same penalties, for transporting persons acting as
private expresses, as the persons themselves ; but
nothing in the act is to be construed as prohibiting
the conveyance of letters or 'packages by private
hands, when no compensation is tendered, or by a
special messenger employed for a single occasion.
12. All persons who shall after the passage of the
act transmit by any prohibited private express,
mailable matter, or place at any designated spot, or
deliver such matter for transportation, forfeit for
each offence $50.
13. Letters may be conveyed by steamboats, as
provided by the act of 1825, provided they are de-
livered on arrival, to the authorized agent of the
Post Office Department, who shall charge upon
them ordinary postage; and no Postmaster shall
receive, to be conveyed by mail, any packet weigh-
ing over three pounds.
14. The Postmaster General has power to con- ;
tract with steamboat owners, for extra occasions,
without the previous advertisements required by
law, provided the price to be paid does not exceed
the average rate.
15. Mailable matter is defined ; and it allows the
conveyance of books, magazines, pamphlets, or
newspapers not directed nor intended for distribu-
tion, out of the mail, to subscribers, but for sale as
16. Forging, or uttering stamps provided for in
this law, is declared to be felony and to subject
the offender to imprisonment for not less than six
months nor more than five years, and to fine not over
17. Newspapers are defined, and a free exchange
is allowed as heretofore.
18. All penalties and forfeitures incurred under
this act go, half to the informer and prosecutor,
and the other half to the Government ; and all
causes of action may be sued before the Judicial
Courts of the States and Territories.
19. Mail contracts are to be given to the lowest
bidder ; and advertisements of letters uncalled for
to be made in the newspapers having the largest
circulation, the fact to be decided by evidence.
20. The Postmaster General is to divide the rail-
road routes into three classes, according to the size
of the mails, the speed with which they are to be
conveyed and the importance of the service; and
for conveyance on the roads of the first class not
more than $200 per mile per annum ; on the second
class not over $100; and on the third class not over
$50 shall be paid. And if the service can not be
obtained for these rates, provision may be made for
separating the letter from the general mail, and for
the proper conveyance of each portion.
21. All causes of action under this act may be
sued before any Circuit or District Court of the U.
S. or of the District of Columbia, or the U. S. Ter-
22. The sum of $750,000 is appropriated to sup-
ply any possible deficiency in the revenue of the
Department under the operation of the law.
23. Any farther deficiency is to be paid out of
moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.
24. The franking privilege of the widows of
Madison and Harrison.