STATE ARCHIVES

ORIGIN & FUNCTIONS


[photo, State Archives, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland] The State Archives was created in 1935 as the Hall of Records, and reorganized under its present name in 1984 (Chapter 286, Acts of 1984). Upon that reorganization, the Commission on Artistic Property was made part of the State Archives.

State Archives (now Edward C. Papenfuse State Archives Building), 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland, March 2004. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Search Room, State Archives, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland] As the historical agency for Maryland, the State Archives is the central depository for government records of permanent value. Records date from the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 through the immediate present. These records are described in the State Archives' Guide to Government Records. In manuscript, print and electronic formats, they include colonial and State executive, legislative and judicial records; county court, land and probate records; business records; publications and reports of State, county and municipal governments; records of religious bodies; and special collections of maps, newspapers, photographs, and private papers.

Search Room, State Archives, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland, May 2007. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Search Room, State Archives, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland] Origins of the State Archives trace to the State's tercentenary celebrations in 1934. As the 300th anniversary of Maryland's founding approached, the Maryland Tercentenary Commission made a modern, centralized archives a key feature of the State commemoration. Indeed, a "Memorial Hall of Records" had been proposed as early as 1928. Yet, in 1931 in the midst of the Depression, but because of its importance, the General Assembly appropriated funds to erect an archives building in Annapolis.

Search Room, State Archives, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland, April 2013. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Construction began in 1934, and the first Hall of Records, located one block north of the State House, opened to the public in 1935. There, the records remained until 1986 when the State Archives moved to the new Hall of Records Building on Rowe Boulevard across from the Robert C. Murphy Courts of Appeal Building. On June 27, 2005, the Hall of Records was rededicated as the Edward C. Papenfuse State Archives Building in honor of the State Archivist.

With the creation of the Hall of Records Commission, the General Assembly provided for management of the public records and collection, custody, and preservation of the official records, documents, and publications of Maryland (Chapter 18, Acts of 1935). Formed in 1935, the Hall of Records was an independent agency of State government and remained so until its incorporation into the Department of General Services in 1970 (Chapter 97, Acts of 1970).

In 1984, the Hall of Records reformed as the State Archives, an independent agency within the office of the Governor (Chapter 286, Acts of 1984). The 1984 law defined an advisory role for the Hall of Records Commission and placed the Commission on Artistic Property under the State Archives (Code State Government Article, secs. 2-1513(b), 3-404(b), 7-213(a), 9-1001 through 9-1027, 10-608 through 10-611, 10-614 through 10-619, 10-701, 10-702).

The State Archives produces web publications and on-line exhibits, as well as guides to records, finding aids, historical monographs, essays, and directories. Daily, the State Archives continuously compiles, edits, updates, and publishes the Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to Maryland & Its Government. In addition, the State Archives prepares, edits, and publishes the Archives of Maryland On-Line. This series provides access to historical documents that form the constitutional, legal, legislative and administrative basis of Maryland's government. Users may research topics, such as Maryland's Constitution and constitutional conventions, session laws and proceedings of the General Assembly, governor's papers, and military records by using the Archives of Maryland On-Line.

Rules and regulations promulgated in the Code of Maryland Regulations give the State Archives a role in the establishment of archives in local jurisdictions (COMAR 14.18.03).

Within the State Archives are ten main units. Effective October 1, 2015, the State Archivist directly oversees Administration; Government Information Services; and Information Systems Management. Under the Deputy State Archivist are Appraisal and Description; Artistic Property and Public Outreach; Conservation and Preservation; Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication; Reference Services; Research and Student Outreach; and Special Collections. The State Archives also is responsible for the Land Office and is aided by the Hall of Records Commission and the Commission on Artistic Property. Moreover, the State Archives provides staff support for the Baltimore City Archives, the State House Trust, Government House Trust, the Commission to Coordinate the Study, Commemoration, and Impact of Slavery's History and Legacy in Maryland, and the Commission on the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Passage of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution.


[photo, Edward C. Papenfuse State Archives Building, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland] HALL OF RECORDS COMMISSION
Created in 1935, the Hall of Records Commission is an advisory body to the State Archives (Chapter 18, Acts of 1935). The Commission reviews and comments upon policies of the Archives that concern proposed budgets, publications, and public access to records.

The Commission is composed of eleven members. Nine serve ex officio. The Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals chairs the Commission (Code State Government Article, secs. 9-1001 through 9-1006).

Edward C. Papenfuse State Archives Building, 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis, Maryland, April 2015. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


COMMISSION ON ARTISTIC PROPERTY
In 1969, the Commission on Artistic Property was formed (Chapter 111, Acts of 1969). It was incorporated into the State Archives in 1984 (Chapter 286, Acts of 1984).

