MARYLAND AT A GLANCE

PLANTS

WILDFLOWERS


 [photo, Scarlet Beebalm (Monarda didyma L.), Baltimore, Maryland]
  • Maryland State Flower
  • Maryland Wildflowers
  • Invasive & Introduced Wildflowers



  • Scarlet Beebalm (Monarda didyma L.), Baltimore, Maryland, July 2014. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


     [photo, Milkweed pods (Asclepias syriaca L.), Patterson Park, Baltimore, Maryland]

    Every year, dozens of distinct wildflower species bloom in Maryland. To maintain the natural beauty of the State and maintain and increase natural habitat, two programs use wildflowers: the Wildflower Program and the Wild Acres Program.



    Milkweed pods (Asclepias syriaca L.), Patterson Park, Baltimore, Maryland, September 2014. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


     [photo, Hoverfly (Syrphidae) on Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba L.), Monkton, Maryland] Since 1986, the Wildflower Program has been overseen by the State Highway Administration of the Department of Transportation. Formed to improve areas surrounding local highways, both in ecology and aesthetics, the Program uses a seed mixture designed to provide blossoms continuously from early March through late November. Since its inception, the Program has planted more than 300 acres of native and naturalized wildflowers along the roadsides and medians of State highways.



    Hoverfly (Syrphidae) on Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba L.), Monkton, Maryland, October 2014. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


     [photo, American White Waterlily (Nymphaea odorata Aiton), Baltimore, Maryland] The Wild Acres Program offers residents advice and designs to convert backyards into natural habitat, including wildflower meadows. Created to expand wildlife resources and habitat, the Program is run by the Wildlife and Heritage Service of the Department of Natural Resources.



    American White Waterlily (Nymphaea odorata Aiton), Baltimore, Maryland, July 2014. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


     [photo, Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), Glen Burnie, Maryland] A number of wildflowers also are identified as herbs, because of their many useful qualities. Yarrow is such a plant, considered to be a healing herb and called the miliary herb, used topically on wounds, cuts, and abrasions.

    Some wildflowers are extremely poisonous, and others are dangerous if handled improperly. If one such wildflower is eaten or handled, first aid is required.



    Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), Glen Burnie, Maryland, May 2010. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


     [photo, American Pokeweed <i>(Phytolacca americana L.),</i> Crownsville, Maryland]  [photo, Monkshood <i>(Aconitum L.),</i> Ladew Topiary Gardens, Monkton, Maryland] Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.), for example, has berries, both green and mature purple, that are poisonous. Its mature green leaves and red stems also are poisonous.

    Monkshood (Aconitum L.), also known as wolf's bane or blue rocket, is not only poisonous, but just handling the plant briefly can provoke a reaction.


    American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.) (left), Crownsville, Maryland, August 2015. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.

    Monkshood (Aconitum L.), (right), Ladew Topiary Gardens, Monkton, Maryland, 2014. Photo by Sarah A. Hanks.


