MARYLAND AT A GLANCE

WILDLIFE

MAMMALS


[photo, Eastern Fox Squirrel, Glen Burnie, Maryland] In Maryland, mammals of all shapes and sizes can be found. Many different species of canine, chiroptera (bats), feline, mustelid (badgers and weasels), and rodent are located in the State. Many may be seen at local, national and State parks.


Eastern Fox Squirrel, Glen Burnie, Maryland, January 2011. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.


Due to ecological and sociological changes, some species are few in number and location. Although endangered, the Delmarva fox squirrel and Assateague pony, for example, both are limited to the Chesapeake area, and attest to Maryland's diverse fauna. Making a home in Elkton (Cecil County), Maryland, is a population of White squirrels, a leucistic (differ from albino, as eyes contain pigment) variant of Gray squirrels.

In the listing below, all mammals noted are native to Maryland with the exception of the Nutria, and the Sika Deer.


MARYLAND MAMMALS


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Bat, Big Brown (Eptesicus fuscus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; 4 to 5 inches long, 11 to 13 inch wingspan.

Bat, Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; migratory (present: April-Oct.); 4 to 5 inches long, 11 to 13 inch wingspan.

Bat, Eastern Small-Footed (Myotis leibii)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; 2.5 to 3.75 inches long, 8.5 to 9.75 inch wingspan.

Bat, Evening (Nycticeius humeralis)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; migratory; short-lived (two to five years).

Bat, Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; migratory; 5 to 6 inches long; 15 to 16 inch wingspan.

Bat, Indiana (Myotis sodalis)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months.
Classified as
Endangered.

Bat, Little Brown (Myotis lucifugus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; 2.4 to 4 inches long, 8.5 to 11 inch wingspan.

Bat, Northern Long-Eared (Myotis septentrionalis)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; approx. 3.5 inches long.

Bat, Silver Haired (Lasionycteris noctivagans)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; approx. 4 inches long, approx. 11 inch wingspan; primary flight time is early-late evening, as to avoid competition from other bat species.

Bear, American Black (Ursus americanus)
Omnivore; crepuscular; ursidae; hibernates during winter months; 5 to 6 feet long, 2.5 to 3 feet tall at shoulder (approx. 7 feet tall when up on two legs), up to 660 lbs.; can reach speeds up to 30 mph. Most common bear species native to North America.

Beaver, American (Castor canadensis)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; approx. 3.5 feet long, 33 to 77 lbs.; semi-aquatic; lives ten to twenty years. Largest rodent, and only beaver species found in North America.

Bison, American (Bison bison)
Herbivore; diurnal; bovine; approx. 6 feet tall, 10 feet long; 900 to 2,200 lbs.; short, curved horns; herd animal; can reach speeds up to 39 mph. Endangered status is under review; classified as regionally extinct (no wild herds) in Maryland.

Bobcat (Lynx rufus)
Carnivore; crepuscular; feline; 20 to 24 inches tall, 28 to 40 inches long; capable of climbing and swimming.


Chipmunk, Eastern (Tamias striatus)
Omnivore; diurnal; rodent; hibernates during winter months; 5 to 6 inches long; capable of burrowing and climbing; striped back; prefers deciduous forests and urban parks.

Cottontail, Appalachian (Sylvilagus obscurus)
Herbivore; crepuscular; leporidae; 15.5 to 17 inches long; 1.75 to 2.5 lbs.; almost indistinct from Sylvilagus floridanus: most distinct seperating feature is the dark patch of fur between the ears; can reach speeds up to 18 mph.

Cottontail, Eastern (Sylvilagus floridanus)
Herbivore; crepuscular; leporidae; 15.5 to 17 inches long; 1.75 to 2.5 lbs.; almost indistinct from Sylvilagus obscurus; can reach speeds up to 18 mph.

