MARYLAND AT A GLANCE

WATERWAYS

LIGHTHOUSES


[photo, Seven-Foot Knoll Lighthouse (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland] Lighthouses are found in Maryland's rivers and the Chesapeake Bay.

Under contract for the United States Government, John Donahoo (1786–1858) of Havre de Grace built twelve of Maryland's lighthouses. These include the Blackistone Island Lighthouse, Clay Island Lighthouse, Concord Point Lighthouse, Cove Point Lighthouse, Fishing Battery Lighthouse, Fog Point Lighthouse, Lazaretto Point Lighthouse, Piney Point Lighthouse, Point Lookout Lighthouse, Pooles Island Lighthouse, Thomas Point Shoal Lighthouse, and the Turkey Point Lighthouse.

Seven-Foot Knoll Lighthouse (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


Lighthouses are structures built on or near shore that produce a beam of light, marking coastlines, underwater dangers, or harbor entrances, as a navigational aid for sailors.

Early lighthouses were simple and inexpensive. Some were built as integral lighthouses (houses with enclosed lights on top), while others were towers from which a light shone. Later, lighthouses tended to be more elaborate and therefore more costly to build.

Screw-pile lighthouses were structures perched on iron piles or stilts that were screwed into the sea floor, while caisson lighthouses displayed towers built atop round, hollow waterproof shells that were sunk to the bottom and filled with sand or concrete.


[photo, Lightship 116 Chesapeake (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland] AIDS TO NAVIGATION

Lightships were ships that served as lighthouses. They had a light mounted on a tall mast. Later vessels usually were painted bright red with the station name in white letters. Multi-functional, they could be stationed in both shallow and deep waters, and could be moved according to need.


Lightship 116 Chesapeake (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland, July 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


[photo, Green-lighted buoy, marking port (left) side of Baltimore Harbor channel for incoming vessels, Baltimore, Maryland] Buoys, like lighthouses, serve as aids to navigation (ATON) for mariners. Usually anchored in place, buoys are floating iron markers that indicate sea lanes, mooring locations, speed limits, as well as underwater hazards, such as rocks, shoals, and wrecks. Using the Lateral System, buoys are arranged by color, shape, number, and whether they have a light.

Nun buoys are red, cylindrical, and have even numbers. They mark the starboard (right) side of the channel for vessels returning to land (thus the "3R" rule: "red, right, returning").

Green-lighted buoy, marking port (left) side of Baltimore Harbor channel for incoming vessels, Baltimore, Maryland, July 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


Can buoys are green, can-shaped, and have odd numbers. They indicate the port (left) side of the channel for incoming vessels.

Lighted buoys usually are found in deeper water, and their body and light color vary depending on their location. When they are green (including the light), they perform the same duties as can buoys, marking the port side of a channel for incoming vessels. When red, they mark the starboard side, like nun buoys. If buoys are red and green, the top color (with matching light, if present) indicates the preferred channel, and they may have letters.


[photo, Hooper Strait Lighthouse, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland] Safe Water Marks indicate navigable water all around. They are red and white and may have a white light and sound device, as well as letters.

Isolated Danger Marks are anchored on or near hidden dangers. They are black with red bands, and may have a white light and letters.


Hooper Strait Lighthouse at Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels (Talbot County), Maryland, August 2016. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Special Aids, yellow buoys with or without yellow lights and letters, alert mariners to nets, cables, jetties, military exercise areas, and other special areas. Mooring buoys are white with a centered blue band, and they may have a white light or reflector.


MARYLAND LIGHTHOUSES
(by county)


ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY

BALTIMORE CITY


[photo, Fort McHenry Channel Range Front Light, Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland] [photo, Fort McHenry Channel Range Rear Light, Locust Point, Baltimore, Maryland]
  • Fort McHenry Channel Range Front Light (skeleton tower): Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, Fort McHenry Channel, Patapsco River
    First lit in 1913
    Rebuilt in 1934
  • Fort McHenry Channel Range Rear Light (skeleton tower): Locust Point (site of former location of Baltimore Immigration Station), Fort McHenry Channel, Patapsco River
    First lit in 1934
    Rebuilt in 1963
    Rebuilt in 2011
  • Fort McHenry Channel Range Front Light (left), Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.

    Fort McHenry Channel Range Rear Light (right), Locust Point, Baltimore, Maryland, October 2016. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    [photo, Lazaretto Point Lighthouse replica, Baltimore, Maryland]


    Lazaretto Point Lighthouse replica, Baltimore, Maryland, July 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    [photo, Lightship 116 Chesapeake (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland]
  • Lightship 116 Chesapeake (LV-116 / WLV-538): Fenwick Island & Delaware Bay; Chesapeake Bay; Cape Cod, MA
    Commissioned in 1930 as LV-116
    Assigned as Fenwick to Fenwick Island Shoal, DE, from 1930 to 1933
    Assigned as Chesapeake to Chesapeake Bay entrance from 1933 to 1942 (designation changed from LV-116 to WLV-538 in 1939)
    Converted to armed patrol & inspection vessel; assigned as to Cape Cod, MA, from 1942 to 1945
    Assigned as Chesapeake to Cape Henry, Virginia, in 1945
    Replaced by Chesapeake Light Tower in 1965
  • Lightship 116 Chesapeake (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland, July 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    [photo, Seven-Foot Knoll Lighthouse (Historic Ships in Baltimore), Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland]

    Seven-Foot Knoll Lighthouse, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    BALTIMORE COUNTY

    CALVERT COUNTY


    [photo, Drum Point Lighthouse, Solomons, Maryland]


    Drum Point Lighthouse, Solomons, Maryland, April 2018. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


    CECIL COUNTY

    CHARLES COUNTY

    DORCHESTER COUNTY

    HARFORD COUNTY


    [photo, Concord Point Lighthouse, 700 Concord St., Havre de Grace, Maryland]
  • Concord Point Lighthouse (northernmost lighthouse in Chesapeake Bay) (tower lighthouse): Concord Point, entrance of Susquehanna River, Chesapeake Bay

  • Concord Point Lighthouse, 700 Concord St., Havre de Grace Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    [photo, Concord Point Lighthouse Keeper's House, 700 Concord St., Havre de Grace, Maryland]

    Concord Point Lighthouse Keeper's House, 700 Concord St., Havre de Grace Maryland, June 2015. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY

    QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY

    ST. MARY'S COUNTY

    SOMERSET COUNTY

    TALBOT COUNTY


    [photo, Hooper Strait Lighthouse, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland]
  • Hooper Strait Lighthouse (screw-pile lighthouse): Hooper Strait, northern entrance to Tangier Sound, between Bloodsworth & Hooper Islands, Chesapeake Bay

  • Hooper Strait Lighthouse at Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels (Talbot County), Maryland, August 2016. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


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