The Commission is the official custodian of all valuable paintings and other decorative arts owned by or loaned to the State (except those located in a State room of Government House). The Commission provides for the acquisition, location, proper care, custody, restoration, display, and preservation of these paintings and decorative arts. Every person, agency, or organization desiring to acquire a painting or other decorative art work for display in a State building or premises (except in a room of Government House) must secure from the Commission both prior approval and final acceptance of the painting or decorative art work. In such instances, the Commission considers the competence of the artist, the proposed location, and the quality, historical significance, and appropriateness of the work.

With the approval of the Governor and the State Archivist, the Commission may receive and accept gifts and loans of paintings and decorative art works. With the approval of the Governor, the State Archivist may accept gifts of money for the Commission from any source, public or private, and thereafter administer and expend the funds according to the conditions and terms of the gift. In 1996, the Commission, on behalf of the State, assumed ownership of the art collection of the Peabody Institute.

The Commission consists of fifteen members. Eight are appointed by the State Archivist with the approval of the Governor. Seven serve ex officio. With the Governor's approval, the State Archivist names the chair (Code State Government Article, secs. 9-1016 through 9-1023).


BALTIMORE CITY ARCHIVES

2615 Mathews St., Baltimore, MD 21218

With the State Archives, the Baltimore City Archives is the central repository for Baltimore City government records of permanent value.

Within the Baltimore City Department of Legislative Reference, the City Bureau of Archives was created in 1927. Thereafter, in the late 1930s, workers from the Historical Records Survey of the federal Works Progress Administration began to describe and index the City government records. Over time, however, the City Archives fell into disrepair. Through a special agreement in 2009, the State Archives began to provide resources with the help of a National Historical Publications and Records Commission grant to restore and revive the City Archives.

Formerly housed at 2165 Druid Park Drive in Baltimore, the City Archives moved to its present site in 2008


GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

[photo, Government Information Services, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] Much of the descriptive work of Government Information Services originated with the Historical Records Survey in Maryland, which began in February 1936 as part of the Federal Writers Project. An independent unit of Federal Project no. 1 by October 1936, the Survey became a state project, officially sponsored by the Hall of Records Commission, in September 1939. Describing the first inventory of county records, published by the Survey in 1937, Maryland's first State Archivist, James A. Robertson noted that the manuscript materials report ". . . from which one can deduce the functions of those offices . . . is also the first survey of much that exists in the county aside from government. It shows both the form of government of the county, and something of the development of that government, as well as something of the history of the county in its various ramifications." For Maryland citizens and public officials, Government Information Services continues to describe Maryland and its government.

Government Information Services, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Government Information Services, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] Origins of Government Information Services also trace to 1948, when the Board of Public Works authorized a department of information to be created under the Hall of Records Commission, and the Governor asked the Hall of Records to take on the duties of the Maryland Manual. In 1988, the Governor also asked that the State Archives assemble the information contained in the Organization of Maryland State Government issued from 1988 to 1995. That information, covering the organizational structure, budgets, and mandated reports of government agencies, began to be incorporated in the Maryland Manual in 1989.

Government Information Services, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, March 2007. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Organized in 1986, Government Information Services assists the citizens of Maryland and their agencies of government with current and historical government information, continuously updated.

This office is responsible for the Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to Maryland & Its Government; the Maryland Manual; Government Reports and Publications; and the Library of the State Archives.

GOVERNMENT REPORTS & PUBLICATIONS
Government Reports and Publications began with the formation of the Hall of Records in 1935; however, it was not formed into a unique unit until 1995, when as Government Publications and Reports, it was made part of Government Information Services. In May 2016, it was renamed Government Reports and Publications.

Reports and publications of State government agencies, along with those of county and municipal governments, serve the research needs of the State Archives, other Maryland government agencies, and the public on a permanent basis. They are available in print and electronic formats. The earliest State reports and publications date from the 17th century, with the majority of our holdings published from the early 19th century to the present. They range from reports of study commissions, committees, task forces, and work groups to State constitutions, laws, and regulations.

Most reports and publications of State government agencies date to the early 19th century. They, with the reports and publications of county and municipal governments, have been collected by the State Archives since 1947 (Chapter 651, Acts of 1947). The State Archives also is an official depository for county charters, codes, and laws (Code Local Government Article, secs. 9-102, 9-203, 9-206, 9-306, 9-314). Municipal charter amendments and annexations, after publication, are deposited annually with the State Archives by the Department of Legislative Services (Code Local Government Article, sec. 4-109).

LIBRARY
Organized in 1940, the State Archives Library was made part of Government Information Services in 1995.

At the State Archives, the Library contains reference works that supplement those Maryland government records kept at the Archives. These include published records and sources on Maryland history, government, biography, geography, and natural resources; county, city and town histories; regional studies; Chesapeake Bay; research guides; genealogies; and archives administration, conservation, and preservation. Additionally, the Library Topic File holds newspaper clippings, articles, and research notes on various topics relating to Maryland history and culture, including historic houses, churches, and events in Maryland.

