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the style of President of the Council. The office of President, so
established, thrice arose under crown rule and again on three
occasions under the restored proprietary. 4

From earliest times, however, the chief executive's place was
not so much one as a complex of two and more often three
offices. Thus, except from September, 1661, to March, 1690/1,
the Governor was Chancellor by commission; and he was in fact
always in possession of the great seal save for two intervals, from
November, 1661, to July, 1699, and from February, 1719/20, to
July, 1725. Similarly, after January, 1716/17, a Governor usually
held one or the other of two land Surveyorships General.

The Constitution of 1776 was to discontinue these Surveyor-
ships, to separate the posts of Governor and Chancellor, and to
forbid the Governor to hold any other place of trust or profit. 5
It was also to make him annually elective by a joint vote of the
two houses of Assembly.

The last colonial executive, Baltimore's brother-in-law, the
genial Captain Robert Eden, of West Aukland, County Durham,
arrived in June, 1769. His administration was troubled with a
controversy over officers' fees, and after Parliament's enactment
of the Coercive Laws he quite lost control of the province. Yet
his own popularity was untouched by these events, and his private
influence remained extensive. Although he left for England in
May, 1774, he came back to Maryland in November and stayed
on until June 23, 1776. He then went aboard H. M. S. Fowey
and with her sailed next day for home. There he was made a
baronet. Sir Robert returned to Annapolis after the Revolution.
He died there and lies buried in St. Anne's churchyard.


Throughout the colonial period the chief executive enjoyed,
in his capacity as Governor, and exclusive of fees and perquisites
attached to his other offices, a revenue in money, derived from

4The office first appeared on Gov. Copley's death, Sept. 9, 1693. The three
Presidents under the Proprietary were Col. Thomas Brooke II, May to Oct.,
1720; Mr. Benjamin Tasker, May, 1752, to Aug., 1753; and Mr. Richard Lee,
May to Nov., 1774.

5Objection to the Governor's being also Chancellor had been voiced by the
Assembly in 1699 and 1709 and by the Lower House in May, 1758 (Ibid., XXII,
323; XXVII, 388, 390, 464; Journal of the Commissioners for Trade and Planta-
tions, 1708/9-14/15,
267; Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, 1710-11, art. 840:
Archives, LV, 676).


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