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may be incurred by the code county.

Public local laws enacted by the General

Assembly under this section prevail over

any public local laws enacted by the code

county under other sections in this Article.


Section 8.01. Public Education.

Declaration of Rights, Art. 43. That the

The General Assembly by law shall pro-

Legislature ought to encourage the diffusion

vide for a statewide system of free public

of knowledge and virtue, the extension of

schools. The system shall be headed by a

a judicious system of general education, the

governing board whose members shall be ap-

promotion of literature, the arts, sciences,

pointed by the governor. The General

agriculture, commerce and manufactures,

Assembly by law shall provide also for such

and the general melioration of the condi-

other public educational institutions and

tion of the People. The Legislature may

services as may be necessary or desirable for

provide that land actively devoted to farm

the intellectual, cultural, and occupational

or agricultural use shall be assessed on the

development of the people of this State.

basis of such use and shall not be assessed

as if subdivided.


Section 1. The General Assembly, at its

First Session after the adoption of this Con-

stitution, shall by Law establish throughout

the State a thorough and efficient System

of Free Public Schools; and shall provide

by taxation, or otherwise, for their main-


Sec. 2. The System of Public Schools, as

now constituted, shall remain in force until

the end of the said First Session of the

General Assembly, and shall then expire;

except so far as adopted, or continued, by

the General Assembly.

Section 8.02. Public Higher Education.

Sec. 3. The School Fund of the State shall

The governing boards prescribed by the

be kept inviolate, and appropriated only to

General Assembly by law for the University

the purposes of Education.

of Maryland, the state colleges, and all other

state institutions of higher education, includ-

ing community colleges, shall formulate poli-

cies for their respective institutions and shall

have general supervision over them in all ac-

ademic matters. These boards may be

granted by the General Assembly by law

such additional powers of supervision, direc-

tion, and control of their respective institu-

tions and over the expenditure of their

funds as the General Assembly may deem to

be appropriate.


Section 9.01. Oath.

Declaration of Rights, Art. 39. That the

Every person elected or appointed to any

manner of administering an oath or af-

office of profit or trust under the Constitu-

firmation to any person, ought to be such

tion or laws of this State, before he enters

as those of the religious persuasion, pro-



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