June 


Sit-In At Hooper's Restaurant, Baltimore City


On June 17, 1960, groups of African American students in Baltimore City staged four sit-in protests across the city. The students involved were from a number of schools in Baltimore including Morgan State University, Peters Business School, and some city high schools. One particular group of students left a lasting imprint on the day's events with their sit-in at Hooper's Restaurant, formerly located on Charles and Fayette Streets. The purpose of the protest was to object to the segregationist policies of the city and state's public facilities after the Supreme Court's mandate in Brown I of 1954 and Brown II of 1957 for desegregation in public places. At Hooper's Restaurant, students from East Baltimore's Dunbar High School sat at the lunch counters, but were refused service by management and told to leave. However, the students would not be deterred from their mission; they were prepared to go to jail if necessary; they would not be disappointed. The store manager called the City Magistrate, and twelve of the youth were arrested and charged with trespassing. The NAACP came to the aid of the students, with a team of lawyers including Thurgood Marshall and Juanita Jackson Mitchell, to have the convictions dropped. Fighting through the judicial levels of the Baltimore City Court, the Maryland State Court of Appeals, the United States Supreme Court, and back down to the Maryland Court of Appeals, the charges were finally dropped on April 9, 1965. But the lasting impression of the trial, known as Bell vs. Maryland, was the "test" of the state's policies on segregated facilities, became an important foundation to officially desegregating public facilities in Baltimore City and the State of Maryland.  


Indictment Docket, May 1960

Order to vacate judgement, July 9, 1965


July: Mark Caesar and William Wheeler (1845)


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