Persons seeking to be admitted to the practice of law in Maryland originally were examined by the various local courts. Examination of attorneys remained a function of local courts until 1898, when the State Board of Law Examiners was created (Chapter 139, Laws of 1898).

The Board and its staff administer the bar examinations by which persons are admitted to practice law in Maryland. The exams are held twice annually, in February and July. Each is a two-day examination of between nine and twelve hours of writing time.

The first day of exams normally is devoted to the traditional essay examination, prepared and graded by the Board. On the second day, the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) usually is given as part of the overall examination. The MBE is the nationally recognized law examination, consisting of multiple-choice questions, prepared and graded under the direction of the National Conference of Bar Examiners. In Maryland, the MBE has been used since 1972. It covers six subjects: contracts, criminal law, evidence, real property, torts, and constitutional law.

Pursuant to the Rules Governing Admission to the Bar, adopted by the Court of Appeals, June 28, 1990 (effective August 1, 1990), and Rules of the Board adopted October 8, 1990 (amended through November 11, 2004), subjects covered by the Board's essay examination may include such areas as: agency; business associations; commercial transactions; constitutional law; contracts; criminal law and procedure; evidence; family law; Maryland civil procedure; property; professional conduct; and torts. Subjects are not specifically labeled on the examination paper, and questions may encompass more than one subject area.

For out-of-State attorneys who apply for admission to the Maryland bar, applications for admission (filed under Rule 13) are processed by the Board. Applicants must have practiced law for a total of ten years or at least five of the ten years preceding application. The lawyers' examination is an essay test limited in scope and subject matter to Maryland's Rules of Practice and Procedure and Rules of Professional Conduct. Administered on the first day of the regularly scheduled bar examination, the test is three-hours long.

The requirement that all applicants to practice law in Maryland live in the State when admitted to the bar was abolished in 1982.

Seven lawyers compose the Board of Law Examiners. They are appointed to five-year terms by the Court of Appeals. Authorization for the Board continues until July 1, 2020 (Chapter 413, Acts of 2008; Code Business Occupations and Professions Article, secs. 10-201 through 10-218).

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