In June 1987, the Library of the Department of Natural Resources transferred to the State Archives. This body of material, collected from 1942 to 1987, focused on Maryland natural resources, wildlife, fisheries, forestry, water resources, and the environment, with an emphasis on Chesapeake Bay. The Natural Resources Library also includes a Topic File covering these same subjects.


[photo, Maryland Manual, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

MARYLAND MANUAL ON-LINE & MARYLAND MANUAL
Published by the State Archives, the Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to Maryland & Its Government and the Maryland Manual describe Maryland State, county and municipal government (Code State Government Article, secs. 9-1026, 9-1027). The Maryland Manual has been published in print since 1896. The Maryland Manual On-Line has been accessible on the Internet since December 1996.

The Maryland Manual On-Line is a continuously updated guide to Maryland government. It presents an overview of the organizational structure and staffing of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of Maryland government. It shows agency budgets and organizational charts, lists mandated reports, and provides the origin, historical evolution, and functions of government agencies.

Maryland Manual, 1991-1992, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, April 2013. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Biographies of government officials appear in the Maryland Manual On-Line. These include State legislators, constitutional officers, members of the Governor's staff, department secretaries, judges, and university presidents; Maryland's Congressional delegation; federal judges; and certain other federal officials of Maryland. Biographies of local government officials, including county executives, county council members, county commissioners, state's attorneys, sheriffs, circuit court clerks, orphans' court judges and registers of wills appear as well. Moreover, the Manual gives additional information on local government (county & municipal), intercounty, interstate and federal agencies. In addition, the Manual contains the State budget, the Constitution of Maryland, election returns, and historical lists of local officials. The Maryland at a Glance section offers condensed data on many Maryland subjects, State symbols, Maryland historical chronology, and Maryland government.
[photo, Information Systems Management, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

Information Systems Management began in 1989 as Computer Services and reorganized under its current name in 1997.

This department oversees Electronic Archives, Information Technology Development, and Information Technology Support for the State Archives. Moreover, the office helps other State agencies design and update their homepages for the web.

Information Systems Management, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


In the last several years, Information Systems Management has been instrumental in establishing the electronic archives and maintaining the successful partnership with two agencies that historically have created some of the largest records series in Maryland government: the Circuit Courts, and the Registers of Wills. These partnerships focus on migrating from paper systems to electronic records management, and afford the opportunity to save State funds and achieve efficiencies, while also providing enhanced access to the records.

The many databases that provide intellectual control over the vast holdings of the State Archives have been consolidated and integrated by Information Systems Management. About ten years ago, the Archives had over 24,000 separate databases that provided our staff with the means of finding records. Since then, almost all of these data sets have been brought together under the Guide to Government Records by this department.

ELECTRONIC ARCHIVES
At its September 1998 meeting, the Hall of Records Commission resolved that a program of Electronic Archives be created within the State Archives. The program coordinates and manages the development of a permanent archives of electronic records.


DEPUTY STATE ARCHIVIST


Effective October 1, 2015, under the Deputy State Archivist are seven departments: Appraisal and Description; Artistic Property and Public Outreach; Conservation and Preservation; Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication; Reference Services; Research and Student Outreach; and Special Collections.
[photo, Appraisal and Description, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

APPRAISAL & DESCRIPTION

In 1985, Appraisal and Description first organized under the name State and Local Records. Later, it reformed as Records Appraisal and Preservation, then as Appraisal and Preservation, before restructuring under its present name in 1999. Appraisal & Description was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015.

Appraisal and Description, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, November 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


The Appraisal and Description Department evaluates State, county and municipal records to determine their value for future agency operations, and administrative, legal and historical purposes. Records in the custody of the State Archives also are processed and described by the Department. This involves maintaining finding aids; updating record locations, descriptions, and inventories; and continually adding entries for newly transferred records.

The work of Appraisal and Description is organized into four units: Description; Outreach; Records Retention and Disposal Schedules; and Records Transfer and Space Management.

RECORDS RETENTION & DISPOSAL SCHEDULES
Government agencies are helped by the Department to manage their records, particularly in the record scheduling and disposal process. A records retention and disposition schedule gives agencies the authority to transfer to the State Archives those records that have permanent value, but no longer are needed for daily work, or to destroy records that have no more use. No government records, however, may be destroyed without the approval of the State Archivist.

The Department advises agencies on the creation of records retention and disposal schedules, reviews and evaluates schedule drafts, and makes recommendations to the State Archivist on whether to approve those drafts. This advisory role is fulfilled in consultation with the Records Management Division of the Department of General Services, which is responsible for coordinating the records management program in Maryland. During FY2014, the State Archivist approved some 130 records retention and disposition schedules.

Records retention and disposal schedules are developed collaboratively by the originating agency, the Department of General Services, and the State Archivist. Disposal certificates must be submitted for approval to the State Archives in accordance with Code State Government Article, sec. 10-616.


