STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

FUNCTIONS


[photo, Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland] In Maryland, the general care and supervision of public education are vested in the State Department of Education, consisting of the State Superintendent of Schools, appointed by the State Board of Education, and the professional staff employed by the Board to assist the Superintendent.

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland, March 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 2595

Organized in 1864, the State Board of Education reformed as the Board of State School Commissioners in 1870, and again became the State Board of Education in 1916.

The State Board of Education has general control and supervision over public schools and the educational interests of the State. It sets policy for the administration of the public school system by adopting bylaws and regulations which have the force of law. The Board, often through the State Superintendent of Schools, consults with and advises county boards of education, superintendents of schools and their staffs, principals, and teachers. It also mediates disputes arising from the twenty-four independent local school systems in Maryland.


[photo, State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland] With the advice and counsel of the State Superintendent of Schools, the State Board of Education sets standards for instruction in schools and for programs in public libraries and vocational rehabilitation. The Board also sets the standards for certification of teachers and other professional personnel and for requirements to graduate high school. If local school systems do not comply with State standards, the Board may recommend that State funds be withheld from those districts. For schools which consistently fail to improve, the Board, through the State Department of Education, also may intervene to help restructure their administration, organization, or instruction.

The Board has twelve members. Appointed by the Governor with Senate advice and consent, eleven serve four-year terms. A student member also is appointed by the Governor to a one-year term (Code Education Article, secs. 2-201 through 2-205).

State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland, July 2003. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The State Department of Education is directed by the State Superintendent of Schools who executes policy and enforces regulations adopted by the State Board of Education. Appointed by the Board to a four-year term, the Superintendent serves as the Board's secretary-treasurer (Code Education Article, secs. 2-301 through 2-303).

The State Superintendent of Schools chairs the Coordinating Council for Juvenile Services Educational Programs, the Interagency Committee on School Construction, and the Superintendent's Family Engagement Council. The State Superintendent also co-chairs the Maryland Partnership for Children in Nature, and serves on the Governor's Executive Council and the Children's Cabinet. In addition, the State Superintendent is a member of the Advisory Board on After-School and Summer Opportunity Programs; the Advisory Council for Alternative Response; the Commission to Review Maryland's Use of Assessments and Testing in Public Schools; the Behavioral Health Advisory Council; the State Child Fatality Review Team; the State Children's Environmental Health and Protection Advisory Council; the Climate Change Commission; the College Savings Plans of Maryland Board; the Correctional Education Council; the Interagency Disabilities Board; the Task Force to Study the Implementation of a Dyslexia Education Program; the State Early Childhood Advisory Council; the State Advisory Council on Early Childhood Education and Care; the Maryland Education Council; the Commission on the Establishment of a Maryland Educators Service Memorial; the Governor's Family Violence Council; the Financial Education and Capability Commission; the Interagency Food Desert Advisory Committee; the Maryland Green Purchasing Committee; the Advisory Board, Institute for a Healthiest Maryland; the Governor's Interagency Heroin and Opioid Coordinating Council; the Governor's Commission on Hispanic Affairs; the Interagency Council on Homelessness; the State Coordinating Committee on Human Services Transportation; the Maryland Longitudinal Data Systems Center Governing Board; the Maryland Advisory Commission on Manufacturing Competitiveness; the Intergovernmental Advisory Committee for Minority Affairs; the Council on Open Data; the P-20 Leadership Council of Maryland; the Council for the Procurement of Health, Educational and Social Services; the Maryland Public Broadcasting Commission; the Work Group to Study Safe Harbor Policy for Youth Victims of Human Trafficking; the Maryland Council on Advancement of School-Based Health Centers; the Governing Board of the Maryland Center for School Safety; the Governor's Commission on Service and Volunteerism; the Maryland Commission on Suicide Prevention; the Maryland Sustainable Growth Commission; the Maryland Advisory Council for Virtual Learning; the Board of Directors, Maryland Workforce Corporation; the Governor's Workforce Investment Board; the Advisory Council on Workforce Shortage; and the Youth Apprenticeship Advisory Council.

Under the State Superintendent of Schools are three deputy superintendents responsible for Finance and Administration; School Effectiveness; and Teaching and Learning. The State Superintendent of Schools also oversees three offices: Audit; Communications, Partnerships, and Grants; and Education Policy and Governmental Relations. In addition, the Superintendent is assisted by the State Early Childhood Advisory Council; the Superintendent's Family Engagement Council; the Financial Literacy Education Advisory Council; the Fine Arts Education Advisory Panel; the Maryland State Advisory Council for Gifted and Talented Education; the Advisory Council on Health and Physical Education; the Intensive Management and Capacity Improvement Team; the Race-to-the-Top Performance Compensation Work Group; and the Maryland Advisory Council for Virtual Learning.

OFFICE OF COMMUNICATIONS, PARTNERSHIPS, & GRANTS

In July 2013, the Office of Communications, Partnerships, and Grants formed from the merger of the Office of Partnerships, Grants, and Resource Development with the Communications and Policy Branch.

Formerly under the Division of Academic Policy, the Communications and Policy Branch originated as the School and Community Outreach Office, became the Communications and Strategic Planning Office, and in 2005, was renamed the Communications and Policy Branch.

The Office develops corporate and other partnerships; secures underwriting and other grants for programs not funded by the State or federal government; and develops special programs, such as Harvest for the Hungry and the Maryland Comic Book Initiative. Moreover, award programs which recognize innovation and excellence, such as the Maryland Teacher of the Year, are administered by this office. Other such programs include the Blue Ribbon Schools Program, and the Milken National Educator Awards Program.

Further, the Office ensures that schools, school districts, the public, and the media are informed on Department actions and initiatives. Through websites, video technology, newsletters, and other publications, the Office provides timely information on Department policies and programs.


