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The following rules and regulations are presented for information purposes only. The only legally binding copy of these rules and regulations is that published in the Maryland Register and codified in COMAR and should be obtained from the Secretary of State's Division of State Documents (DSD).

Title 14

Chapter 05 Archival Standards for Records on Microfilm

Authority: State Government Article, 9-1007 and 10-632, Annotated Code of Maryland

Editor's Note on Incorporation by Reference

    Pursuant to State Government Article, 7-207, Annotated Code of Maryland, the American National Standard for Imaging Media (Film) -Silver Gelatin Type - Specifications for Stability (ANSI/NAPM II 9.1992); American National Standard for Photography - Determination of Residual Thiosulfate and other Related Chemicals in Processed Photographic Materials - Methods Using Iodine - Amylose, Methylene Blue and Silver Sulfide (ANSI/NAPM II 9.17-1993);Standard for Information and Image Management - Practice for Operational Procedures/Inspection and Quality Control of First-Generation Silver Microfilm of Documents, Rotary Camera Test Chart (ANSI/AIIM MS 23-1991); and Photographic Microcopy Target (NBS 1010a) have been declared documents generally available to the public and appropriate for incorporation by reference. For this reason, they will not be printed in the Maryland Register or the Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR). Copies of these documents are filed in special public depositories located throughout the State. A list of these depositories was published in 21:1 Md. R. 13 (January 7, 1994). These documents may also be inspected at the office of the Division of State documents, Old Armory Building, 11 Bladen Street, Annapolis, Maryland.

.01 Purpose.

    These regulations establish uniform methods for the microfilming of records. The standards in these regulations ensure the economical production and use of microfilm in record keeping to meet legal and archival requirements and preserve the integrity of the original records.

.02 Scope.

      A. These regulations apply to the microfilming of record material by any agency of State, county or local governments.

      B. With the written approval of the State Archivist, the head of an agency or office may destroy original material that has been photographed, photocopied, or microphotographed if:

        (1) The head of the agency or office offers the original material to the Archives, but the Archives declines to accept;

        (2) The copy is made in a manner that meets the standard of quality of the Archives for permanent photographic records;

        (3) The copy is placed in an adequately accessible container; and

        (4) Provisions are made;

          (a) For the preservation, examination, and use of the copy in a manner that the Archives approves, and

          (b) For a record that a statute otherwise expressly requires to be kept permanently, for the copy to be available, on request, in the same manner as the original material.

.03 Definitions

      A. The following terms have the meanings indicated.

      B. Terms Defined:

        (1) "Agency" means any unit of State, county, or local government.

        (2) "Archives" means the State Archives.

        (3) "Division" means the Records Management Division of the Department of General Services

        (4) "Office" means a part of an agency.

        (5) "Record" means documentary material in any form or format including paper, microform, electronic record, or other medium, that is:

          (a) Created by an agency or office; or

          (b) Received by an agency or office in connection with the transaction of public business.

.04 Microfilm Standards.

      A. Microfilm shall be of the type suitable for archival quality. Archival quality or permanent film is defined as any film that is equal to or better than silver gelatin film, as specified in the "American National Standard for Imaging Media (Film)-Silver-Gelatin Type - Specifications for Stability (ANSI/NAPM IT9.1-1992)" and in the "American National Standard for Photography - Determination of Regional Thiosulfate and Other Related Chemicals in Processed Photographic Materials - Methods Using Iodine - Amylose, Methylene Blue and Silver Sulfide (ANSI/NAPM IT9.17-1993)" which are incorporated by reference. Diazo or vesicular film are not acceptable as archival quality microfilm.

      B. If an agency is microfilming its own records, it shall be the responsibility of the head of each agency or office to ensure that microfilm equipment is cleaned and maintained according to manufacturer's specifications or accepted industry practice, or both.

      C. For the production of archival quality or permanent film, microfilm shall be processed as follows:

        (1) Permanent text records shall be microfilmed at a reduction ratio not greater than 24X;

        (2) Permanent graphic records shall be microfilmed at a reduction ratio not greater than 36X;

        (3) Each film roll shall contain not less than 18 inches of film leader, and 18 inches of film trailer;

        (4) Microfilm Density.

          (a) Optimum background densities of microfilm images are dependent upon the quality of the documents filmed;

          (b) For permanent records, density on negative copies will be between .95 and 1.2;

          (c) For nonpermanent records, the ultimate density criterion is that the microfilm be legible for its intended used (reading, copying, or production of hard copy), and that all images on a roll can be printed, as much as is practicable, at the same printing exposure;

          (d) The following classification indicates the maximum limits of density;

            (i) Density not higher than 1.4 is required for high quality printed books, periodicals, and dense typing;

            (ii) Density not higher that 1.3 is required for fine line originals, letters typed with a worn ribbon, pencil writing with a soft lead , and documents with small printing;

            (iii) Density not lower than 1.0 is required for pencil drawings, faded printing, graph paper with pale fine colored lines, and very small printing such as footnotes;

            (iv) Density not lower than 0.8 is required for very weak pencil manuscripts and drawings, and poorly printed, faint or faded documents; and

            (v) Readings beyond these densities are unacceptable.

