MARYLAND MANUAL 15.
changes in the seventeenth century were the establishment
of a printing press—William Nuthead's—the departure of
the Governor and' Assembly from St. Mary's to Annapolis,
and the passage of the "Act for the encouragement of
Learning" (October 18, 1694). This last was the prelude
to the opening of King William's School, the third institu-
tion of its sort in the colonies..
As the new century appeared, about 35,000 people made
up the population of Maryland. More than ten per cent of
these were Negro slaves—slavery having been established
within five years after settlement Another large group
were "bound men", or indentured servants. Many of the
latter soon became "redemptioners" and often, in time, the
owners of extensive property..
After the "Restoration".
With the restoration of his proprietary rights, Charles
Calvert, Fifth Lord Baltimore, reassumed control of his
colony. A minor at that time, in later life his interests were
in English politics—for many years he was a member of
Parliament—and development in Maryland was accordingly
without much control from without. Furthermore, a strong
"County", as separate from a Proprietary, party manifested
itself in the General Assembly..
Significant among the expansionist movements in Charles
Calvert's time were the founding of a settlement at Balti-
more Town (July 30, 1729) and the beginnings of Western
Maryland (1735). Swedes and Dutch on the Delaware
River, having found the Maryland charter's geographical
limits vague, pressed for a boundary line. In 1732 this was
established for Delaware, but at the other limitations final
boundary judgements had to wait till the early twentieth
century. In the meantime one of the consequences of dis-
pute with Pennsylvania was a survey by two Englishmen,
Jeremiah Dixon and Charles Mason, hence the "Mason and
Frontier Development and Warfare.
In Western Maryland boundary disputes made for vio-
lence; therefore Thomas Cresap, Maryland's heroic fron-
tiersman, figures as an outlaw in Pennsylvania's history.
In this same quarter warfare flared, not only sporadically
with Indians, but also systematically when the French,
making claim to West Empire, began to drive out the trad-
ers of the Ohio Company. As this trading venture was.