[photo, Record center boxes, Appraisal and Description, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] Efficient records management requires the prompt and orderly destruction of those records that have met their retention requirement, and have been approved for disposal by the State Archivist. Upon the destruction of government records, agencies must submit to the State Archives disposal certificates documenting the destruction. The Department checks these disposal certificates against the applicable records retention and disposition schedules in order to alert agencies to any unauthorized destructions. During FY2014, the State Archivist received 307 records disposal certificates.

Record center boxes, Appraisal and Description, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


A primary project in FY2014 (& continuing into FY2015) focused on safeguarding probate records. In FY2013, the State Archives entered into a joint project with the Comptroller of the Treasury, the Register of Wills, and FamilySearch (a nonprofit family history organization). In this work, the Register of Wills probate records in the custody of the State Archives from 1642 through 1940 will be recontainerized into archival storage, indexed to the document level, and scanned. Searchable images will be made available to the public through the FamilySearch website, as well as through the State Archives and Register of Wills. A sizable body of work, the containerizing, indexing, and scanning of records has continued throughout this past fiscal year.
[photo, Records Transfer and Space Management, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] RECORDS TRANSFER & SPACE MANAGEMENT
Records Transfer and Space Management started in 1985 as State and Local Records. Its functions transferred to Inventory Management under Acquisition and Conservation in 1999. Renamed Records Transfer and Space Management in July 2001, it reformed under Appraisal and Description as Inventory and Warehouse Management in January 2012, and later that year resumed the name Records Transfer and Space Management.

State, county and municipal government agencies in Maryland may offer the State Archives all files, documents, and records not in current use. Records Transfer and Space Management supervises the transfer, storage, and retrieval of those government records deemed to be of permanent value.

Records Transfer and Space Management, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


State Government Records. The records of all State agencies, boards, and commissions that are abolished or that otherwise conclude their work must be transferred to the custody of the State Archives. By law, State agencies have their records placed on retention and disposal schedules. No public records can be destroyed without scheduling and the prior approval of the State Archives.

The State Archives shares responsibility with the Division of Vital Records of the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene for preservation of and access to vital records information (Code State Government Article, sec. 9-1015).

County & Municipal Government Records. All records that are in the courthouses of the State and that were created prior to April 28, 1788 (when Maryland ratified the U.S. Constitution) must be deposited at the State Archives. All current deeds, mortgages, and releases recorded in the courthouses of the State are scanned and preserved electronically at the State Archives for security purposes. The State Archives also serves as the official depository for subdivision and condominium plats.


[photo, Artistic Property and Public Outreach, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

ARTISTIC PROPERTY & PUBLIC OUTREACH

In 1969, the Commission on Artistic Property was formed (Chapter 111, Acts of 1969). It was incorporated into the State Archives in 1984 (Chapter 286, Acts of 1984).

Artistic Property and Public Outreach, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Artistic Property and Public Outreach began in 1991 as Exhibits, reformed as Education and Outreach in 1989, and later was renamed Education, Outreach, and Artistic Property. It became Artistic Property and Public Outreach in May 1999, and reorganized as Artistic Property, Preservation, and Public Outreach in August 2003, adopting its present name in February 2014. It was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015.

This department oversees three main units: Artistic Property; the State House Office of Interpretation; and State House Trust and Government House Support.


[photo, Artistic Property staff, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] ARTISTIC PROPERTY
The Commission on Artistic Property interprets and makes publicly accessible the historic and artistic treasures that have been acquired by the State of Maryland throughout its history.

As the official custodian of the State-owned art collection, the Commission is staffed by three professionals at the State Archives: a Director, Curator, and Registrar. In addition to managing the care and maintenance of over 4,000 items of fine and decorative art that comprise the collection, Commission staff engage in multiple activities that fulfill the mission of the Commission to safeguard the State's artistic treasures. These include Acquisition; Collections Management; Conservation; Outreach; and Partnerships in Capital Projects.

Artistic Property staff, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, April 2013. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


STATE HOUSE OFFICE OF INTERPRETATION
The State House Office of Interpretation formed under Artistic Property, Preservation, and Public Outreach in September 2011. The Office develops, implements, and preserves all interpretive exhibits and materials in the Maryland State House.

STATE HOUSE TRUST SUPPORT & GOVERNMENT HOUSE TRUST SUPPORT
The office supports the work of the Government House Trust, and the State House Trust. This includes management of all requests for use of the State House, and serving as liaison with the Department of General Services and the Maryland Historical Trust for maintenance and preservation of the State House, the most historically important building in Maryland.


CONSERVATION & PRESERVATION

[photo, Dr. Fenella France, Chief, Preservation Research & Testing Division, Library of Congress, & Vicki Lee, Director, Conservation & Preservation, examining George Washington letter of resignation prior to hyperspectral imaging, Conservation Lab, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] By law, the State Archives provides long-term preservation and conservation of Maryland's records. Indeed, it is a core mandate of the Archives mission. The purpose of the Conservation and Preservation Department is to carry out that mandate.

Dr. Fenella France, Chief, Preservation Research & Testing Division, Library of Congress, & Vicki Lee, Director, Conservation & Preservation, State Archives, examining George Washington letter of resignation prior to hyperspectral imaging, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, August 2014.


