Vol. 6, No. 1 January 6, 1992

SERENDIPITOUS NEWS Dean Yates and Pat Melville

TV journalism has changed a lot since 1965. For instance, according to the 10 September 1965 minutes of the Department of Correction's Advisory Board [MSA S247], the Board exercised editing authority over a WMAR-TV news production. On that day, the Board met at the television station to preview the documentary prior to its 14 September public broadcast. After seeing the film, non-members (including Robert B. Cochrane, WMAR's Assistant General Manager) were dismissed while the Board met in executive session. During the session, the minutes report that "It was the general consensus of opinion that the reference to Lesbianism at the Institute for Women gave an untrue and distorted picture of conditions at the institution, and should be deleted." The minutes indicate that when Cochrane was called back into the room, he agreed to delete the "entire segment" which had distressed the Board.

The following nuncupative will appears in PREROGATIVE COURT (Wills) 18, p. 23 [MSA S 539-26; 1/11/1/20].

"May 2nd [1732]. Then heard Mr. Cockshut say his two Daughters must be content with an 100 [pounds] a piece and that accounts between Mr. Lingan and him should be discharged on both sides. And his son Thomas to go to Doct. Locks, and be disposed of [sic], as he sees fit."

Vol. 6, No. 2 January 13, 1992


Annapolis was a popular subject of research in December, with patrons searching for information about Indians in the Annapolis area, history of the Annapolis Chamber of Commerce for its 75th anniversary, slave trade in Annapolis, artists in Annapolis, and a general history of Annapolis. Other local historical topics included a history of Charles County and St. Margarets Church in Westminster.

Students preparing lists of sources for biographies of famous Marylanders continued to appear in the search room, as did someone working on biographies of unnamed legislators. Another biographical subject concerned Col. John H. Sothoron, 1807-1893, a Confederate soldier, who killed a Union soldier recruiting slaves on his plantation in St. Mary's County. The plantation was later confiscated by the federal government and used by the Freedmans Bureau.

State government related topics included the history of juvenile corrections and origination of the Maryland state flag. Another researcher was studying military flags. The editor of the newsletter of The Society of American Bayonet Collectors was researching armaments of the Maryland militia, 1792-1815. We now have a copy of the newsletter in the library.

Other research topics included quod ad damnum writs in chancery, 1678-1851, marriage trends and birth name trends, blacks of the Chesapeake Bay, watermen, and plate. The meaning of research involving Pasquahanza remains uncertain. Then there was the patron here to pursue "ecclectic" research.


The Commission met on December 12 at the Archives. New members, Christopher B. Nelson, President of St. John's College, and Dr. William C. Richardson, President of Johns Hopkins University, were welcomed.

Ed reported on the publication of Maryland: A New Guide to the Old Line State by Johns Hopkins Press which has retained Earl Arnett to revise the work. Dr. George H. Callcott will head a committee of the Commission to review the work.

Lists of recent acquisitions of public records and special collections were distributed to members. Ed discussed the special collections program at the Archives, especially in reference to church records and papers of public officials. Ed recognized the efforts of the Chairman, Judge Robert C. Murphy, to secure the Diana Lee Smith Collection of Archer Family Papers, 1837-1932 [MSA SC 2690].

Two appraisal issues were discussed. Ed informed the Commission about several efforts to obtain records of the Baltimore City Police Department. He advised the Commission about the request of the Library of Congress to have the Peter Force Collection returned. Comptroller Louis L. Goldstein's motion to retain custody of the collection was unanimously approved.

Ed discussed the closing of the search room on Mondays, an occurence that has not substantially affected attendance or circulation numbers. He distributed reference handouts to the members.

Ed reported on the success of the Archives in obtaining two grants. The NEH grant will allow the newspaper preservation program to continue. The NHPRC grant will permit the Archives to compile agency histories and series descriptions for state offices. The completed work will be published and be available on-line in a national database. Ed apprised the Commission of benefits from the Moss Foundation grant which funded an intern last summer. One result of the internship was the development of a low cost, but sturdy box for oversize materials.

The Commission recognized Diane Frese for her efforts in editing the Maryland Manual and compiling The Organization of Maryland State Government. Although the press run of the Manual was reduced from 8000 to 7000 copies, those entitled to receive copies did so.

Ed also mentioned other publications, including the "NHPRC Assessment Report" and the "Guide to Government Records." The popularity of the latter shows that patrons want to know about resources available at the Archives.

Ed reported on the success of the Teachers Institute held last summer. The Archives has applied to NEH to fund a similar institute in 1992. The Maryland History Fellowship is a cooperative venture involving the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland Historical Society, and Maryland State Archives to sponser a graduate student pursuing a topic in Maryland history. Bruce Thompson, this years recipient, is studying civil rights in Baltimore, 1900-1950.

