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Maryland Manual, 1938
Volume 157, Page 28   View pdf image (33K)
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Approximately 30 per cent. of the white county high-school grad-
uates of 1936 continued their education beyond high school in 1936-37
in colleges, universities, hospitals, commercial schools, and other

Towson, Frostburg and Salisbury Teachers Colleges offer a
four-year course to white county students preparing to teach in
the elementary schools. Through the training of the teachers col-
leges, which until 1935 were normal schools, it has been possible to
fill over 98 per cent of the positions in county elementary schools
with teachers who have had professional training. The financially
poorer counties have been able to finance the higher salaries for these
trained teachers through aid from the State Equalization Fund. Any
county which could not carry the minimum requirements of the State
program on a county school current expense tax rate of 67 cents
plus other forms of State aid received the additional amount neces-
sary through the State Equalization Fund from 1923 to 1933. As a
result of legislation in 1933, the 67-cent county school current expense
tax rate required of counties sharing in the Equalization Fund was
reduced to 47 cents beginning with the school year 1933-34.

During the school year ending in June, 1938, there was at least one
supervising or helping teacher in every county in Maryland. This is
the sixteenth year that this satisfactory situation has existed. The
State pays two-thirds of the salaries according to the minimum sched-
ule of the county supervising and helping teachers and of county super-
intendents. The improvement in the results of the tests in reading and
arithmetic is one evidence of effective supervision.

The improvement of instruction through supervision is accomplished
by organizing the content of the curriculum into definite units of in-
struction in the various subjects; by setting up specific goals of accom-
plishment for each grade in the various subjects; by giving standard-
ized tests in the "three R's" to check on the accomplishment of goals
and to plan appropriate remedial teaching for deficiencies revealed; by
analyzing with teachers the achievements to secure more suitable
classification and to provide adequate guidance for individual pupils
who vary markedly from the average; by constantly urging the im-
provement of physical and hygienic conditions in the schools; by stimu-
lating teachers to do the best work of which they are capable through
visits the classroom followed by helpful conferences and through
participation in professional group meetings of teachers conducted by
the supervisor; by breaking down the isolation of teachers in rural
schools and giving adequate educational opportunity to country chil-
dren; by building up new content and methods with older experienced
teachers who may be inclined to fall into a dull routine; by utilizing
the strength of superior teachers for the benefit of the entire group
through demonstration lessons; and by helping the public and parents
to understand more clearly what the schools are trying to accomplish
for their children.

In the fall of 1938 there were 47 county supervising or helping
teachers employed for the 2,950 white elementary teachers scattered
over the 9,870 square miles in the Maryland counties, an average of
63 teachers for each supervising or helping teacher. Since there are
very few non-teaching principals in the Maryland county schools,
the counties are helping teachers to improve instruction with a rela-
tively small corps of supervisory officials.

The average current expense cost in 1938 of educating a pupil
in the .schools of the twenty-three counties was $61.17. Graded schools
having three or more teachers, with better trained teachers, more


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Maryland Manual, 1938
Volume 157, Page 28   View pdf image (33K)
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