From the founding of the Hall of Records to the present day, the State Archives has been conserving and preserving Maryland's records. In the old Hall of Records building, the work began in 1935 in the Repair Room, which reformed as the Preservation and Repair Department in 1940, became the Repair and Preservation Department by 1945, and reorganized as the Repair and Binding Department in 1956. Then, from 1975 to 1990, it was known as the Conservation Department. In 1990, the Department was renamed Preservation and Conservation, and by 1995 had reorganized as Conservation. As Conservation and Restoration, and Preservation Services, it later was placed under Artistic Property, Preservation, and Public Outreach in 1998. Renamed Preservation Services in 2001, it reformed as a separate department under its present name in February 2014, and was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015.

Conservation and Preservation preserves and cares for archival records, maintains their physical integrity, and assures their longevity and accessibility. Moreover, it provides condition assessments, and performs conservation treatments needed to prepare damaged materials for scanning, patron access, and exhibition. Conservation and Preservation works closely with other Archives departments to achieve the goal of long-term access to our records. This is especially true in working with Digital Acquisition, Processing and Publication Department to enable them to produce the best scanned images in keeping with national best practices. These procedures help individuals who are not able to use originals at the Archives, and they preserve the information value of fragile manuscripts, maps, newspapers, and photographs.

Conservation and Preservation oversees the Conservation Laboratory, and Preservation Outreach.


Conservation Lab

[photo, Conservation Lab, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] The Conservation Laboratory preserves the physical integrity of archives in many forms, including manuscript papers and record books, microfilm, microfiche, photographs, published books, government publications, maps, and newspapers. The Lab monitors environmental conditions in temperature- and humidity-controlled storage areas and warehouses. When appropriate, conservation measures are used, including de-acidification and chelating, repair and restoration, polyester encapsulation, phased and other enclosures, and book conservation. In FY2014, Conservation and Preservation completed the recovering and rehousing of the Archives Library Collection, as well as the rehousing of previously contaminated records.

Record books awaiting treatment, Conservation Lab, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Conservation Lab, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

Preservation Outreach

The State Archives participated in the work of the Maryland Task Force to Initiate Preservation Planning in the 1990s, and assumed a leading role in promoting preservation to agencies, organizations, and individuals across the State. At that time, the Task Force designated the State Archives to coordinate public information, workshops, and low-cost conservation services. Today, these efforts continue through the Intergovernmental Preparedness for Essential Records (IPER) program, lectures, workshops, and webinars given around the State, the country, and online. The goal is to ensure preservation of significant collections of books and documents in Maryland government offices, libraries, museums, historical societies, private organizations, and private homes.

Conservation Lab, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Conservation and Preservation also continues to support the State Archives Internship Program with training for students who are interested in pursuing careers in the field of conservation.
[photo, Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

DIGITAL ACQUISITION, PROCESSING, & PUBLICATION

Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication originated as Appraisal and Preservation. When appraisal functions were assigned to Appraisal and Description, Acquisition and Preservation Services formed in May 1999. It restructured as Acquisition and Imaging Services in August 2003, and was renamed Digital Imaging and Acquisition in June 2005. It further reorganized as Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication in August 2007, and was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015.

Digital Acquisition, Processing, & Publication, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Digital Image Acquisition, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] DIGITAL IMAGE ACQUISITION
The digital preservation and imaging services offered by the State Archives in Annapolis are managed, coordinated, and promoted by Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication. For imaging projects, this department also gives logistical and technical support, and assists in the development of standards and techniques used in such work.

FY2014 was a busy one for the Department. As part of an ongoing effort to digitize the entirety of the State Archives microfilm holdings, Department staff scanned 8,185 reels of master negative microfilm, adding 10,604,153 to the “electronic vaults” of the Archives. In addition, staff added 477,704 images derived from paper records. Moreover, images of 5,036 series units (drawn from a wide range of non-land record series) also were inspected, processed, and uploaded to the Archives’ electronic holdings.

Digital Image Acquisition, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Besides digitizing its own collections, Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication is instrumental in securing permanently valuable digital records created by other government agencies. Chief among these are the land records recorded by the County Circuit Courts, and the photographs generated by the Governor's Office. In FY2014, staff inspected, processed, and placed online some 11,142 digital land record volumes, comprising more than 5.5 million images received from the courts. In addition, 21,916 plat images were cataloged and uploaded to the web. In the same period, thousands of photographs taken by the Governor's photographers at 445 separate events were cataloged, processed, and made available online.

CONSTITUENT & INTERAGENCY SERVICES
Formed in December 2010, Constituent and Interagency Services was placed under Digital Acquisition, Processing, and Publication in January 2014.

