. General Assembly divided into an upper and lower house.

    1652, March 29. Parliamentary commissioners displaced proprietary regime.

    1652, July 5. Susquehannocks sign treaty at Severn River, ceding Eastern Shore and Western Shore lands (except Kent Island & Palmer's Island) to English.

    1652, Nov. 25. Governor William Stone ordered "every Seventh man throughout the province" to be pressed into service for military expedition against Indians of Eastern Shore.

    1654, July 3. Patuxent County (later Calvert County) formed by order in Council of Maryland. County originally encompassed most of Prince George's County, and parts of Anne Arundel and St. Mary's counties.

    1654, Oct. 20 General Assembly established Court in St. Mary's County.

    1654, Dec. 5. Provincial Court authorized St. Mary's County Courthouse to be built on property of John Hammond near Leonardtown.

    1655, March 25. Puritans from Virginia defeated Gov. William Stone's forces at Battle of the Severn.

    1656. John Hammond's Leah and Rachel, Or, the Two Fruitfull Sisters Virginia and Maryland published (London).

    1657. First European inhabitants recorded on Smith Island.

    1657. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, reestablished proprietary authority over Maryland.

    1657, Nov. 30. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) restored Maryland colony back to Calverts. Lord Baltimore's claim to Maryland reaffirmed. Lord Baltimore reestablished proprietary authority.

    1657-1660. Josias Fendall, governor.

    1658. Charles County created by order in Council.

    1659. "Seaside War" against Assateagues waged by Col. Edmund Scarborough of Virginia.

    1659, Jan. 12. Writ issued to sheriffs of Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Charles, Kent and St. Mary's counties ordering election by freemen of four delegates per county to Lower House.

    1660. Bohemia Manor established by Augustine Herrman (c. 1621-1686).

    1660-1661. Philip Calvert, governor.

    1660, Dec. 20. Uttapoingassinem, formally recognized as Tayac (emperor) of Piscataways.

    1661, May 16. At Spesutia Island, peace treaty with Susquehannocks signed by Governor Philip Calvert.

    1661-1675. Charles Calvert, governor.

    1661. Baltimore County seat located at Old Baltimore on Bush River.

    1661/62, Feb. 18. Talbot County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

    1662. Treaty with Assateagues and Nanticokes.

    1663. Augustine Herrman, first naturalized citizen of Maryland.

    1663, Nov. 17. Governor Charles Calvert formally acknowledged "Sundry Complaints" from Queen of Portobacks, relating to English encroachment on their "ancient plantacons"; English inhabitants of Province are barred from taking up any land within three miles of Indian settlements.

    1664. Slavery sanctioned by law; slaves to serve for life.

    1664, June 27. Governor Charles Calvert declared war on Senecas.

    1665, Oct. 10. Governor Calvert ordered a reservation to be laid out for Mattawomens, upon their "oulde Habitacons"; any Englishman taking up land within three miles of reservation was ordered to be imprisoned for twelve months.

    1666. Somerset County established by order in Council.

    1666. Assembly agreed to 1-year cessation on tobacco growing, but Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, vetoed bill.

    1666. A Character of the Province of Maryland, by George Alsop (c. 1636-c. 1673), published (London)

    1667. St. Mary's City incorporated.

    1667, Aug. 6. Wicomisses, and "all other Indians that shall receive, harbor, or entertain them," declared enemies of the Province, per gubernatorial proclamation.

    1668, May 1. Treaty with Nanticokes.

    1668/69. Feb. 16. Dorchester County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

    1669. Choptank Indian Reservation laid out near Cambridge.

    1670. Voting restricted by Governor to planters with 50-acre freehold or property worth 40 pounds; officeholding restricted to owners of 1,000 acres.

    1670. Authoritative map of Maryland (engraved, London, 1673) completed by Augustine Herrman.

    1670, July 20. Piscataways petitioned the Calverts for a continuation of peace.

    1672, Oct. George Fox (1624-1691), founder of Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), preached in Anne Arundel County. Friends form Baltimore Yearly Meeting.

    1674. Cecil County erected from Baltimore and Kent counties by proclamation of Governor.

    1675-1677. Maryland and Virginia war against remaining Susquehannocks.

    1676. Brick State House completed at St. Mary's City, replacing Country's House.

    1676. In Lower House, Proprietor limited delegates to two per county, though four for each county were elected.

    1676-1679. Thomas Notley, governor.