FINANCE & ADMINISTRATION

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Finance and Administration began as Finance, which was organized in 1992 from the Office of Administration and Finance. Formerly under the supervision of the Deputy State Superintendent for Finance, it transferred to Administration as the Division of Business Services in 2003. In February 2010, it was restructured as Finance under the supervision of a Deputy State Superintendent to oversee the Division of Business Services. In July 2013, it reformed as Finance and Administration, and also became responsible for the Division of Rehabilitation Services.

LOCAL FINANCE REPORTING OFFICE
Since 2002, the Local Finance Reporting Office develops, collects, reviews, evaluates, edits, and publishes financial data from the local school systems. The Office ensures that data required for federal programs is available, and that the local school systems are complying with Maintenance of Effort requirements.

PUPIL TRANSPORTATION OFFICE
In July 2002, the Pupil Transportation Office formed within the Division of Business Services. Previously, the Nutrition and Transportation Services Branch oversaw pupil transportation.

Transportation of pupils to and from public schools is supervised by the Office. Data on the number of pupils transported and on school bus accidents also is compiled by the Office. In school year 2010-2011, the Office oversaw transportation for 618,742 pupils. Moreover, the Office helps school systems test school bus drivers for drug or alcohol use.

EQUITY ASSURANCE & COMPLIANCE OFFICE
As the Office of Equal Opportunity, the Equity Assurance and Compliance Office organized in 1976. In 1993, it became the Equity Assurance and Compliance Branch within the Division of Instruction, later the Division of Instruction and Staff Development. The Branch was reconstituted as the Equity Assurance and Compliance Office and moved to Administration on July 1, 2002. It became part of School Effectiveness in July 2013.

The Office gives technical aid to local school systems to ensure that all Maryland students have equal educational opportunities in accordance with State and federal law. Staff provide training on issues of disability, gender, national origin, and race as they relate to instruction, classroom management, accessibility to facilities and programs, group and personal relations, and employment. The Office also implements State regulations on multicultural education, assignment of personnel, and pupil integration. Training and technical assistance also is available for preventing harassment; increasing disability awareness and sensitivity; improving minority achievement; and making Maryland schools more multi-cultural.

For the Department, the Office investigates complaints of employment discrimination due to age, race, disability, religion, sexual orientation, country of origin, or any other discrimination prohibited by law.

OFFICE OF FISCAL PLANNING, RESEARCH, & EVALUATION
In May 2011, the Office of Fiscal Planning, Research, and Evaluation was organized.

OFFICE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
In 1971, the Office of Information Technology was created as the Information Processing Branch. It became the Information Technology Branch in 1999 under the Division of Planning, Results, and Information Management. In July 2001, the Office received its present name and moved from the Division of Planning, Results, and Information Management to the Office of the Deputy State Superintendent for Administration. In July 2013, it transfered to School Effectiveness.

The Office develops and implements the Department's technology plans, policies, and projects, and provides network management and expertise to the Department.


DIVISION OF BUSINESS SERVICES

The Division of Business Services develops and implements the administrative and financial policies, procedures, and systems of the Department.

Five branches are overseen by the Division: Accounting; Administrative Services; Budget; Finance, Reporting, and Coordination; and School Facilities. In addition, the Division is responsible for the Local Finance Reporting Office and Pupil Transportation Office.

SCHOOL FACILITIES BRANCH

The School Facilities Branch helps local school systems plan capital improvements, and sets guidelines and standards for school design, construction, and management. The Branch oversees approval by the State Superintendent of Schools for locally funded school construction projects that cost more than $350,000. The Branch also collects and analyzes data on energy use in each public school and represents the Department on the Interagency Committee on School Construction.


DIVISION OF REHABILITATION SERVICES

2301 Argonne Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 - 1696

In 1929, the Division of Rehabilitation Services began as the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. In 1992, it received its present name (Chapter 42, Acts of 1992). Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Finance and Administration in July 2013.

The Division of Rehabilitation Services helps enable persons with physical or mental disabilities to live and work independently (Code Education Article, sec. 21-301 through 21-309). Through five regional offices and twenty-two local offices, the Division provides medical and vocational evaluation, counseling and guidance, and training in vocations and independent-living skills. These offices give reader and interpreter services, physical and mental restoration, and rehabilitation engineering. They help persons with disabilities find and keep jobs. Through supported employment, the offices monitor clients' job performance and provide on-the-job training and coaching. They also assist former clients, as needed, who are employed.

The Interagency State Plan for Transitioning Students with Disabilities is developed and implemented by the Division (Chapter 435, Acts of 1995). To coordinate postgraduate services to students with disabilities, Division staff work with other divisions; the Department of Business and Economic Development; the Department of Disabilities; and the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (Code Education Article, sec. 21-305).

Under the Division are Disability Determination Services, and four offices: Blindness and Vision Services; Business Support Services; Field Services; and Program and Community Support. The Division is aided by the Maryland State Rehabilitation Council.

DISABILITY DETERMINATION SERVICES

P. O. Box 6338, 170 West Ridgely Road, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21204 - 6338

Established in 1955, Disability Determination Services adjudicates claims for federal Social Security Disability Insurance (Title II) and Supplemental Security Income (Title XVI). The office provides direct access to rehabilitation for persons with disabilities through expedited referrals to Client Services. Under contract with the federal Social Security Administration, the Division of Rehabilitation Services administers the program.

OFFICE FOR BLINDNESS & VISION SERVICES

In December 2004, the Office for Blindness and Vision Services was established within the Division of Rehabilitation Services to improve services to persons who are blind or vision impaired.

All Division programs designed for the blind or vision impaired are overseen by the Office. These include preparation for employment and independent-living; community-based services, such as mobility training and communication device training; and evaluation and training, Braille instruction, mobility and orientation, and peer support programs offered by the Workforce and Technology Center. The Office also administers the Maryland Business Enterprise Program for the Blind.

