Lillie Carroll Jackson

Lillie Carroll Jackson is widely recognized as the mother of the civil rights movement in Maryland. Born on May 25, 1889 in Baltimore City to Charles and Amanda Carroll, Jackson grew up one of eight children in a very religious household. Jackson attended school and graduated from the Baltimore City Colored High and Training School in 1908. In 1910 she married Keiffer Jackson, a union that gave birth to the Jackson/Mitchell clan, one of the most influential families in Maryland's history. Spending much of her life teaching, Jackson was also involved with church related service, and community activism.  In 1935, her activity and fervor for civil rights caught the attention of Baltimore Afro editor-in-chief, Carl Murphy, who was looking to revitalize the Baltimore Chapter of the NAACP as membership and interest waned over the years. Murphy felt Jackson would be the perfect candidate to chair the chapter; an inclination that made Murphy look like a genius. Jackson accepted the position in 1935, and remained chair until 1970, at the age of 80. Under her leadership, the NAACP flourished on the local and national stage. Her tenure spanned eras of desegregation in universities, public schools and public facilities, expansion of voting rights, sit-ins and the emergence of the Black militant movement. She was a mentor and friend to countless influential figures of her day, including Thurgood Marshall and her own daughter, Juanita Jackson Mitchell. When she died in 1975, she willed her house in East Baltimore at 1320 Eutaw Place to be turned into a civil rights museum, as a constant reminder of the sacrifices and struggles made during the movement.

1900 Census of Carroll family in Baltimore City

Picture of Lillie Carroll Jackson

June: Sit-In at Hooper's Restaurant (1960)

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