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Maryland Manual, 1969-70
Volume 174, Page 29   View pdf image (33K)
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1694). This last was the prelude to the opening of King
William's School, the third institution of its sort in the
As the new century appeared, about 35,000 people made
up the population of Maryland. Nearly twenty per cent of
these were Negro slaves.slavery having been established
within five years after settlement. Another large group
were "bound men," or indentured servants. Many of the
latter soon became "redemptioners" and often, in time, the
owners of extensive property.
After the "Restoration"
With the restoration of proprietary rights, April 16,
1715, Charles Calvert, Fifth Lord Baltimore, resumed con-
trol of the colony. Since he was a minor at that time, and
in later life primarily interested in English politics, devel-
opment in Maryland lacked rigorous control from without.
Furthermore, a strong "Country," as separate from a Pro-
prietary, party manifested itself in the General Assembly.
Significant among the expansionist movements in Charles
Calvert's time were the establishment of a town called Bal-
timore Town in 1729 and the opening up of Western Mary-
land. Swedes and Dutch on the Delaware River, having
found the Maryland charter's geographical limits vague,
pressed for a boundary line. In 1732 this was established
for Delaware, but other final boundary judgments had to
wait till the early twentieth century. One of the conse-
quences of dispute with Pennsylvania was a survey be-
tween 1763-67 by two Englishmen, Charles Mason and
Jeremiah Dixon, for whom the line marking the northern
boundary of Maryland was named.
Frontier Development and Warfare
In Western Maryland, boundary disputes bred violence;
therefore, Thomas Cresap, Maryland's heroic frontiers-
man, figures as an outlaw in Pennsylvania's history. In
this same quarter warfare flared, not only sporadically
with Indians, but also systematically when the French,
making claim to Western Empire, began to drive out the
traders of the Ohio Company. As this trading venture was
largely Virginian in character, the Maryland Assembly
was stern against Governor Horatio Sharpe and refused to
vote funds or raise troops. Edward Braddock, the British
general deputed to drive back the French, operated within
Western Maryland, but even his rout and death in 1755

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Maryland Manual, 1969-70
Volume 174, Page 29   View pdf image (33K)
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