OFFICE OF BUSINESS SUPPORT SERVICES

The Office of Business Support Services formed as Program and Administrative Support Services and received its current name in January 1997.

For the Division of Rehabilitation Services, the Office oversees Facilities Management; Fiscal Operations; Human Resources; Management Information Services; and Program Income.

OFFICE OF FIELD SERVICES

Within the Division of Rehabilitation Services, the Office of Field Services originated as the Office of Client Services and reorganized under its present name in 2003. The Office serves persons with severe disabilities and secures competitive employment for them.

At 22 local offices and the Workforce and Technology Center, the Office of Field Services provides counseling, physical restoration, vocational training, and job placement.

WORKFORCE & TECHNOLOGY CENTER
2301 Argonne Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 - 1696

Located in northeast Baltimore, the Workforce and Technology Center opened as the Maryland Rehabilitation Center in 1972. It received its present name in September 2001.

For individuals with disabilities who want to find or keep employment, the Center offers vocational and functional assessments, vocational training in 16 vocational fields, independent-living skills training, support services, residential assistance, job placement, and rehabilitation technology services. Also, the Center advises employers on the workplace needs of persons with disabilities.

OFFICE OF PROGRAM & COMMUNITY SUPPORT

Formerly the Office of Communications and Community Relations, the Office of Program and Community Support works through four programs: Client Assistance; Program Support; Public Information and Planning; and Volunteer Services.

SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS

[photo, Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland] Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Organized in July 2013, School Effectiveness oversees three divisions: Academic Policy and Innovation; Educator Effectiveness; and Student, Family and School Support. It is also responsible for the Breakthrough Center, and the School and Community Nutrition Programs Branch.

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland, March 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


SCHOOL & COMMUNITY NUTRITION PROGRAMS BRANCH

The School and Community Nutrition Programs Branch originated in 1981. First called the Nutrition and Transportation Services Branch, it began when programs for food service and pupil transportation merged within the Department. In 2002, it reorganized under its present name. In July 2013, the Branch was placed under School Effectiveness.

The Branch offers nutrition education and training, professional development, and technical assistance to local school systems. While working with Maryland's twenty-four public school systems, the Branch also helps over 700 public and nonprofit private agencies feed children and adults in approximately 7,000 schools, family day-care homes, child- and adult-care centers, and other sites throughout the State.

Started by the Branch in 1998, Maryland Meals for Achievement is an innovative, State-funded classroom breakfast project. Free to all students and served right in the classroom, this project shows a higher participation rate than other breakfast programs. It has decreased tardiness and suspensions, and helped improve test scores in the 196 schools participating in the project.

In addition, the Branch administers eleven federal and other food and nutrition programs:


DIVISION OF ACADEMIC POLICY & INNOVATION

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Under School Effectiveness, the Division of Academic Policy and Innovation formed in July 2013 from the merger of the Division of Academic Reform and Innovation with the Division of Academic Policy. The older of these, the Division of Academic Reform and Innovation, was created in 1989 as the Office of Maryland School Performance. Under the School Improvement Services Office, it reorganized in 1993 as the School Performance, Product, and Service Development Office. In 1994, it was renamed School Performance: Research and Development, and in July 1997, the Office of Research and Development. The Office reformed as the Division of Professional and Strategic Development in July 2000 and transferred to the oversight of the State Superintendent in 2001. In January 2003, the Division became the Division of Leadership Development, and in October 2010 was renamed the Division of Academic Reform and Innovation.

The Division of Academic Reform and Innovation investigated ways to improve public education by training its leadership. It developed and implemented training for principals, assistant principals, assistant superintendents, and aspiring teacher leaders. In 2010, the Division also became responsible for implementing the Race-to-the-Top initiative. The Division oversaw the Breakthrough Center and four branches: Cross-Divisional Initiatives; Leadership Development Initiatives; Race-to the-Top; and School Improvement Initiatives.

Under direction of a Deputy State Superintendent, the Division of Academic Policy formed in January 2003. Headed by an Assistant State Superintendent and as a division since February 2010, the Division created and implemented major strategic initiatives to ensure that the State met its own educational goals, as well as accountability provisions from the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

Today, the Division of Academic Policy and Innovation oversees the Bridge Plan for Academic Validation, and four branches: Cross-Divisional Initiatives; Leadership Development Initiatives; Race-to-the-Top; and School Improvement Initiatives.

BRIDGE PLAN FOR ACADEMIC VALIDATION

For graduation from high school in 2009 and after, the State Board of Education in 2007 approved an alternative path for students who, after two attempts, did not pass High School Assessment exams.

GRANT PROGRAM INITIATIVES BRANCH

Within the Division of Certification and Accreditation, the Grant Program Initiative Branch formed in 1981 as the Staff Development Branch. In 1994, the Branch became part of the Division of Instruction and Staff Development, and in July 2000 moved to the Division of Professional and Strategic Development. In October 2001, the Branch restructured as the Professional Development Grants Branch which became part of the Division of Leadership Development in 2003. The Branch assumed its current name in July 2005, and was placed under the Division of Academic Reform and Innovation in October 2010.

The Branch oversees regional staff development centers serving the Eastern Shore, Baltimore City, Prince George's County, and western Maryland. It provides leadership to and coordinates the Teacher Mentoring Program. The Branch also is responsible for the Instructional Framework System; School Improvement Leadership Training, and Technical Assistance and Support Teams Training; and State-Aided Institutions Grants.

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES BRANCH


DIVISION OF EDUCATOR EFFECTIVENESS

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Functions of the Division of Educator Effectiveness extend back to 1945 and were formalized in 1970 when the Division of Certification and Accreditation was created. In July 2013, the Division assumed its present name and was placed under School Effectiveness.

The Division certifies teachers and other professional personnel; oversees the preparation and assessment of candidates for principalship; and approves the educational programs of nonpublic schools.

Under the Division are three branches: Certification; Nonpublic School Approval; and Program Approval and Assessment. The Division also is assisted by the Professional Standards and Teacher Education Board.