    MARYLAND WILDFLOWERS


    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
    Name Scientific Name Blooms
    Alumroot Heuchera L. April - June
    Anemone, Canadian Anemone canadensis L. May - July
    Anemone, Rue Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & B. Boivin March – June
    Anemone, Wood Anemone quinquefolia L. April – June
    Arbutus, Trailing Epigaea repens L. March - May
    Arrowhead, Broadleaf Sagittaria latifolia Willd. July - Oct.
    Arum, Green Arrow Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott May - June
    Aster, Calico Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. horizontale (Desf.) G.L. Nesom Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, Hairy White Oldfield Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. pilosum July - Nov.
    Aster, New England Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L. Nesom Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, New York Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom var. elodes (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, Purplestem Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. puniceum Aug. - Nov.
    Aster, Serpentine Symphyotrichum depauperatum (Fernald) G.L. Nesom Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, Smooth Blue Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. concinnum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, White Heath Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. ericoides Aug. - Oct.
    Aster, White Wood Eurybia divaricata (L.) G.L. Nesom July - Aug.
    Azalea, Pink Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners March - May
    Azalea, Swamp Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr May - Aug.
    Beardtongue, Eastern Smooth Penstemon laevigatus Aiton May - June
    Beardtongue, Foxglove Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims June - July
    Beardtongue, Longsepal Penstemon calycosus Small May - June
    Beebalm, Scarlet Monarda didyma L. July - Sept.
    Beebalm, Spotted Monarda punctata L. June - Oct.
    Bellwort, Sessileleaf Uvularia sessilifolia L. April – May
    Bergamot, Wild Monarda fistulosa L. July - Aug.
    Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis L. March - May
    Bluebells, Virginia Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers. ex Link March - April
    Blueflag, Harlequin Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims June - July
    Bluestem, Big Iris versicolor L. May - June
    Bluet, Azure Houstonia caerulea L. April - June
    Boneset, Common Eupatorium perfoliatum L. July - Oct.
    Breeches, Dutchman's Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh. April - May
    Bugbane, Black Actaea racemosa L. var. racemosa June - Aug.
    Calamus Acorus calamus L. May - July
    Canarygrass, Reed Phalaris arundinacea L. April - May
    Cardinalflower Lobelia cardinalis L. July - Sept.
    Columbine, Red Aquilegia canadensis L. April - June
    Coneflower, Cutleaf Rudbeckia laciniata L. July - Sept.
    Coneflower, Eastern Purple Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench July - Oct.
    Coneflower, Orange Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton July - Oct.
    Corn, Turkey Dicentra eximia (Ker Gawl.) Torr. April - Sept.
    Cornflower, Garden Centaurea cyanus L. April - July
    Cosmos, Sulphur Cosmos sulphureus Cav. June - Nov.
    Creeper, Trumpet Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau July - Aug.
    Crownvetch Securigera varia (L.) Lassen June - Aug.
    Cutgrass, Rice Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. June - Oct.
    Daisy, Oxeye Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. May - July
    Daisy, White Doll's Boltonia asteroides (L.) L'Hér. July - Sept.
    Devil's-Tongue Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. June - July
    Flower, Moccasin Cypripedium acaule Aiton May – July
    Foamflower, Heartleaf Tiarella cordifolia L. April - June
    Geranium, Spotted Geranium maculatum L. April - July
    Ginseng, Dwarf Panax trifolius L. April – June
    Goldenaster, Maryland Chrysopsis mariana Aug. - Oct.
    Goldenrod, Early Solidago juncea Aiton June - Oct.
    Goldenrod, Gray Solidago nemoralis Aiton July - Nov.
    Goldenrod, Roundleaf Solidago patula Muhl. ex Willd. June – Sept.
    Goldenrod, Seaside Solidago sempervirens L. Aug. - Oct.
    Goldenrod, Showy Solidago erecta Pursh July - Oct.
    Goldenrod, Stiff Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. rigidum Aug. - Oct.
    Goldenrod, White Solidago bicolor L. Aug. - Nov.
    Goldenrod, Wreath Solidago caesia L. Aug. - Oct.
    Goldenrod, Wrinkleleaf Solidago rugosa Mill. Aug. - Oct.
    Green-and-Gold Chrysogonum virginianum L. March - June
    Gypsyweed, Common Veronica officinalis L. May - June
    Hemlock, Spotted Water Cicuta maculata L. June - Sept.
    Henbit Deadnettle Lamium amplexicaule L. April - May
    Hepatica, Roundlobe Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm. March - June
    Horseflyweed Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. June - Sept.
    Indigo, Blue Wild Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. June - Sept.
    Iris Iris L. March – Sept.
    Iris, Dwarf Crested Iris cristata Aiton March – May
    Ironweed, New York Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michx. Aug. - Oct.
    Jack-in-the-Pulpit Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott April - June
    Jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meerb. July – Oct.
