MARYLAND MANUAL 19
seventeenth century were the establishment of a print-
ing press — William Nuthead's — the departure of the
Governor and Assembly from St. Mary's to Annapolis,
and the passage of the "Act for the encouragement of
Learning" (October 18, 1694). This last was the prelude
to the opening of King William's School, the third institu-
tion of its sort in the colonies.
As the new century appeared, about 35,000 people made
up the population of Maryland. Nearly twenty per cent of
these were Negro slaves—slavery having been established
within five years after settlement. Another large group
were "bound men," or indentured servants. Many of the
latter soon became "redemptioners" and often, in time, the
owners of extensive property.
After the "Restoration"
With the restoration of proprietary rights, April 15,
1715, Charles Calvert, Fifth Lord Baltimore, resumed con-
trol of the colony. Since he was a minor at that time, and
in later life primarily interested in English politics, devel-
opment in Maryland lacked rigorous control from without.
Furthermore, a strong "County," as separate from a Pro-
prietary, party manifested itself in the General Assembly.
Significant among the expansionist movements in Charles
Calvert's time were the founding of a settlement at Balti-
more Town (July 30, 1729) and the opening up of Western
Maryland. Swedes and Dutch on the Delaware River,
having found the Maryland charter's geographical limits
vague, pressed for a boundary line. In 1732 this was
established for Delaware, but other final boundary judg-
ments had to wait till the early twentieth century. One
of the consequences of dispute with Pennsylvania was a
survey in 1763 by two Englishmen, Charles Mason and
Jeremiah Dixon, for whom the line marking the northern
boundary of Maryland was named.
Frontier Development and Warfare
In Western Maryland, boundary disputes bred vio-
lence; therefore, Thomas Cresap, Maryland's heroic fron-
tiersman, figures as an outlaw in Pennsylvania's history.
In this same quarter warfare flared, not only sporadically
with Indians, but also systematically when the French,
making claim to Western Empire, began to drive out the
traders of the Ohio Company. As this trading venture was
largely Virginian in character, the Maryland Assembly