CERTIFICATION BRANCH

Under the Division of Certification and Accreditation, the Certification Branch formed in 1981 as the Teacher Education and Certification Branch. It received its present name in 1994.

The Branch certifies teachers, specialists, and administrators in public schools, and in approved schools operated by State agencies.

NONPUBLIC SCHOOLS APPROVAL BRANCH

As the Nonpublic Schools Accreditation Branch, the Nonpublic Schools Approval Branch started in 1948. It adopted its present name in 1994.

The Branch approves the educational programs of nonpublic nursery schools, kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, schools for the disabled, and programs in facilities licensed by other State agencies, such as the Department of Juvenile Services. These programs must conform to Maryland law and to State Board of Education regulations. The Branch also registers nonpublic church schools that are exempt from education regulations, and church education boards that supervise schooling at home by parents who, due to philosophical differences, do not want to be overseen by local boards of education.

Annually, the Branch publishes the Directory of Approved Nonpublic Schools in the State of Maryland.

PROGRAM APPROVAL & ASSESSMENT BRANCH

The Program Approval and Assessment Branch began in 1981 as a part of the Teacher Education and Certification Branch and reorganized under its present name in 1994.

Programs to educate teachers and prepare other professionally certified personnel are evaluated and approved by the Branch, which also coordinates assessments of teachers and principals.


DIVISION OF STUDENT, FAMILY & SCHOOL SUPPORT

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The Division of Student, Family and School Support originated in 1966 as the Division of Federal-State Programs. In 1972, it reorganized as the Division of Compensatory, Urban, and Supplemental Programs. It became the Division of Compensatory Education and Support Services in 1988, and was renamed Division of Student and School Services in 1999. In March 2006, the Division reorganized under its present name. Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to School Effectiveness in July 2013.

The Division administers and supervises federal and State programs to educate children who may fail academically due to social or economic disadvantages (P.L. 103-382; Code Education Article, secs. 5-204; 5-206; 5-207; 8-101 through 8-107).

Under the Division are two offices: Comprehensive Planning and School Support, and School Innovations, as well as three branches: Program Improvement and Family Support; Student Services and Alternative Programs; and Youth Development.

OFFICE OF SCHOOL INNOVATIONS

In 2005, the Office of School Innovations was created within the Office of the Deputy State Superintendent for Instruction and Academic Acceleration, and in October 2010 moved to the Division of Student, Family and School Support.

For Maryland public schools, the Office works to design, develop, and implement creative and innovative new programs.

Since April 2014, the Office provides leadership and technical assistance to local school districts in establishing public charter schools in accordance with the Public Charter School Act of 2003 (Chapter 358, Acts of 2003).

PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT & FAMILY SUPPORT BRANCH

In 1988, the Program Improvement and Family Support Branch began as the Compensatory and Migrant Education Branch. Renamed Compensatory Education Branch in 1995, it received its present name in 1999.

The Branch helps local school systems and other agencies design education programs for disadvantaged children. For students in high poverty areas, the Branch supplements instruction and devises ways to increase family literacy. Schools are aided by the Branch to hire extra teachers, buy additional equipment and materials, teach before and after school, and train staff. The Branch funds education for neglected and delinquent youth in juvenile detention centers and adult prisons.

STUDENT SERVICES & ALTERNATIVE PROGRAMS BRANCH

The Student Services and Alternative Programs Branch formed in 1966 as the Pupil Services Branch. It was renamed Pupil Services and Drug-Free Schools Branch in 1992. It resumed its former name in 1995 and became the Student Services and Alternative Programs Branch in 1999.

The Branch assists local school systems with programs to improve the emotional, mental and physical well-being of students. These include child abuse and youth suicide prevention; drug and alcohol abuse prevention and intervention; health services; school guidance and psychology; and teen pregnancy and parenting. To schools with disruptive students or students who may not complete high school, the Branch allocates federal and State funds. Funds help pupil personnel directors reduce truancy; provide alternative education and develop home instruction guides for children absent from school. The Branch also works to educate homeless children and youth.

Rural School Nurses Program. The Program is overseen by the Branch. Through this program, matching funds are provided to Maryland's seven poorest counties for hiring school nurses. In schools, nurses attend to the general health of students, health education, and drug abuse prevention.

YOUTH DEVELOPMENT BRANCH

The Youth Development Branch organized within the Division of Student and School Services in September 2001. It includes the Character Education Office, Student Leadership and Outreach; Student Service Learning; and 21st-Century Community Learning Centers.

CHARACTER EDUCATION OFFICE
The Character Education Office was created in 1996. The Office coordinates character education programs and implements recommendations of the Values Education Commission, which submitted its final report in 1983.

STUDENT SERVICE LEARNING
In 1988, Student Service Learning formed as the Maryland Student Service Alliance under the Division of Instruction. The Alliance transferred to the Division of Student and School Services in 2002. The Alliance reorganized as Student Service Learning in June 2004.

Student Service Learning helps local schools provide opportunities for students to serve their community. In Maryland, such service has been mandated for high school graduation since 1997. This office also approves local plans for new community service programs in high schools.

21st-CENTURY COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTERS
Through federal grants, 21st-Century Community Learning Centers are created throughout the State. These centers provide academic enrichment opportunities to students when school is not in session, either after school or during the summer. The Centers also are required to provide literacy and other educational development programs to families of participating students.


[photo, Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland]

TEACHING & LEARNING

Teaching and Learning organized in July 2013. It oversees five divisions: Career and College Readiness; Curriculum, Assessment, and Accountability; Early Childhood Development; Library Development and Services; and Special Education and Early Intervention Services.