This office operates the Archives Help Desk. There, for the public, Constituent and Interagency Services handles requests for copies of records. For government agencies, it fulfills requests for files, and refiles records returned to the Archives. The Archives Help Desk provides customer support for on-line Maryland land records (mdlandrec.net & plats.net). During FY2014, Help Desk staff enrolled 68,931 new subscribers to mdlandrec.net. Staff also fielded 9,954 inquiries from the public relating to mdlandrec.net and plats.net. Additionally, they fielded 9,503 other inquiries relating to Archives records or services.

Staff from this office processed 16,539 individual file returns to State and local agencies, and placed 14,782 files returned by agencies to their assigned locations within the Archives holdings. For the public, copies of 6,947 files also were produced here. These ranged from single-page birth, death and marriage records, to multi-page civil, equity and divorce decrees, to copies of entire case files, often running to hundreds of pages each.


[photo, Circulation Desk, Search Room, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

REFERENCE SERVICES

In 1935, Reference Services began as a vital department designed to serve the public when the Hall of Records building first opened on the campus of St. John's College. The Department reformed in May 2007 as Reference and Records Services, and became Reference Services again in 2009. It was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015.

Circulation Desk, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Search Room, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] Records are made accessible to the public and government agencies through the Search Room, by mail or telephone, and through electronic media.

This department oversees the Search Room, and is responsible for the Mail Program, Publication Rights, and Records Services.

Search Room. Open Tuesday through Friday, and three Saturdays a month, the Search Room is staffed by professional archivists to assist patrons. Electronic and mail reference services are available Monday through Friday. In addition, electronic services and information (including comprehensive catalogues of the Archives' holdings) are accessible through the State Archives' website.

Search Room, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, April 2007. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


[photo, Search Room, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] Records are used for legal documentation, historical research, land title searches, geographical information, vital record research, and genealogy. The Archives offers limited research services by its staff. Copies of records can be produced (for a fee) on paper as photographs, or as digital image files. Self-service copying also is available for many records in the Search Room.

Search Room, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


RESEARCH & STUDENT OUTREACH

[photo, Research Archivist Tanner Sparks explaining rare documents on exhibit, Maryland Day Open House, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, March 2014] The basic research functions of Research and Student Outreach originated with the research to compile the Directory of Maryland Legislators, 1635-1789 (1974), and continued with the Legislative History Project's work that led to A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789 (1979, 1985). This work continued as Lectures and Training, 1987-88, Education and Training, 1988-89, and Education and Outreach, 1989. Organized first as Biographical Research, and then as Research, it reformed under its current name in 2005, and was placed under the Deputy State Archivist in October 2015..

Research Archivist Tanner Sparks explaining rare documents on exhibit, Maryland Day Open House, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, March 2014.


Using original documentary sources, Research and Student Outreach works to interpret, preserve, and improve access to Maryland history through publication, education and outreach. The department is committed to sharing its collections, resources and professional knowledge with the community at large. Towards that end, during the past year Research and Student Outreach has increased and strengthened its programming in both public outreach and education. The goal of these efforts is to ensure that both long-term and new users, are aware of and appreciate the treasures within the State Archives' holdings, as well as find the Archives staff affable and approachable. The overriding goal is to make the Archives accessible for everyone.

Research and Student Outreach currently consists of three primary programs: Educational Outreach; the Land Office; and the Study of the Legacy of Slavery in Maryland (known as the Legacy of Slavery Program).

EDUCATIONAL OUTREACH
Educational Outreach provides outreach and learning opportunities in the classroom, as well as all areas of the community. It also oversees continuous research support for the Archives of Maryland series; the Commission on the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Passage of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution; Documents for the Classroom; and Research.

Maryland Day. Partnering with the Four Rivers Heritage Area of Maryland, the State Archives participated for the first time in the Annual Maryland Day celebrations in March 2014. Maryland Day commemorates the formal founding of the colony of Maryland. Local heritage organizations and museums take the opportunity to share and generate excitement about Maryland history with the public. Both the Maryland State House and the Archives were featured sites in the Maryland Day Passport to History Program. Visitors attended open houses at both sites and were treated to special behind-the-scenes curatorial tours and rare document exhibits. The Archives staff highlighted the original 1864 Maryland Constitution and commemoration of the 150th anniversary of emancipation from slavery in Maryland. In addition to the original copy of the Maryland Constitution, the birth record of Frederick Douglass was on display.

Family History Festival. Building on the success of the Maryland Day, staff planned a much larger educational outreach event in recognition of American Archives Month in October 2014. The State Archives Family History Festival was a free community event which offered lectures on genealogy, history, and archival research; demonstrations on caring for your own family papers and photos; "break through your brick wall" sessions for researchers; seminars on digital imaging techniques; behind-the-scenes tours; and hands-on educational children's activities highlighting family history. The event was an overwhelming success with over 500 visitors attending. In addition, the State Archives also hosted many smaller, focused events throughout the year, including illustrated talks by scholars on their most recent research, based on archival sources, including Pulitzer Prize winning historian Dr. Alan Taylor, National Endowment for the Humanities fellow Dr. Gene A. Smith, and Harvard fellow Dr. Celeste-Marie Bernier.

