1776.] OF THE PROVINCE OF MARYLAND. 097
dangered, and all other means of redress are ineffectual, the peo-
ple may, and of right ought, to reform the old, or establish a new
government; the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary pow-
er and oppression, is absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good
and happiness of mankind.
" 5. That the right in the people to participate in the legislature
is the best security of liberty, and the foundation of all free govern-
ment; for this purpose elections ought to be free and frequent, and
every man having property in, a common interest with, and an at-
tachment to, the community, ought to have a right of suffrage.
"6. That the legislative, exceutive and judicial powers of go-
vernment, ought to be forever separate and distinct from each
" 7. That no power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws,
unless derived from the legislature, ought to be exercised or al-
"9. That freedom of speech, and debates, or proceedings, in the
legislature, ought not to be impeached in any other court or judi-
"9. That a place for the meeting of the legislature ought to be
fixed, the most convenient to the members thereof, and to the de-
pository of the public records, and the legislature ought not to be
convened or held at any other place hut from evident necessity.
" 10, That for the redress of grievances, and for amending,
strengthening and preserving the laws, the legislature ought to be
" 11. That every man hath a right to petition the, legislature for
the redress of grievances, in a peaceable and orderly manner.
" 12. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen, fee, or fees, ought to be
set, rated, or levied, under any pretence, without the consent of
" 13. That the levying taxes by the poll is grievous and oppres-
sive, and ought to be abolished; that paupers whose estates do not
exceed thirty pounds currency value ought not to be assessed for
the support of government, but every other person in the state
ought to contribute his proportion of public taxes for the support
of government according to his actual worth in real or personal
property within this state; yet fines, duties or taxes may properly
and justly be imposed or laid with a political view for the good go-
vernment and benefit of the community.
" 14. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided, as far as is con-
sistent with the safety of the state; and no law to inflict cruel and