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, Maryland, March 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


DIVISION OF CAREER & COLLEGE READINESS

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

In Maryland, an adult education program was initiated within the State Department of Education in 1941. Financed with federal funds, it trained persons for war production in industry and agriculture. From 1945 to 1950, the program was continued by the State and counties. By 1950, the Division of Career Technology and Adult Learning started as the Division of Vocational Education within the State Department of Education. Renamed the Division of Vocational-Technical Education in 1968, and the Division of Career and Technology Education in 1991, it became the Division of Career Technology and Adult Learning in 1992. In July 2009, when its adult learning and correctional education functions transferred to the Division of Workforce Development and Adult Learning in the Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation, the Division reformed as the Division of Career Technology Education (Chapter 134, Acts of 2008). In September 2009, the Division adopted its present name. Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Teaching and Learning in July 2013.

The Division is responsible for career and college-readiness education. For State and federal occupational programs, the Division develops and recommends to the State Superintendent of Schools policies, guidelines, and services. The Division also helps local school systems and educational agencies, institutions, businesses, industries, and community organizations plan and evaluate their education and training programs. In both public and private institutions, Division programs are offered to students of all ages.

Under the Division are the Juvenile Services Education Program, and three branches: Career and Technology Education Instructional; Career and Technology Education Student and Assessment Services; and Career and Technology Education Systems. The Division also is aided by the State Advisory Committee for Adult and Community Services, and the State Board of Career and Technology Education.

CAREER & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH

In 1981, the Career and Technology Education Instructional Branch began as the Program Development and Operations Branch. In 1992, it was renamed the Career and Technology Services Branch. In 1995, the Branch assumed functions of the School-to-Work Transition Services Branch and reorganized as the Career Connection Branch. Renamed the Career Technology Instructional Services Branch in 1997, it received its present name July 1, 1997.

Local school systems are assisted with career and technology education by the Branch. Programs cover agriculture, business and office education, consumer education, distribution and marketing, entrepreneurship, health occupations, home economics, postsecondary and adult programs, technology, teen parenting, trade and industry, and youth organizations. With local schools, the Branch also works on curriculum, and programs for students who are disadvantaged, or have disabilities or a limited command of English.

The Branch helps local school systems and community colleges teach students how to choose and prepare for a career. Beginning in kindergarten and continuing through grade 12, students are introduced to different careers. Programs cover apprenticeships, career academies, and other school- and work-based projects. The Branch assists with programs on sex equity, single parents, displaced homemakers, and community organization projects. Beginning in 2002, the Branch also became responsible for coordinating Americorps Vista, the Core Learning Program, High School Graduation Requirements, Middle Schools Learning, Service Learning, and Year-Round Schools.

CAREER & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION STUDENT & ASSESSMENT SERVICES BRANCH

In July 2000, the Career and Technology Education Student and Assessment Services Branch formed within the Division of Career Technology and Adult Learning. The Branch collects, analyzes, and reports outcome data on career and technology education programs and students. For local school systems and community colleges, the data targets what programs work and which need to be improved. The data is available to students for making informed enrollment decisions. The Branch also is developing a statewide credentialing system for career and technology students.

Further, the Branch provides State-level leadership and conducts statewide conferences and competition for student organizations, including: Distribution Education Clubs of America (DECA); Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA); Future Consumer and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA); Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA); and SkillsUSA-Vocational Industrial Clubs of America.

CAREER & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SYSTEMS BRANCH

The Career and Technology Education Systems Branch organized in 1981 as the Support Services Branch. Renamed the Administrative Support Services Branch in 1992, it became the Program Support Services Branch in 1993; and the Career Technology Systems Support Branch in 1997. It reformed under its present name July 1, 1997.

Local school systems, community colleges, the Division of Career and College Readiness, and other State agencies are helped by the Branch to develop, finance, and administer career and technology education. The Branch also assists them with data analysis.

JUVENILE SERVICES EDUCATION PROGRAM

In June 2004, the Juvenile Services Education Program was created within the State Department of Education (Chapter 535, Acts of 2004). Before 2003, the Department of Juvenile Services had been responsible for the education of all youth in its care. Transfer of educational programs to the State Department of Education began with the Charles H. Hickey, Jr. School in 2004. By July 1, 2013, the Program had assumed responsibility for educational services at all residential facilities of the Department of Juvenile Services.

For youth who are detained or committed in a residential facility of the Department of Juvenile Services, the Program provides education in core academic subjects, as well as career and technology education, life skills, computer literacy, special education services, and preparation for the General Equivalency Diploma (GED). Since 2013, education is provided for students at the Alfred D. Noyes Center, the Baltimore City Juvenile Justice Center, the Charles H. Hickey, Jr. School, the Cheltenham Youth Facility, the J. DeWeese Carter Center, the Victor Cullen Center, the Lower Eastern Shore Children's Center, the Thomas J. S. Waxter Children's Center, the Western Maryland Children's Center; the Western Maryland Youth Centers, and the William Donald Schaefer House.

The Director of the Program implements and administers the educational programs developed by the Coordinating Council for Juvenile Services Education Programs, and assesses regularly whether the educational needs of each child under the Program are being met. The Director is appointed by the State Superintendent of Schools in consultation with the Secretary of Juvenile Services (Code Education Article, secs. 22-301 through 22-310).


DIVISION OF CURRICULUM, ASSESSMENT, & ACCOUNTABILITY

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

In 1945, the Division of Curriculum, Assessment, and Accountability originated as the Division of Instruction, although its earliest duties have been carried out by the Department since 1920. The Division became the Division of Instruction and Staff Development in 1994, and resumed as Division of Instruction in July 2000. The Division merged with the Division of Accountability, Assessment, and Data Systems in July 2013 to form the Division of Curriculum, Assessment, and Accountability. Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Teaching and Learning in July 2013.

For public schools, the Division formulates guidelines for curriculum to be approved by the State Superintendent of Schools. Guidelines also set standards for educational programs of State agencies. With the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, the Division sets standards and guidelines for school health programs. The Division also trains staff; audits programs; and sponsors conferences on curriculum and learning. It approves plans to reform schools that receive help from the Challenge System Initiative or through Carnegie Foundation grants.