Coyote (Canis latrans)
Carnivore; nocturnal; canine; 23 to 26 inches tall at shoulder, 30 to 34 inches long; can reach speeds up to 43 mph; pack hunter; burrowing animal, yet primarily uses existing burrows and dens; thrives in human occupied areas.


Deer, Sika (Cervus nippon)
Herbivore; diurnal; cervidae; introduced to America from Japan; 4 to 5.8 feet long, 2.3 to 4 feet tall at shoulders; dark stripe from head to tail; antlers found on males, 1 to 2.2 feet long; found in dense forests and at freshwater marshes in Maryland.

Deer, White-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus)
Herbivore; diurnal; cervidae; 5.2 to 7.3 feet long, 2.7 to 3.3 feet tall at shoulders; 130 to 300 lbs.; characteristic white underside to tail; antlers found on males; prefer dense forests.


Elk, American (Cervus elaphus)
Herbivore; diurnal; cervidae; 6.3 to 8 feet long, 4.5 to 5 feet tall at shoulders; 500 to 700 lbs.; antlers found on males; herd animal; once extinct on the east coast, elk were reintroduced in states such as Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. These populations spread into Maryland.

Ermine (Mustela erminea)
Carnivore; nocturnal; mustelid; up to 12 inches long; capable of burrowing, climbing, and swimming; distinct black tip to tail. Also known as stoat, or short-tailed weasel.


Fisher (Martes pennanti)
Carnivorous; diurnal; mustelid; 26 to 49 inches long; capable of burrowing and climbing; prefers coniferous and mixed forests.

Fox, Gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
Carnivore; crepuscular; canine; 31 to 41 inches long; 8 to 15 lbs.; skilled climber; solitary hunter; distinct black-tipped tail.

Fox, Red (Vulpes vulpes)
Carnivore; crepuscular; canine; 18 to 35 inches long; 8 to 17 lbs.; can reach speeds up to 45 mph; solitary hunter; distinct black-tipped feet, and white-tipped tail.


Hare, Snowshoe (Lepus americanus)
Herbivore; crepuscular; leporidae; 14.5 to 15.5 inches long; fur turns white in winter, and brown in warmer months; black-tipped ears all year round; prefers farmlands and meadows.

Horse, Feral (Equus caballus)
Herbivore; diurnal; equine; 4.4 to 5.4 feet tall at shoulders; found primarily on
Assateague Island, with a herd protected at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge in Worcester County. The National Park Service maintains the horses in Maryland. Also known as Assateague pony, and Chincoteage pony.

The origin of the ponies of Assateague Island is unknown. Some speculate that the horses arrived in the 17th or 18th century, escaping from shipwrecked vessels by swimming to shore. Others contend that early settlers left the horses to roam on the Island to avoid taxes and duties on grazing land.


Lemming, Southern bog (Synaptomys cooperi)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; approx. 5.5 inches long (including tail); capable of burrowing.

Lion, Mountain (Felis concolor)
Carnivore; crepuscular; feline; 5 to 9 feet long (including tail), 2 to 2.5 feet tall at shoulders; 64 to 198 lbs.; skilled climber; can reach speeds up to 45 mph; can leap up to 18 feet vertical, 40 feet horizontal; classified as regionally extinct (no wild occurrences) in Maryland. Also known as cougar, panther, and puma.


Marten, American (Martes americana)
Carnivore; nocturnal; mustelid; skilled climber; prefers coniferous and mixed forests.

Mink (Mustela vison)
Carnivore; nocturnal; mustelid; 18.4 to 28 inches long; semi-aquatic.

Mole, Eastern (Scalopus aquaticus)
Omnivore; diurnal; talpidae; approx. 5.1 to 8.4 inches long (including tail); solitary.

Mole, Hairy-tailed (Parascalops breweri)
Omnivore; diurnal; talpidae; approx. 6.5 inches long; solitary; primarily subterranean.

Mole, Star-nosed (Condylura cristata)
Omnivore; diurnal; talpidae; 6 to 8 inches long; primarily subterranean; semi-aquatic; distinct pink tentacles on snout.

