Sit-In At Hooper's Restaurant, Baltimore City

On June 17, 1960, groups of African American students in Baltimore City staged four sit-in protests across the city. The students involved were from a number of schools in Baltimore including Morgan State University, Peters Business School, and some city high schools. One particular group of students left a lasting imprint on the day's events with their sit-in at Hooper's Restaurant, formerly located on Charles and Fayette Streets. The purpose of the protest was to object to the segregationist policies of the city and state's public facilities after the Supreme Court's mandate in Brown I of 1954 and Brown II of 1957 for desegregation in public places. At Hooper's Restaurant, students from East Baltimore's Dunbar High School sat at the lunch counters, but were refused service by management and told to leave. However, the students would not be deterred from their mission; they were prepared to go to jail if necessary; they would not be disappointed. The store manager called the City Magistrate, and twelve of the youth were arrested and charged with trespassing. The NAACP came to the aid of the students, with a team of lawyers including Thurgood Marshall and Juanita Jackson Mitchell, to have the convictions dropped. Fighting through the judicial levels of the Baltimore City Court, the Maryland State Court of Appeals, the United States Supreme Court, and back down to the Maryland Court of Appeals, the charges were finally dropped on April 9, 1965. But the lasting impression of the trial, known as Bell vs. Maryland, was the "test" of the state's policies on segregated facilities, became an important foundation to officially desegregating public facilities in Baltimore City and the State of Maryland.  

Indictment Docket, May 1960

Order to vacate judgement, July 9, 1965

July: Mark Caesar and William Wheeler (1845)

Return Home

This web site is presented for reference purposes under the doctrine of fair use. When this material is used, in whole or in part, proper citation and credit must be attributed to the Maryland State Archives. PLEASE NOTE: The site may contain material from other sources which may be under copyright. Rights assessment, and full originating source citation, is the responsibility of the user.

Tell Us What You Think About the Maryland State Archives Website!

[ Archives' Home Page  ||  Maryland Manual On-Line  ||  Reference & Research
||  Search the Archives   ||  Education & Outreach  ||  Archives of Maryland Online ]

Governor     General Assembly    Judiciary     Maryland.Gov

© Copyright November 18, 2005 Maryland State Archives