Diane was presented with an award for 20 years of state service.

Chris Allan discussed budget matters including the closeout for FY 91, reductions in FY 92, and status for FY 93.

Ed presented a plan to establish a trust, to be called the Archives Trust of Maryland, to secure funds that will support the Archives. The Commission appointed a subcommittee consisting of Judge Murphy, Comptroller Goldstein, Treasurer Lucille Maurer, and Assistant Attorney General Richard Israel to advise the State Archivist.

The Department of General Services was thanked for replacing the high efficiency air filters.

Vol. 6, No. 3 January 20, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson




Wiccommico Chingamuxen

Pykawaxen Nanjemoy


Source: Margaret B. Klapthor and Paul D. Brown. The History of Charles County, Maryland, p. 9 [MdHR Library REF, A-2-1].


Wiccomaco Cader Point


Source: LAND OFFICE (Rent Rolls) 0 [MSA S 18-2, MdHR 17,609-2, 1-23-5-40].


William & Mary Lower Nanjemy Lower

William & Mary Upper Nanjemy Upper

Portobacco East King & Queen Upper

Portobacco West

Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 23, p. 24.

ca. 1733

Wiccocomico Benedict

Pykawaxon Chingomuxon

Port Tobacco New Port


Source: LAND OFFICE (Rent Rolls) 8, [MSA S 18, MdHR 16,616-2, 1-24-1-2].


Durham Lower William & Mary Upper

Benedict William & Mary Lower

Port Tobacco West Newport East

Port Tobacco East Newport West

Port Tobacco Upper Pomonkey

Port Tobacco Town Bryan Town

Source: CHARLES COUNTY COURT (Census of 1778) X3, pp. 630-640 [MSA C 654, MdHR 8167-2, 1-7-7-27].


William & Mary Upper (First District)

William & Mary Lower (First District)

Newport East (Second District)

Newport West (Second District)

Benedict (Third District)

Bryan Town (Third District)

Port Tobacco Upper (Fourth District)

Port Tobacco East (Fourth District)

Port Tobacco West (Fifth District)

Pomonkey (Fifth District)

Port Tobacco Lower (Sixth District)

Port Tobacco East (Sixth District)

Port Tobacco Town (Sixth District)

Durham Upper (Seventh District)

Durham Lower (Seventh District)

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY, HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Charles County [MSA S 1161-4/6-5/5, 1-4-5-47/48].


For the researcher looking for a list of timber cut from a small portion of Cottingham in Talbot County, we have the answer. In CHANCERY COURT (Chancery Record) 71, pp. 119-190 [MSA S517-83; 1/35/2/21] appears the case of James Dixon and his guardian Samuel Troth vs. William Marsh Catrop. The bill of complaint was filed in 1796 and concerned the boundaries within part of Cottingham. Dixon and Catrop each owned 150 acres. Included in the bill was the chain of title from 1698 to 1796. By the time the case was finally resolved title can be determined through 1809. In 1781 Robert Dixon, the father of James, and Catrop had submitted their boundary dispute to arbitration and agreed to abide by the arbitrators' decision. The plaintiff accused the defendant of continuing to retain, use, and cultivate the part of the land that had been awarded to Dixon and wanted the court to compel Catrop to abide by the agreement.

Four years later testimony was taken concerning the boundary arbitration. After eight more years the Chancellor in 1808 confirmed the award and ordered the defendant to account for the profits derived from using the plaintiff's land. By this time Catrop had died and his heirs became the defendants. In 1809 the court auditor took testimony regarding the illegally obtained profits. Samuel Troth appeared with an itemized list of trees cut by Catrop on the disputed land between 1796 and 1808. The list included each type of tree and its diameter, i.g., popular tree, 1 foot 5 inches. There were 244 trees including popular, ash, gum, sycamore, maple, red oak, white oak, mulberry, cedar, locust, walnut, and hickory. The largest were two red oaks, measuring 3 feet and 7 inches in diameter. The record does not indicate how the former guardian of James Dixon could compile this list of trees with such precision.

The Chancellor ordered the defendants to pay the plaintiff 465 pounds and 15 shillings plus interest for the trees and use of the tillable acreage.

The case papers are found in CHANCERY COURT (Chancery Papers) 1496 [MSA 512-1561; MdHR 17898-1496-1/4; 1/36/1/61].

Vol. 6, No. 4 January 27, 1992


Much of the processing that has occurred in FY92 has focused on subdivision plats. While not included in this report, State & Local Records has started a program of directly accessioning plats as they arrive, rather than logging them into TRANSER. Other ongoing processing projects include the folder level description of the COMPTROLLER (Bounty Papers) [MSA S 627] and the GOVERNOR (Miscellaneous Papers) [MSA S 1274] as well as the accessioning of vital records.



DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE, DIVISION OF VITAL RECORDS (Death Records, Counties) [MSA S 1489] 16 CSE GOVERNOR (General file, Schaefer) [MSA S 1283] 726 CSE GOVERNOR (Miscellaneous Papers) [MSA S 1274] 88

MARYLAND HOUSE OF CORRECTION (Rules Violation, Original) [MSA S 370] 1 CSE

MARYLAND STATE ARCHIVES (Subdivision Plats, SO) [MSA S 1253] 68 CSE

MARYLAND STATE ARCHIVES (Subdivision Plats, QA) [MSA S 1251] 327 CSE





Recently Greg found an index of officeholders in State Publications that was compiled by the State Roads Commission [8000865; 2/9/6/53]. The document is entitled "Alphabetical Index of Proper Names from the 'Maryland Manual' for the years 1959 through 1966 and from the 'Directories of County Officials' for the years 1964 and 1966." Apparently the commission prepared the index as part of an investigation into public officials involved in public road contracts. An accompanying document contains an alphabetical list of individuals and firms involved with state road contracts.

The index of officeholders would be a quick way to check for public officials, especially at the state level, in the 1959 to 1966 period. It is much more comprehensive that the Historical List and encompasses several Maryland Manual indexes in one source. Each entry consists of a name (surname and initials only) and source abbreviation (MM for Maryland Manual and one or two letter designations for counties). A severe drawback to this index is the lack of volume and page references. Thus, if a name is shown as appearing in MM, a research does not know which one and would still have to look in each Manual. If, however, a name did not appear, a person would have eliminated the process of going through several Manual indexes.

Vol. 6, No. 5 February 3, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson




Hermitage Nantecoke

Great Choptank Little Choptank

Fishing Creek

Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 23, p. 24





Source: COUNCIL OF SAFETY (Census of 1776) Dorchester County [MSA S 961-5/7, MdHR 4646-4/6, 1-4-5-56].


Fishing Creek (Lower District)

Hermitage (Lower District)

Straight (Lower District)

Transquakin [Middle District]

Little Choptank [Middle District]

Great Choptank [Upper District]

Nanticoke [Upper District]

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY, HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Dorchester County [MSA S 1161-5/7, MdHR 1161-5/11, 1-4-5-48].

ca. 1689-1829

Great Choptank Hermitage [Armitage]

Nanticoke Straits

Transquaking Cambridge

Fishing Creek Little Choptank

Source: Elias Jones. New Revised History of Dorchester County, pp. 154-155 [MdHR Library REF, A-2-1].


Last week while researching the GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL (Naturalization Oaths), I happened upon an oath written in French. It appears that the oath was written by one of the persons taking the oath rather than the official administering it. The oath reads as follows:

Je Jure que je deviendrai deformair un suject de l'etat de Maryland, et que je tiendrai une fidele et veritable obeijance au it Etat - et que je ne metiens pas obligee a aucune obeijance a aucun Roi ou prince, ou a aucua auta Etat ou gouvernment

Le 17 jbre 1793


B. Bouyer

Pierre Monpoey

W. Vertieres

On another page in the same book, the three confirmed their belief in the Christian religion as follows:

Je declare ma croyance dans la religion Critenne.

GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL (Naturalization Oaths) 1793, pp. 74 and 24 [MSA S1088, MdHR 1379-2, 2/26/5/1]


On the last page of the Bulldog is a copy of a handbill advertising a stallion Pawnee Bill, offered by Daniel W. Townshend of Rutland, MD. This undated document was found in a box of miscellaneous court documents within ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Equity Papers) T71. A notation on the back indicates that the paper was filed in an unspecified court case. If the case was an equity proceeding it did not involve Townshend because his name does not appear in the equity docket index, 1852-1937. Since the Archives has no general index to civil records, I did not try to check this category. Based on the type of paper, other papers in the box, and data shown below, the date of the document should be the late 19th century or early 20th century.

Rutland is an area located near Davidsonville just east of Routes 50 and 424.

From death records, marriage indexes, census records, assessment records, and land records I did compile some biographical information about Townshend. Daniel Webster Townshend was born in Brandywine in PG, on January 7, 1844, the son of George William and Jane Wall Townshend. On January 19, 1875 he and Martha S. Bealle obtained a marriage license in PG. In 1887 he purchased 119 1/2 acres in AA, called Chaneys Resolution in the deed and Springfield in the assessment record. Townshend and his wife were probably living in the county by 1876 because he was assessed for three horses in that year. The census of 1880 did place them in AA and listed Townshend's occupation as farmer. In 1904 his assessment included one stallion. The census of 1900 listed seven children living at home, ranging in age from six to twenty-three. Townshend died of pneumonia on November 29, 1937 at age 93.