Teacher Workshops. While enhancing our community outreach program, the State Archives also has continued and expanded its traditional educational outreach with new partnerships. In July and August of 2014, the Archives' staff assisted Historic London Town with a Landmarks of American History grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. During Summer 2014, Archives' staff participated with London Town and scholars, such as Dr. Lorena Walsh, Dr. Jean Russo, and Dr. Philip Morgan, to lead professional development workshops for teachers on the history of slavery in the colonial Chesapeake. Eighty teachers representing each state across the nation visited the Archives to learn how to use primary resources in the classroom. In addition, the educators participated in sensitivity training led by our staff to address how to talk about slavery with students in a respectful, conscientious manner.

In FY2014, the State Archives was pleased to partner with the Maryland War of 1812 Bicentennial Commission on its educational outreach initiatives. The Commission awarded a $75,000 grant to the Archives to make primary sources needed to understand and teach the War of 1812 accessible online in document packets. In addition, the Archives staff conducts further professional development workshops for educators. These workshops, reviewed and approved by the State Department of Education, provide credits toward participants' continuing teaching certification. With this partnership, the Archives, the Commission, and the State Department of Education ensure that the War of 1812 will be discussed in the classroom by teachers, and that students will be able to view and analyze primary sources long after the anniversary celebrations are over.

Student Internship Program. For almost 40 years, the State Archives has hosted a student internship program. The Program mentors up-and-coming young professionals, allows students to sample various aspects of the archival profession as they make their career decisions, brings fresh insights into Archives programs, and teaches the next generation to understand, respect, and value archives. To host special, directed internships and co-teach classes based on primary source material, staff has established partnerships with many schools and universities, including Washington College and the C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience, St. John's College, University of Maryland Baltimore County, University of Maryland, College Park, Stevenson University, and Morgan State University.

Each summer, internships are offered for college students to learn archival and historical methods at the State Archives. Work/study programs also are available.

LAND OFFICE
Roots of the Land Office date back to the seventeenth century when Lord Baltimore established the agency to administer land grants in his Maryland colony.


[photo, Land Office seal, Research and Student Outreach, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] All land now included in the limits of the State of Maryland was granted to Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, in 1632. In 1680, the Proprietor established a Land Office, and four years later the Land Council, which was authorized to hear and determine all matters relating to land. Four years later, when Maryland became a crown colony, the Land Office closed. In 1715, after a long contest with the Governor, Council, Secretary, and General Assembly, the Lord Proprietor emerged with his rights restored, and the Land Office reopened. After the Revolution, the State assumed control of the Land Office, and the right to grant vacant (i.e. unclaimed) land became the responsibility of State government (Chapter 15, Acts of Feb. sess. 1777).

Land Office seal, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


From 1781 until 1841, two land offices functioned in Maryland: a Land Office for the Western Shore, and another for the Eastern Shore. The Constitution of 1851 created the Office of the Commissioner of the Land Office.

The Hall of Records became responsible for functions of the Land Office and its collections in 1965. By constitutional amendment, the office of Commissioner of the Land Office was abolished in 1966 (Chapter 489, Acts of 1966, ratified Nov. 8, 1966). Functions and responsibilites of the Commissioner then were transferred to the Hall of Records on January 25, 1967 (Chapter 488, Acts of 1966). The Records Management Division (then a part of the Hall of Records) took charge of recording and filing plats. When the Division was separated from the Hall of Records in 1975, plats and other Land Office records became the responsibility of the Hall of Records and, after its formation in 1984, the State Archives.

Designated Commissioner of Land Patents in 1967, the State Archivist is responsible for issuing land patents and certificates of reservation and conducting court hearings (Chapter 355, Acts of 1967). Prior to 1967, the Land Office was a separate agency. In performing Land Office duties, the State Archivist acts independently of the duties imposed as State Archivist (Code Real Property Article, secs. 13-101 through 13-504).

Land Patent Process.The land patent process is the mechanism for granting land in Maryland. Original grants of land or land patents were issued by the proprietors during the colonial period, and later by the State. Today, virtually all land in Maryland has been patented, however, from time to time, some vacant parcels are found, generally the result of surveying or record-keeping errors. This land, when it is discovered, may be patented, with title passing to the patentee upon payment of the fair market value of the land to the State. The land patent process also provides a simple, convenient and prompt method of reserving vacant land for the public use of State, county or local government bodies through the issuance of certificates of reservation (Chapter 290, Acts of 1993).

The majority of the work that now comes before the Land Office consists of applications for certificates of reservation of abandoned land from the Department of Natural Resources (Code Real Property Article, secs. 13-101 through 13-504). In order to reserve abandoned land for public use, it must be proven that no property taxes have been paid over the 20 years prior to the date of application, and that it has not been possessed by a person for this timeframe as well. Prior to the issuance of a certificate of reservation, the Commissioner of Land Patents, and his designated deputy must verify these claims.