Under the Division are six branches: Accountability; Curriculum; Instructional Assessment and Professional Development; Instructional Programs; Planning; and Instructional Technology and School Library Media Services.

Duties of the Division of Accountability, Assessment, and Data Systems started in 1921 when the Bureau of Educational Measurements formed within the State Department of Education. By 1945, the Division of Finance, Statistics, and Educational Measurements replaced the Bureau. The Division was renamed Division of Finance and Research in 1949, Division of Research and Development by 1963, and Division of Research, Evaluation and Information Systems by 1971. The Division of Administration assumed information system functions by 1979, as did the Division of Administration and Finance by 1983. The Office of Management Information Systems emerged in 1987 and was replaced by the Division of Planning, Results, and Information Management in 1992. In July 2003, the Division moved under the Deputy Superintendent for Administration. In July 2004, it became the Division of Accountability and Assessment and, in October 2010, assumed its current name.

The Division develops, administers, scores, reports, and monitors student assessment tests. In addition, it conducts evaluation and statistical services, and research for the Department. Annually, the Division produces the Maryland School Performance Report. Further, the Division is responsible for developing the longitudinal data system needed for the State's Race-to-the-Top initiative.

Maryland School Assessment. In March 2003, the first Maryland School Assessment tests were given to students in grades 3, 5, and 8 for reading and mathematics, and to students in grade 10 for reading. Since 2008, students have been tested for science achievement. These tests meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and replaced the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program, which functioned from 1989 to 2002.

Alternate Maryland School Assessment. Under the 1997 federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, states are required to offer students with significant cognitive disabilities an alternative to their statewide assessments. In Maryland, students with disabilities in grades 3 through 8 and grade 10 take either the Maryland School Assessment or the Alternate Maryland School Assessment, whichever is most appropriate according to their Individualized Education Program.

High School Assessment Program. Beginning with the class of 2005, the Program tests students who have completed required courses in English, mathematics, science, and social studies. These tests replaced functional tests as a requirement for graduation from high school.

Modified High School Assessment Program. First implemented in May 2008, Modified High School Assessments are administered to special education students who have Individualized Education Programs.

Under the Division are two branches: Accountability, and Planning.

ACCOUNTABILITY BRANCH

The Accountability Branch originated as the Statistical Services Branch. Renamed Results Branch, it was placed under the Division of Planning, Results, and Information Management in 1992. The Branch became the Information Management Branch in 1999, and reformed in 2004 as the Accountability Branch under the Division of Accountability and Assessment (later Accountability, Assessment, and Data Systems). In July 2013, the Branch transferred to the Division of Curriculum, Assessment, and Accountability.

The Education Data Warehouse is maintained by the Branch. For the Warehouse, the Branch collects, validates, and compiles data from local school systems for local, State and federal reports. The Branch assigns and maintains a unique identifier for each Maryland student, and since the 2007-08 school year, has begun linking student data longitudinally. This method tracks individual student data over multiple years and through multiple schools.

Annually, the Branch reports (by school system) on curriculum, staffing, students, facilities, and finance. The Branch also compiles data on students taught at home and through correspondence courses. In addition, the Branch helps develop and administer tests, scores them, and reports the results. Maryland School Assessment and High School Assessment scores annually are reported to the U.S. Department of Education.

PLANNING BRANCH

Organized in 1992, the Planning Branch develops the budget, oversees procurement, and monitors projects and contracts in the Division of Curriculum, Assessment, and Accountability.

CURRICULUM

As part of the Division of Instruction, Curriculum develops and oversees the implementation of the Voluntary State Curriculum, precise standards that define what students at each grade level should know and be able to accomplish in four areas: mathematics; reading and English language arts; science; and social studies. Curriculum also provides technical assistance to local school systems for early childhood education on how to identify which children are ready for school, and who will require additional help to succeed in school. Although Curriculum provides standards for instruction, most decisions concerning curriculum - what to teach and in what grades - are made by local boards of education.

Formerly the Curriculum Development Branch, Curriculum is responsible for six units: Fine Arts; Health and Physical Education; Mathematics and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Initiatives; Reading and English Language Arts; Science; and Social Studies.

INSTRUCTIONAL ASSESSMENT & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Within the Division of Instruction, Instructional Assessment and Professional Development originated in July 2003 as two separate units: Assessment, and Teacher Professional Development. Those units merged in July 2004 to form Assessment and Professional Development, and restructured as Instructional Assessment and Teacher Effectiveness in 2010. In July 2012, it assumed its present name.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS

Instructional Programs began as the Instructional Development, Enrichment, and Advancement Branch, became Curriculum and Administration in September 2002, Administration and Instructional Programs in July 2003, and reorganized under its present name in July 2004.

State programs for gifted and talented students, fine arts, comprehensive health education, physical education, and athletics are overseen by Instructional Programs.

The work of Instructional Programs is carried out by five sections: Advanced Placement and College Board; Athletics; English Language Learner Requisite and Title III; Gifted and Talented; and World Languages.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA SERVICES

Origins of Instructional Technology and School Library Media Services trace to 1968 when the Office of School Libraries and Instructional Materials Services was created. The Office reorganized as the School Library Media Services Section in 1970, as the School Library Media Services Branch in 1978; and became the School Library Media Services and State Media Services Branch in 1987. Formerly within the Division of Library Development and Services, the Branch joined the Division of Instruction and Staff Development in 1995 and was renamed the School Library Media Services Branch in 1997. Under the Division of Instruction, functions of the Branch merged with the Instructional Technology Branch on July 1, 2002, when it reorganized as the Instructional Technology and School Library Media Services Branch. In July 2003, it received its present name.