    Joe-Pye Weed, Coastal Plain Eutrochium dubium (Willd. ex Poir.) E.E. Lamont July - Sept.
    Joe-Pye Weed, Spotted Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E.E. Lamont July - Sept.
    Joe-Pye Weed, Sweetscented Eutrochium purpureum (L.) E.E. Lamont July – Sept.
    King-of-the-Meadow Thalictrum pubescens Pursh May - July
    Knight's-spur, Doubtful Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur April - July
    Laurel, Mountain Kalmia latifolia L. May – June
    Lily, Canada Lilium canadense L. June - Aug.
    Lily, Turk's-cap Lilium superbum L. July - Aug.
    Lily of the Valley, Feathery False Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum March – June
    Lobelia, Great Blue Lobelia siphilitica L. Aug. - Nov.
    Mallow, Virginia Saltmarsh Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) C. Presl ex A. Gray July - Sept.
    Mannagrass, Fowl Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. June - July
    Mannagrass, Rattlesnake Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin. June - July
    Marigold, Yellow Marsh Caltha palustris L. April - June
    Mayapple Podophyllum peltatum L. April - May
    Meadow-rue, Early Thalictrum dioicum L. April - May
    Milkweed, Common Asclepias syriaca L. May - Aug.
    Milkweed, Butterfly Asclepias tuberosa L. June - Sept.
    Milkweed, Swamp Asclepias incarnata L. May - June
    Monkeyflower, Allegheny Mimulus ringens L. June - Sept.
    Monkshood Aconitum L. July - Oct.
    Oxeye, Smooth Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet July - Sept.
    Partridgeberry Mitchella repens L. May – Oct.
    Phlox, Creeping Phlox stolonifera Sims April - June
    Phlox, Moss Phlox subulata L. April - May
    Phlox, Wild Blue Phlox divaricata L. April - June
    Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata L. June - Nov.
    Pine, Striped Prince's Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh June - Aug.
    Pinkroot, Woodland Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. May - June
    Plant, Obedient Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. Aug. - Sept.
    Pokeweed, American Phytolacca americana L. July – Sept.
    Pond-lily, Yellow Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. May - Oct.
    Poppy, Corn Papaver rhoeas L. March - June
    Pride of Ohio Dodecatheon meadia L. April - June
    Primrose, Common Evening Oenothera biennis L. May - Sept.
    Primrose, Little Evening Oenothera perennis L. May - Aug.
    Primrose, Narrowleaf Evening Oenothera fruticosa L. June - Sept.
    Rocket, Dames Hesperis matronalis L. April - July
    Rose, Carolina Rosa carolina L. May-July
    Rose, Swamp Rosa palustris Marshall May - June
    Rosemallow, Crimsoneyed Hibiscus moscheutos L. July - Sept.
    Saxifrage, Early Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. March - May
    Saxifrage, Eastern Swamp Saxifraga pensylvanica L. May - June
    Seedbox Ludwigia alternifolia L. June - Sept.
    Seal, Smooth Solomon’s Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott March – June
    Senna, Maryland Senna marilandica (L.) Link July - Aug.
    Spicebush, Northern Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume April – June
    Spiderwort, Virginia Tradescantia virginiana L. April - July
    Spikenard, American Aralia racemosa L. July
    Springbeauty, Virginia Claytonia virginica L. March – May
    Star, Dense Blazing Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. Aug. - Oct.
    Strawberry, Indian Duchesnea indica May - Sept.
    Sunflower, Swamp Helianthus angustifolius L. Aug. - Oct.
    Sunflower, Woodland Helianthus divaricatus L. July - Oct.
    Susan, Blackeyed Rudbeckia hirta L. June - Sept.
    Susan, Browneyed Rudbeckia triloba L June - Oct.
    Sweetwilliam Dianthus barbatus L. July - Oct.
    Tail, Lizard's Saururus cernuus L. April – Aug.
    Tickseed, Golden Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. April - Aug.
    Tickseed, Lanceleaf Coreopsis lanceolata L. April - Aug.
    Tickseed, Pink Coreopsis rosea Nutt. July - Sept.
    Tickseed, Whorled Coreopsis verticillata L. June - July
    Toothwort, Cutleaf Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw. March - May
    Trillium, Red Trillium erectum L. April - June
    Trillium, White Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. April - June
    Trumpetweed Eutrochium fistulosum (Barratt) E.E. Lamont July - Sept.
    Turtlehead, White Chelone glabra L. Aug. - Oct.
    Verbena, Swamp Verbena hastata L. July - Sept.
    Violet, Alpine Viola labradorica Schrank April - June
    Violet, Birdfoot Viola pedata L. March - June
    Violet, Dogtooth Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. March – May
    Violet, Early Blue Viola × palmata L. (pro sp.) [brittoniana or pedatifida × affinis or sororia] April – June
    Violet, Marsh Blue Viola cucullata Aiton April – July
    Waterlily, American White Nymphaea odorata Aiton June - Sept.
    Widowsfrill Silene stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton July - Sept.
    Wildginger, Canadian Asarum canadense L. April – June
    Yarrow, Common Achillea millefolium L. May - Sept.

    INVASIVE & INTRODUCED WILDFLOWERS

    Name Scientific Name Blooms
    Chestnut, Water Trapa natans
    Dead Man’s Fingers Codium fragile
    Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata July - Sept.
    Salvinia, Giant Salvinia molesta
    Seaweed, Green Caulerpa Caulerpa taxifolia
    Watermilfoil, Eurasian Myriophyllum spicatum July - Aug.

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