        (5) Resolution of the completed microfilm may not be less than 100 lines per millimeter, as determined by inspection of a resolution test chart photographed on each roll of film.

        (6) Residual thiosulfate concentration shall;

          (a) Be less than 1 microgram per square centimeter as proved by subsequent testing of the processed film;

          (b) At regular intervals agencies shall send samples of processed film to the Division's Microfilm Laboratory for methylene blue testing;

          (c) Samples are to be processed within 1 week before testing if accurate results are to be obtained.

      D. The following identification targets shall be used on each roll of microfilm which are presented here in the order in which they are to appear:

        (1) Resolution test target for rotary camera applications derives from the "Standard for Information and Image Management - Practice for Operational Procedures/Inspection and Quality Control of First Generation Silver Microfilm of Documents, Rotary Camera Test Chart (ANSI/AIIM MS 23-1991)" which is incorporated by reference, or for planetary camera applications "Photographic Microcopy Target (NBS 1010a)" which is incorporated by reference;

        (2) A title target for each volume of records to be filmed shall included the agency name and the record title and volume identification, both identifiable without the use of a magnifier or viewer;

        (3) A certification target signed by authorized agency personnel;

        (4) Certificate of Camera Operator Target (RM-4); and

        (5) The appropriate test chart.

      E. During filming, if any document is suspected of not having been filmed correctly, follow that image with a correction target, followed by the document again.

      F. After exposure, each roll of microfilm is developed and inspected to insure completeness and legibility of every image. A light box inspection alone is not acceptable.

      G. Illegible or missing records shall be microfilmed again as retakes, according to the following procedure:

        (1) Allow 18 inches of blank leader at the beginning of the retakes for each individual volume;

        (2) Photograph a start of retake section target;

        (3) Microfilm the documents that were illegible or missing in the same order in which they would have appeared on the original roll if they had been available;

        (4) Microfilm an end of retake section target;

        (5) Allow 18 inches of blank trailer at the end of each section of retakes; and

        (6) After processing, inspection, and approval, splice retake images onto the beginning of the original roll of microfilm that bears the illegible images or lacks the documents contained on the retake roll.

      H. Precautions shall be taken in the handling and storage of original camera microfilm. These precautions include, but are not limited to, the following:

        (1) Always wear cotton gloves when handling film to prevent fingerprints or dirt on the microfilm images;

        (2) Never use tape, paper clips, rubberbands, staples, etc. to splice or hold microfilm on rolls or any other microform;

        (3) Do not place microfilm on reels that corrode or emit toxious elements that destroy microfilm; and

        (4) Do not store microfilm within 4 inches of the floor. Storage under improper conditions of temperature and humidity drastically shortens the useful life of microfilm;

        (5) Recommended standards for temperature and humidity for the storage of microfilm are as follows:

          (a) Short-term storage-temperature (under 10 years) may not exceed 75F and relative humidity may not exceed 60 percent; and

          (b) Permanent or archival storage temperature may not exceed 70F and relative humidity may not exceed 40 percent.

      I. Archival microfilm of records scheduled for permanent retention shall be transferred periodically to the Archives. This microfilm shall be the silver-gelatin master negative.

.05 Agency Responsibility.

      A. When paper records are to be microfilmed, and the microfilm is scheduled for permanent retention, the paper records may not be destroyed until the microfilming of those records, and the subsequent processing and inspection of the film has been completed in compliance with the standards in Regulation .04G and H of this chapter, nor until the State Archivist has approved the destruction of those records. Permission to destroy record material shall be obtained by filing a Proposal and Certificate of Records Destruction (form DGS-550-9) with the Archives. This permission shall be received before any records destruction can take place.

      B. It is the policy of the Division not to store paper records in the State Records Center after those records have been microfilmed. The State Records Center will hold the paper records until the microfilm has been inspected by agency personnel. Once the quality of the microfilm has been assured, the paper records shall be returned to the agency of record or disposed of in accordance with State Government Article, 10-642, Annotated Code of Maryland.

      C. The head of each agency shall ensure that the standards in this chapter are made a part of any contract for microfilming services into which an agency may enter.

This information resource of the Maryland State Archives is presented here for fair use in the public domain. When this material is used, in whole or in part, proper citation and credit must be attributed to the Maryland State Archives. PLEASE NOTE: Rights assessment for associated source material is the responsibility of the user.

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