Instructional Technology and School Library Media Services administers State and federal programs that provide funding for technology in local school systems. It also helps public and private schools use school library media in print, audiovisual and electronic formats, and use electronic information technology in teaching. For Department staff, the State Media Center provides information and audiovisual services.

Since 2002, the Department has provided virtual learning opportunities for both Maryland students and teachers. For students, distance-learning programs offer access to on-line courses not available in their schools. For teachers and staff, professional development courses and services are available on-line (Chapter 412, Acts of 2002).


DIVISION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

In July 2005, the Division of Early Childhood Development was established under the Deputy State Superintendent for Instruction and Academic Acceleration (Chapter 585, Acts of 2005; Code Education Article, sec. 2-303). Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Teaching and Learning in July 2013.

The Division oversees the Office of Child Care, and two branches: Collaboration and Program Improvement, and Early Learning.

OFFICE OF CHILD CARE

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 10th floor, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The Office of Child Care originated as the Office of Child-Care Licensing and Regulation in 1988 when the Secretary of Human Resources was authorized to adopt rules and regulations for the licensing and operation of child-care centers (Chapter 247, Acts of 1988). The Office merged with the Child Care Unit of the Social Services Administration to form the Child Care Administration in December 1990. In July 2005, the Child Care Administration reformed as the Office of Child Care and transferred to the Division of Early Childhood Development in the State Department of Education (Chapter 585, Acts of 2005).

Child-care centers must provide children with safe and sanitary conditions; proper care, protection, and supervision; and promote good health, and sound growth and development. To achieve these ends, the Office of Child Care regulates child-care centers, family day-care homes, certified child-care providers, and nonpublic nursery schools. The Office may suspend, revoke, or deny licenses to child-care facilities. To increase the number of child-care facilities in Maryland, the Office works with consumers and advocacy groups (Code Family Law Article, secs. 5-570 through 5-589).

The Office is responsible for regional child-care offices, and four branches: Child Care Subsidy; Credentialing; Licensing; and Maryland EXCELS. The Office is assisted by the Early Childhood Development Advisory Council.

COLLABORATION & PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT BRANCH

Established in November 2008, the Collaboration and Program Improvement Branch oversees the Head Start Collaboration; the Early Childhood Mental Health Project; and the Program Administration Scale Project, as well as certain grants for early child care, such as the Family Child-Care Provider Grant.

HEAD-START COLLABORATION
Head-Start Collaboration formed as Early Childhood Partnerships within the Office for Children, Youth, and Families in 1996. Renamed Early Childhood and Head-Start Partnerships in 1997, it reorganized under its current name in 2000. The unit transferred to the Early Learning Office within the State Department of Education in July 2003. Since November 2008, the Collaboration has been under the Collaboration and Program Improvement Branch.

The Head-Start Collaboration Network is overseen by the Head-Start Collaboration. To better serve families in the federal Head-Start Program, the Network began in 1993 to coordinate the Program with services in the community. The Network links Head-Start services with those of local health-care providers, education agencies, child care programs, employment projects, and community organizations.

EARLY LEARNING BRANCH

Formerly under Curriculum within the Division of Instruction, the Early Learning Office transferred as the Early Learning Branch to the Division of Early Childhood Development in July 2005. The Branch provides technical assistance and support for early child care and education programs working for accreditation. It coordinates and monitors the use of the Maryland Model for School Readiness, an assessment tool which evaluates each child's abilities as they enter kindergarten.

The Branch is responsible for public pre-kindergarten initiatives for disadvantaged students, and the Judith P. Hoyer Early Child Care and Education Enhancement Program. Begun in 2000, the Program is implemented through Judith P. Hoyer Early Child Care and Family Education Centers (Judy Centers)(Code Education Article, sec. 5-217). To promote school readiness, Judy Centers provide comprehensive services to pre-schoolers and their families, including health and nutrition services, parenting skills and involvement, and accredited early childhood education and child care.


DIVISION OF LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT & SERVICES

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

The Division of Library Development and Services began in 1935 as the Office of Public Libraries, and became the Division of Library Extension in 1946. It reorganized under its present name in 1969. Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Teaching and Learning in July 2013.

As the State library agency, the Division administers State and federal programs to improve library services in public schools and libraries throughout the State (Code Education Article, secs. 23-102 through 23-105).

Under the Division are the Deaf Culture Digital Library, and two branches: Maryland State Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; and Public Libraries and State Networking. The Maryland Advisory Council on Libraries advises the Division.

DEAF CULTURE DIGITAL LIBRARY

In October 2014, the Deaf Culture Digital Library was authorized (Chapter 606, Acts of 2014). The Division of Library Development and Services is to develop the Deaf Culture Digital Library as the primary information center on deaf resources for library customers and staff in Maryland.


[photo, Maryland State Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, 415 Park Ave., Baltimore, Maryland]

MARYLAND STATE LIBRARY FOR THE BLIND & PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED

415 Park Ave., Baltimore, MD 21201 - 3603

In 1968, the Maryland State Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped opened. The Library serves eligible blind and physically handicapped residents of Maryland. It is the Maryland regional library under the National Library Services for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.

Maryland State Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, 415 Park Ave., Baltimore, Maryland, December 2007. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Through the Maryland State Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, those who are legally blind, visually limited, physically limited, or reading disabled may borrow books and recordings. These include books in braille or with large type, and recordings on discs and cassettes. Some 13,000 blind and disabled patrons use the Library.

The Library has one subregional branch: the Special Needs Library.

SPECIAL NEEDS LIBRARY
6400 Democracy Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20817

The Special Needs Library started in 1972. The Library serves the blind and physically handicapped residents of Montgomery County. It is closed on Wednesdays and Sundays.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES & STATE NETWORKING BRANCH

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Origins of the Public Libraries and State Networking Branch trace to 1902 when the State Library Commission was created (Chapter 47, Acts of 1902). Commission responsibilities for public library development were assigned to the Office of Public Libraries under the State Board of Education in 1935, and to the Division of Library Extension from 1947 to 1971. Within the Division of Library Development and Services, the Public Libraries Branch was formed in 1971 and renamed the Public Libraries and State Networking Branch in 1988. The Branch provides leadership and technical assistance to improve library service.

