A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF BALTIMORE. 11
or dock; Hanover Market, on the north-west corner of Hanover and Canden
streets; and Fell's Point Market, on ground appropriated for the purpose by
Mr. Fell. The proprietors of estates in the vicinity of the Court House,
being desirous'to extend northward Calvert street, which was obstructed by
the Court House and the elevation on which it stood, raised by subscription a
sum of money for the purpose of turning an arch directly under that building;
which was successfully accomplished, and the street was extended.
In 1786, there was considerable depression and distress, from the state of
trade and the currency. In October, a great freshet occurred. All the
bridges, which were of wood, were carried away and much property was de-
stroyed. These structures have been from time to time renewed, as success-
ive overflows have occurred from the Falls ; the last experiment having been
to replace the stone bridges, erected about the year 1810, by wooden struc-
tures of a single arch. In 1787, the Baltimore Fire Insurance Co. was incor-
porated, and was followed by the Maryland, Equitable, and other companies.
The state of the roads was represented as a public grievance, and turnpikes
to Washington, Frederick, and Reisterstown were authorized, though not con-
structed till some years after. Baltimore street was this year extended beyond
Col. Howard's addition, and an unsuccessful attempt was made to introduce
water into the town by pipes.
On the 17th of April, 1789, Gen. Washington, on his way to New York to
assume the Presidency, under the new Constitution, was entertained by the
citizens. This year, Drs. Johnson, Boyd, and others, attempted to lay the
foundation of a medical school, but without success. A new channel for the
Falls was cut, from Bath street to Gay street bridge; and the old course, near
the Court House, was gradually filled up. In 1790, the Bank of Maryland
was chartered, with a capital of $300,000. A branch of the Bank of United
States followed in 1792, the Bank of Baltimore in 1795, and others at different
periods. The vessels belonging to the port were, 27 ships, 31 brigs, 1 snow,
34 schooners, and 9 sloops, carrying in all, 13,564 tons. According to the
first census taken by the general government in 1790, the population amounted
to 13,503; viz: 6,422 white males; 5,503 white females; 323 other free
persons; 1,255 slaves.
In 1792, the wealth and population of the town were much increased by
the arrival of a large number of fugitives from the massacre of Hispaniola.
In 1795, the Library Company was formed. In 1796, after the subject had
been long discussed in the public prints and by the citizens, a City Charter
was obtained from the Legislature. The city was laid off into eight wards,
and early in 1797, the election for city officers took place. James Calhoun,
Esq., was the first Mayor. One of the first acts of the corporation was an
address expressive of gratitude and respect to Gen. Washington, as he passed
through the city on his return home, at the expiration of his second term of
office. In 1797, the building called the Assembly Rooms, on Holliday street,
was erected, and the City Library was incorporated. In 1799, a piece of
ground north of Saratoga street, was added to the city. Pratt street was
opened from Frederick street to the Falls and a bridge erected. In June, 1800,
President Adams passed through the city, and an address was presented by the
corporation. Dr. John B. Davidge erected a hall near the south-east inter-
section of Liberty and Saratoga streets, and, with others, commenced a course
of medical lectures; but a great excitement arose on account of the dissec-
tions, and a mob demolished the building and destroyed the preparations.
The lectures were continued at the county Alms House. The population, by
the census of this year, amounted to 31,514;—being an increase of 18,011,
within ten years.