    1678, June 16. Treaty between Maryland and Assateague Emperor Amonugus ordered Assateagues onto five reservations along Pocomoke River.

    1679-1684. Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, governor.

    1679. Governor granted county courts jurisdiction over civil suits.

    1680. Piscataways abandoned Piscataway Fort on Piscataway Creek, moving to Zekiah Swamp to escape raids of Iroquois and Susquehannocks.

    1680. Zekiah Fort established east of present-day Waldorf near Piney Branch by Gov. Charles Calvert for protection of Piscataway from Susquehannock and Seneca.

    1681. Josias Fendall (c. 1628-1687) found guilty of conspiracy by Provincial Court, which fined and banished him.

    1681. Sheriffs of Counties instructed to elect two delegates per county to Lower House, despite 1678 law requiring four delegates.

    1682. Quakers began building Third Haven Meeting House (completed 1684), Talbot County.

    1682, Oct. 26. Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, announced that only two delegates would be sent from each county to the Lower House in order to reduce costs.

    1682, Dec. 13. William Penn met at Harwood with Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore.

    1683. Assembly passed Act for Advancement of Trade (town act).

    1683. Labadist community settled at Bohemia Manor.

    1683, May 15. Proprietor replaced headright system of land grants with "caution money" or outright purchase.

    1684. Presbyterians under Francis Makemie (1658-1708) built church at Snow Hill, first in colonies.

    1684-1689. Council of deputy governors ruled Maryland in the name of child Benedict Leonard Calvert.

    1685, Aug. 31. Printing press of William Nuthead (1654-1695) used at St. Mary's City by this date.

    1686. Indian reservation laid out at Askiminokonson, largest Indian town in Maryland, near Snow Hill, Worcester County.

    1686, Nov. 3. Indians "belonging to the King of Pocomoke," including representatives of Annemessex, Nassawaddox, Quandanquan, & Aquintica, complained to Council of Maryland about land laid out for them at Askiminokonson, calling it "barren" and "good for nothing."

    1689, July 27. Maryland Revolution of 1689. Protestant Associators under John Coode overthrew proprietary officers.

    1690, May-1692, April. Interim government of Protestant Associators.

    1692. Church of England made the established church. Royal assent to establishment act given in 1702.

    1692, March 12-1715. Crown rule; William III and Mary II declared Maryland a royal colony, rather than a proprietary province, and appointed Sir Lionel Copley as 1st Royal Governor (he arrived in St. Mary's County, April 6, 1692).

    1692, June 2. Assembly passed law requiring four delegates from each county to be elected to Lower House.

    1692, Oct. 13. Emperor of Piscataway entered into "League of Amity", previously joined by King of Mattawomen, King of Chaptico, and Emperor of Nanticoke with Governor Copley, on behalf of William and Mary of England, along with their subjects, residents of Maryland and Virginia.

    1692/3. Council of Maryland ordered construction of three forts in Anne Arundel, Baltimore and Charles counties each with ten soldiers; and an accompanying cabin for every fort each manned by four Indians chosen by Emperor of Nanticoke, Emperor of Piscataway, and King of Chaptico.

    1693, Sept. Sir Thomas Lawrence, governor.

    1693-1693/94. Sir Edmund Andros, governor.

    1693/94. Col. Nicholas Greenberry, governor.

    [photo, State House, Annapolis, Maryland]
    1694-1699. Sir Francis Nicholson, governor.

    1694/5, Feb. 28 - March 1. Capital moved from St. Mary's City to Anne Arundel Town. Gov. Francis Nicholson (1655-1727/8) laid out plan for capital city.

    State House, Annapolis, Maryland, May 1999. Photo by Diane P. Frese.

    1695. Prince George's County erected from parts of Charles and Calvert counties (Chapter 13, Acts of 1695, May session).

    1695. Lower House renamed House of Delegates.

    1695, May. Anne Arundel Town renamed Annapolis.

    1696. Construction began on new State House and probably on St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.

    1696. King William's School (later St. John's College) founded at Annapolis by Governor Nicholson and others.

    1698. Construction completed on new State House, Annapolis.

    1698. Monopoly of slave trade by Royal African Company abolished by Parliament; slave imports markedly increased.

    1698. Nanticoke Indian Reservation laid out near Vienna, Dorchester County.

    1698-1702. Nathaniel Blakiston (or his appointee), acting governor.

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