An applicant for a patent must present evidence based on a title search of the property in question proving that no former patent encompasses any portion of the land. Information concerning the land patent process and an application for a patent may be obtained from the Commissioner of Land Patents.


[photo, Legacy of Slavery Program, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland] STUDY OF THE LEGACY OF SLAVERY IN MARYLAND
The main mission of the Legacy of Slavery Program is to provide direct, searchable access to primary documents on its website (http://slavery.msa.maryland.gov), detailing the history of African Americans since the Maryland's founding in 1634.

Legacy of Slavery Program, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


In September 2014, the Program completed the final year of its most recent U.S. Department of Education grant from the federal Office of Post-Secondary Education. Over a period of eight years, and approximately $1.5 million dollars of federal funding, the research staff has posted searchable data and primary source documents online relating to the history of slavery and the Underground Railroad for nine Maryland counties. The grant completed this year focused specifically on Maryland's Eastern Shore, including Talbot, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Dorchester and Kent counties, and encompassed the birthplaces of Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass.

To develop a series of Documents for the Classroom packets for teachers (in accordance with current national Core Curriculum & C3 standards), the Legacy of Slavery Program worked directly with the State Department of Education. These packets are based on the idea that direct experience with an original record quickly will bring students a more nuanced understanding of even the most deeply complex topic. For educators, the staff has presented professional development workshops aimed at teaching how to use these tools and primary sources most effectively in the classroom. Staff also has provided direct presentations to students across all educational levels from kindergarten through post graduate.

In FY2015, the Legacy of Slavery Program continues its work, funded by grants from the Maryland Heritage Areas Authority, the Maryland War of 1812 Bicentennial Commission, the National Parks Service, and the National Historical Publications and Records Commission. In addition, the Program continues to partner with the Department of Education, the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland (Baltimore), the Education Task Force of the Commission on African-American History and Culture, and the Harriet Tubman Discovery Center and National Park (Cambridge). The Program continues to seek funding opportunities and partnerships to allow this vital work to continue.


[photo, Special Collections, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland]

SPECIAL COLLECTIONS


In 1935, Special Collections started as the Gift Collection and reorganized under its present name in 1986. In March 2005, it was placed under Artistic Property, Preservation, and Public Outreach (now Artistic Property and Public Outreach). In December 2014, Special Collections returned to being a separate department. In October 2015, the department was placed under the Deputy State Archivist.

Special Collections, State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


The State Archives is authorized to collect public and private records and other materials relating to Maryland history from the earliest times. At the discretion of the State Archivist, the State Archives also may acquire collections of private records as permanent gifts (Code State Government Article, sec. 9-1010).

Special Collections supervises the care, preservation, accessioning, and description of private records. Usually, they are given to the State Archives by private donors and generally consist of newspapers, religious records, maps, photographs, personal letters, diaries, architectural plans, and other manuscript documents. Maps in the Archives collection, for example, date from 1565 to the present. They serve as an important resource for scientists, historians, and citizens interested in the Chesapeake watershed. Photographs illustrate a cross section of Maryland life and culture, including agriculture, architecture, family life, government, nautical and naval affairs, recreation, and sports. In addition, the State Archives has microfilmed records of nearly 700 religious institutions of various denominations, and more than 900 newspaper titles from across the State.

With the exception of the State-owned art collection, the Director of Special Collections, in conjunction with the State Archivist, reviews offers of materials as gifts to Special Collections. (Offers of gifts of fine arts are reviewed by the Curator of Artistic Property and the State Archivist.) Materials are accepted on the basis of their relevance to the holdings of the State Archives, their condition, and the need to provide for their proper storage and care. Materials may be placed on deposit if their contents are to be digitized as a reference collection at the State Archives, and the original materials returned to the owner.

While collections generally are offered as gifts to the State Archives, occasionally materials are accepted on deposit. The decision to accept a collection of original materials as a deposit is made by the Director of Special Collections in conjunction with the State Archivist based upon the relevance of the collection to the holdings of the State Archives, its condition, and the historical value of the collection. Materials may be placed on deposit if their contents are to be photographed or microfilmed as a reference collection at the Archives, and the originals returned to the owner.

Maryland Newspaper Program. During FY2014, Special Collections put into action a program to improve care and intellectual control over its large collection of original paper newspaper issues and volumes. To this end, the Maryland Newspaper Program Director and Special Collections Director oversaw the continued rehousing and inventory of newspaper volumes and issues in Annapolis. In FY2014, Special Collections inventoried and rehoused 1,481 newspapers (both volumes & loose issues), and from July 1 to November 6 an additional 1,087 newspapers.

In cooperation with librarians at the University of Maryland, College Park, Special Collections worked to plan for the State Archives' participation in the National Digital Newspaper Program grant. (Only one institution within each state may receive a Library of Congress grant to direct the digitization of newspapers within that state, however, that institution may collaborate with agencies and repositories throughout its state.)

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