Mouse, Deer (Peromyscus maniculatus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 5 to 8.5 inches long (including tail); distinct multicolored tail.

Mouse, Eastern harvest (Reithrodontomys humulis)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 4 to 5 inches long (including tail); prefers damp, open habitats.

Mouse, House (Mus musculus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 5 to 8 inches long (including tail); thrives in close proximity to humans.

Mouse, Meadow jumping (Zapus hudsonius)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 7 to 9.5 inches long (including tail); capable of swimming and burrowing; can leap up to 12 feet horizontal; prefers damp, open habitats.

Mouse, White-footed (Peromyscus leucopus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 6 to 8 inches long (including tail); prefers mixed forests; distinct feet (including ankles) are completely white.

Mouse, Woodland jumping (Napaeozapus insignis)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; hibernates during winter months; 8 to 10 inches long (including tail); capable of burrowing; can leap up to 10 feet horizontal.

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 16 to 24 inches long; semi-aquatic, burrower; long, narrow, scaled tail.


Nutria (Myocastor coypus)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; 16 to 24 inches long; semi-aquatic, burrower; long, round, scaled tail. Introduced from South America, Nutria are an invasive species that has led Maryland to work with federal, interstate and private agencies in extermination efforts.


Opossum, Virginia (Didelphis virginiana)
Omnivore; nocturnal; marsupial; 15 to 20 inches long; skilled climber; distinct white face; known for "playing possum" when frightened. Also known simply as possum, or North American opossum.


Pipistrelle, Eastern (Pipistrellus subflavus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; chiroptera; hibernates during winter months; 2.7 to 3.5 inches long, 8.5 to 9.7 inch wingspan; distinct tri-colored hair (dark brown-yellow-black). One of smallest bat species in North America.

Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; skilled climber; prefers coniferous and mixed forests; distinct covering of barbed quills. Also known as Canadian porcupine, and North American porcupine.


Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
Omnivore; nocturnal; procyonidae; 16 to 28 inches long, 9 to 12 inches tall at shoulders; skilled climber; prefers deciduous or mixed forests with access to water; adapted to urban areas; distinct "bandit mask" coloring around eyes.

Rat, Black (Rattus rattus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 6 to 8 inches long; approx. 8 inch long tail; skilled climber; may be colors other than black.

Rat, Marsh rice (Oryzomys palustris)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 8.2 to 9 inches long; semi-aquatic; prefers marshes and swamps.

Rat, Norway (Rattus norvegicus)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; approx. 16 inches long (including tail); burrower. Also known as brown rat, common rat, Hanover rat, Norwegian rat, and wharf rat.


Shrew, Least (Cryptotis parva)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 3 to 3.5 inches long (including tail); burrower; venomous saliva (painful, but not lethal to humans). Also known as small short-tailed shrew and bee shrew.

Shrew, Long-tailed (Sorex dispar)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 2.5 to 7 inches long (including tail); burrower; prefers forested, mountainous regions. Also known as rock shrew.

Shrew, Masked (Sorex cinereus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; approx. 3.9 inches long (including tail); burrower; prefers moist forest areas, and marshlands. Also known as common shrew.

Shrew, Northern short-tailed (Blarina brevicauda)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 4.3 to 5.5 inches long (including tail); capable of burrowing, and climbing; venomous saliva (painful, but not lethal to humans).

Shrew, Pygmy (Sorex hoyi)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 3 to 3.5 inches (including tail); weighs 2 to 3 grams; can jump 4.5 inches vertical; primarily nests in ground debris, or rotted logs; prefers deciduous and mixed forests. Smallest mammal (by weight) in North America.

Shrew, Smoky (Sorex fumeus)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 4 to 5 inches long (including tail); primarily nests in ground debris, or rotted logs; prefers deciduous and mixed forests.

Shrew, Southeastern (Sorex longirostris)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; approx. 4 inches long (including tail); primarily nests in ground debris, or rotted logs; prefers deciduous and mixed forests.

