ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION
Young musicians, Baltimore Farmers' Market, near Holliday St., Baltimore, Maryland, August 2012. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
In 2018, U.S. News & World Report ranked Maryland third in the nation for "Best High Schools" with 24.1% of qualified schools earning the publication's gold and silver medals, which ranks each school on college preparation. Maryland had ranked first from 2015 to 2017.
Nonetheless, Maryland high school graduation rates decreased in 2018, when 87.12% of high school students received diplomas, a decrease from 87.67% in 2017. At the same time, the dropout rate increased from 8.21% in 2017 to 8.38%.
Park Elementary School, 201 East 11th Ave., Brooklyn Park (Anne Arundel County), Maryland, August 2010. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
In 2019, Maryland was ranked the eighth best public school system in America by Education Week. Previously, Maryland had ranked first from 2009 to 2013 [no rankings were made in 2014], third in 2015, fourth in 2016, fifth in 2017, and sixth in 2018. The journal's annual Quality Counts report evaluates states based upon three indices: chance-for-success, school finance, and k-12 achievement and overall grades.
Margaret Brent Elementary School, 100 East 26th St., Baltimore, Maryland, July 2009. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
In 2017, two Montgomery County public schools were named National Green Ribbon Schools, and six Maryland public schools were selected as National Blue Ribbon Schools. Moreover, in 2014, Maryland was awarded a federal grant that gives $15 million annually to improve access to quality pre-kindergarten programs.
Maryland, in 2010, was one of eight states awarded additional federal grants for education in round two of the Race to the Top program.
Annapolis Elementary School, 180 Green St., Annapolis, Maryland, November 2011. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Maryland students ranked first in the nation on Advanced Placement (AP) Exams from 2008 to 2015, second in 2016 and 2017, and fourth in 2018. The standard is based on the percentage of students taking the Advanced Placement exam, as well as the percentage of those students who scored a 3 or higher, out of 5. In Maryland, some 31.6% of the 2018 graduating class took and passed at least one content exam, compared to the nationwide average of 23.5%.
Severna Park Elementary School, 6 Riggs Ave., Severna Park (Anne Arundel County), Maryland, September 2009. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
In Maryland, public education is a responsibility shared by State, county and Baltimore City government. The State Board of Education sets educational standards, certifies teachers, partially funds school construction and instruction, and monitors school performance. The Board also oversees the State Department of Education. At the same time, county boards of education are significant for public schools, because they often set additional requirements, develop new programs, and provide substantial local funding.
Baltimore School for the Arts, 712 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Maryland July 2009. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Funding. In Fiscal Year 2019, Federal, State and local funds combined to provide $13.7 billion for Maryland public schools with an average cost per pupil of $15,848. Of these funds, State government provided the largest amount ($6,536,515,155), followed by local government ($6,505,772,853), and the federal government ($618,104,765).
School Attendance. Kindergarten is mandatory for children who are five years of age by September 1. State law also requires that children, ages 5 to 16, attend school (Chapter 494, Acts of 2012; Chapters 706 & 707, Acts of 2018; Code Education Article, sec. 7-301 (c)). Students may attend school up to age 21.
In September 2018, for Maryland pre-kindergarten through high school, 896,845 students enrolled in 1,428 public schools, and 123,126 students enrolled at 1,310 private schools.
Paul Laurence Dunbar Middle School, 500 North Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland, April 2008. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
School Year. The Maryland school year is a minimum of 180 days long. Schools are open for a ten-month period, from about Labor Day to mid-June. Opening and closing dates vary from county to county. Elementary and middle school students attend school at least 6 hours a day, high school students 6.5 hours a day.
Prettyboy Elementary School, 19810 Middletown Road, Freeland (Baltimore County), Maryland, July 2006. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Graduation Requirements. Set by the State, stringent requirements for graduation from high school were established in 1992. Credits required were increased from 20 to 21. General requirements were replaced with particular courses, or courses with specific content. Fewer credits were reserved for electives (nonrequired courses chosen by students). Moreover, since the graduating class of 2009, students have been required to take and pass the Maryland High School Assessment exams in algebra and data analysis, biology, and english in order to graduate. They also must perform 75 hours of volunteer community service approved by the State.
Brooklyn Park Middle School, 200 Hammonds Lane, Brooklyn Park (Anne Arundel County), Maryland, January 2004. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Standards. In June 2010, the State Board of Education adopted the Common Core State Standards, coordinated by the National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers. These standards define nationwide quality education. Since 2010, Maryland educators have developed a State curriculum in English language arts and mathematics that adheres to the Common Core Standards. In the 2013-2014 school year, the new Maryland Common Core State Curriculum was implemented statewide. To evaluate the Curriculum, new assessments have replaced some previous high school assessments.
George Fox Middle School, 7922 Outing Ave., Pasadena (Anne Arundel County), Maryland, September 2016. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
In 2010, Maryland joined a consortium known as the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC), that developed a common set of tests to be used with the Common Core Standards. In the 2014-2015 school year, the Maryland School Assessments in reading and mathematics for 3rd through 8th grades was replaced by the PARCC assessments. Also, Maryland high school students now take PARCC assessments in English language arts and mathematics, and High School Assessments in biology and government.
Bowie High School, 15200 Annapolis Road, Bowie (Prince George's County), Maryland, June 2016. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Special Public School Programs. These cover pre-kindergarten for four-year olds; and career and technology education, including consumer and homemaking classes. Gifted and talented programs also are offered by the State, on a tuition basis, at summer centers for students who qualify academically, meet geographical distribution requirements, and are able to pay the cost.
Mayo Elementary School, 1260 Mayo Ridge Road, Edgewater (Anne Arundel County), Maryland, April 2018. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
Special education services for students with disabilities range from aid for part or all of a school day to specialized services for homebound students or those in separate facilities or hospitals. Within the State Department of Education, the Division of Special Education and Early Intervention Services administers both State and federal programs for special education.
© Copyright March 18, 2019 Maryland State Archives