The Branch oversees the State Library Network through which Maryland residents obtain library materials and gain access to information not available in their local library. The Network provides interlibrary loan, direct lending of materials, technical assistance to libraries, and staff training. More than 400 Maryland libraries participate in the State Library Network. These include public, university, college and community college libraries. Centered at Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, the Network is aided by three regional resource centers: the Eastern Shore Regional Resource Center (Salisbury); Southern Maryland Regional Library Association (Charlotte Hall); and the Western Maryland Public Libraries Regional Resource Center (Hagerstown) (Code Education Article, secs. 23-201, 23-202).


DIVISION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION & EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES

Nancy S. Grasmick State Education Building, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201

Established in 1978 as the Division of Special Education, the Division of Special Education and Early Intervention Services received its present name in April 1999. Formerly under the Office of State Superintendent of Schools, the Division transferred to Teaching and Learning in July 2013.

The Division works with parents and local school systems to educate all children and youth with disabilities. The Division assists local school systems with early childhood programs, individual education plans, nondiscriminatory testing, personnel development, and program evaluation. It also supervises education in approved public and private institutions and assesses the educational needs of children with profound or complex disabilities.

Administering both State and federal programs for special education, the Division directs five branches: Family Support and Dispute Resolution; Interagency Collaboration; Policy and Accountability; Programmatic Support and Technical Assistance; and Resource Mangement and Monitoring.

FAMILY SUPPORT & DISPUTE RESOLUTION BRANCH

Within the Division of Special Education and Early Intervention Services, the Family Support and Dispute Resolution Branch started in 2003 as the Complaint Investigation and Due Process Branch. In January 2013, it adopted its present name.

The Branch ensures that the dispute resolution process under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is available and conducted according to regulation. Further, the Branch maintains data and reports on complaint investigation, mediation, and due process hearings.

Parents of children with disabilities are helped by the Branch to find those State early intervention and special education systems which will benefit their children.

INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION BRANCH

The Interagency Collaboration Branch began as the Nonpublic Schools Branch in 1978, reorganized as the Community and Interagency Services Branch in July 1997, and in 2001 became the Divisional and State Interagency Services Branch. The Branch reformed as the Family Services and Interagency Branch in 2008, and adopted its present name in January 2013.

Working with the departments of Disabilities, Health and Mental Hygiene, Human Resources, and Juvenile Services, the Branch coordinates State initiatives for disabled children from birth through age 21.

Under the Branch are two sections: Autism Waiver and Health-Related Services; and Interagency Initiatives.

POLICY & ACCOUNTABILITY BRANCH

Formerly the Special Education Administration Policy Branch, the Policy and Accountability Branch assumed its present name in January 2013. It helps local school systems, public agencies, and other groups develop, revise, and submit applications for federal funds available for services for students with disabilities.

PROGRAMMATIC SUPPORT & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH

The Programmatic Support and Technical Assistance Branch started as the Program Administration and Evaluation Branch in 1978 and became the Program Administration and Support Branch in 1992. It reorganized as the Program Administration, Staff Development and Support Branch in 2001. The Branch merged with the Student Achievement and Results Branch (created in November 2002) to form the Student Achievement and Professional Development Branch in September 2008. It reformed in January 2013 under its present name.

To improve the performance of students with disabilities on statewide testing, the Branch works with local school systems. It also helps prepare federal, State and local plans, programs, and budgets for special education. For children with disabilities, the Branch monitors local programs and coordinates training for their parents. The Branch also oversees the Principals' Academy, which consists of professional development institutes sponsored by the Division.

Local education agencies and the Department are assisted by the Branch to develop and implement programs for young people with disabilities. The Branch provides technical assistance in evaluating individual progress, and helps local school systems with issues arising from the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and its impact on students with disabilities.

The Branch oversees three sections: Assessment; Early Education; and Specialized Instruction.

Early Intervention Program. In 1988, the State Department of Education was designated by the Governor to administer the federal Early Intervention Program in Maryland (Executive Order 01.01.1988.15). The Program concerns youngsters from birth through age three. It provides health and medical services, family training, counseling, and specialized child care (federal Education of the Handicapped Act; P.L. 99-457). The Branch also supports preschool special education for children, ages three to five (Code Education Article, sec. 8-416).

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT & MONITORING BRANCH

In July 2013, the Resource Management and Monitoring Branch formed from the merger of the Fiscal Management Branch and the Specialized Services Branch. The Branch assures that all federal and State funds for children with disabilities are administered in compliance with all applicable regulations and policy.

For out-of-home residential programs for children, the Branch administers the rate-setting process. With the State Interagency Coordinating Council, the Branch also reviews all residential placements of special education students in out-of-state private schools. In addition, the Branch coordinates its work with the Governor's Office for Children and other State agencies to strengthen community programs that enable children with disabilities to return from out of state to regular classrooms in Maryland.

INTERAGENCY RATES SECTION
For the Governor's Office for Children, Youth, and Families and the departments of Budget and Management, Education, Health and Mental Hygiene, Human Resources, and Juvenile Services, the Interagency Rates Section manages the rate-setting process of reimbursement to providers of out-of-home residential services for children. The Section also staffs the Interagency Rates Committee.

NONPUBLIC SPECIAL EDUCATION SECTION
Under the Resource Management and Monitoring Branch, the Nonpublic Special Education Section administers the Nonpublic Tuition Assistance Program. Through this program, the Section partially reimburses local school systems for the cost of educating children with disabilities in private schools that have programs to meet their special needs. The Section ensures that the children are placed in regular classrooms or in programs that encourage their independence. To ensure compliance with State and federal regulations, the Section monitors day and residential schools.

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