Shrew, Water (Sorex palustris)
Insectivore; nocturnal; soricidae; 5 to 6.7 inches long (including tail); semi-aquatic; can “walk” on water; prefers deciduous forest near streams or ponds.

Skunk, Eastern spotted (Spilogale putorius)
Omnivore; crepuscular; mephitidae; 16 to 23 inches; sprays an odorous secretion as a defense mechanism; distinct "broken" pattern to stripes, giving impression of spots.

Skunk, Striped (Mephitis mephitis)
Omnivore; crepuscular; mephitidae; 13 to 18 inches long (excluding tail); 6 to 8 lbs.; sprays an odorous secretion as a defense mechanism; distinct stripe pattern running from head to tail.

Squirrel, Delmarva fox (Sciurus niger cinereus)
Granivore; diurnal; rodent; approx. 15 inches long (excluding tail); skilled climber; can jump more than 15 feet horizontal; primarily nests in tree hollows; prefers mixed forests. Subspecies of eastern fox squirrel.
Classified as Endangered.

Squirrel, Eastern fox (Sciurus niger)
Granivore; diurnal; rodent; 10 to 14.5 inches long (excluding tail); skilled climber; can jump more than 15 feet horizontal; prefers deciduous forests.

Squirrel, Eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis)
Granivore; crepuscular; rodent; approx. 9.7 inches long (excluding tail); skilled climber; builds nests in trees; prefers deciduous and mixed forests; fur is varying shades of gray, with occasional hints of brown.

Squirrel, Red (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
Granivore; diurnal; rodent; 7 to 8 inches long (excluding tail); capable of climbing and swimming; prefers coniferous forests; distinct white belly.

Squirrel, Southern flying (Glaucomys volans)
Omnivore; nocturnal; rodent; 11.5 to 14.2 inches long (including tail); skilled climber; distinct membrane connecting front and rear legs; prefers deciduous and mixed forests; can glide great distances, uses tail to steer in midair. Also known as eastern flying squirrel.


Vole, Meadow (Microtus pennsylvanicus)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; approx. 6.3 inches long (including tail); burrower; prefers farmlands and meadows. Also known as field mouse, or meadow mouse.

Vole, Rock (Microtus chrotorrhinus)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; approx. 8 inches long (including tail); burrower; distinct yellow-tipped nose. Also known as yellow-nosed vole.

Vole, Southern red-backed (Clethrionomys gapperi)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; 4.3 to 6.7 inches long (including tail); burrower; distinct chestnut brown stripe running from head to tail.

Vole, Woodland (Microtus pinetorum)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; 4 to 6.2 inches long (including tail); burrower; prefers deciduous and mixed forests.


Weasel, Least (Mustela nivalis)
Carnivore; both diurnal and nocturnal; mustelid; approx. 9 inches long (including tail); burrower; prefers farmlands and meadows; distinct short tail. Also known as dwarf weasel, pygmy weasel, and mouse weasel.

Weasel, Long-tailed (Mustela frenata)
Carnivore; both diurnal and nocturnal; mustelid; 14 to 48 inches long (including tail); capable of climbing and swimming; solitary hunter; distinct black-tipped tail.

Wolf, Gray (Canis lupus)
Carnivore; both diurnal and nocturnal; canine; 3.5 to 5.5 feet long, 2 to 3 feet tall at shoulder; pack hunter; can reach speeds up to 40 mph.
Classified as
Endangered, the gray wolf is regionally extinct (no wild occurrences) in Maryland.

Woodchuck (Marmota monax)
Omnivore; crepuscular; rodent; hibernates in winter months; capable of burrowing, climbing, and swimming. Also known as groundhog.

Woodrat, Allegheny (Neotoma magister)
Herbivore; nocturnal; rodent; 8 to 10 inches long, 7 to 8 inch tail; prefers caves, mines, and rocky areas; distinct furred tail.

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