Vol. 6, No. 6 February 10, 1992


Patents and Copyright Under Maryland Law

A recent inquiry from a professor at Dublin University who is researching state patent and copyright laws prior to the adoption of the U.S. Constitution led me to review the status of patents and copyrights in Maryland, 1776-1789.

Maryland's Declaration of Rights, adopted on 3 November 1776 as part of the state's constitution-making process, provided in article 2 that "the people of this state ought to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof." This claim of absolute sovereignty within the boundaries of the state appears never to have been exercised in the matter of copyright, but a search of Kilty's Laws reveals three instances where the state sought to encourage inventions by issuing patents. The relevant laws are:

1. Chapter 20, Acts of 1784. James Rumsey, a native of Cecil County, Maryland, granted an ten-year exclusive right to make and sell within Maryland a steamboat he had invented. Rumsey's steamboat was successfully tested on the Potomac River, but he could not secure financing to put the invention into production. He travelled to England in an effort to locate investors and died there. Robert Fulton's later version of the steamboat is therefore generally given credit as the first successful steam-powered watercraft.

2. Chapter 23, Acts of 1786. Robert Lemmon, of Baltimore County, Maryland, granted an exclusive patent for fourteen years to make and market in Maryland two machines he had invented, one for carding wool and the other for spinning it into thread.

3. Chapter 21, April session, Acts of 1787. Oliver Evans, a miller from Newcastle, Delaware, granted an exclusive right for fourteen years to make and market within Maryland "an elevator, a hopper-boy, and a steam carriage." The text of the law explains that these inventions were for use in grain mills: the elevator was used to move grain and ground flour from lower to higher floors; the hopper-boy was used to spread meal on the floor to cool and then to automatically gather it back up and deposit it in the bolting mill; and the steam carriage was used to carry any "burthen without the aid of animal power."

Maryland's encouragement of the endeavors of similarly creative individuals ended with the adoption of the U.S. Constitution, because Article 1, sec. 8, empowered the U.S. Congress "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings [copyright] and Discoveries [patents]."


On the last page of the Bulldog is a copy of another handbill, also found in a box of miscellaneous court documents within ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Equity Papers) T71. Neither side of the document contains enough information to determine the appropriate case citation. But it was filed somewhere in 1886. The handbill is an advertisement for the sale of lots in Brooklyn. I am intrigued that the first benefit cited on the handbill is a free bridge. The rest of the advantages were probably not that unusual for the late 19th century.


Vol. 6, No. 7 February 18, 1992


In January there was a relatively low number of new researchers pursuing nongenealogical topics. Some, however, did concern individuals, specifically Susan Decatur and the Carrolls and Abraham Lincoln.

Land was an important consideration for the study of agriculture in Washington County, land use on the Broadneck Peninsula, and annexation in Baltimore City. Both land and water were featured in the study of Chesapeake Bay fisheries and the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Perhaps related to the bay was the research concerning the Wye Oak.

Topics involving objects included quilts and silver. Broader subjects concerned employment discrimination, psychological institutions, and railroads. One researcher was researching material culture shown through furniture. Another was studying German immigration in the 1840's. Military subjects included the colonial militia and musicians in the Revolution. The origins of Salisbury was the only local history topic.

The most unusual research topic involved medicine, munitions, and metallurgy in the 17th and 18th centuries.


The illustration on the last of the Bulldog can be interpreted as it was intended in 1765 or viewed in a more modern context.

The graphic comes from The History of Maryland Slide Collection [MSA SC 1260-54]. The guide to the collection contains the following description. "The Stamp Tax of 1765 was passed by Parliament nearly six months before it was to go into effect, and colonial hostility proved so strong that by the time of the November deadline, no agents could be found to distribute the tax stamps. In defiance of the law, many newspapers continued to publish, many of them printing instead a 'stamp' which expressed clearly their political position." This 'stamp' appeared in the Maryland Gazette, November 1765.

Vol. 6, No. 8 February 24, 1992


There is a new finding aid for photographic collections in the Primer under PHOTOGRAPHS. It is extensively revised and gives the correct beginning location for all collections in Room 303. All containers in ranges 1 and 2 now have collection and container labels.

The location of many photo collections has shifted in recent weeks, so it is imperative to consult this new list before attempting to retrieve photo collections. The general list of all photo collections on the guide table still has old locations. Nancy will update this as soon as possible. All databases at the item level have correct locations. The information in the Primer is current and correct as of 2/14/92.

Restrictions, if any, are clearly indicated for all photo collections in the new list in the Primer. Item level restrictions for the Merrick Collection (MSA SC 1477) are indicated in a separate binder on the guide table.

Other information in the finding aid includes oversize locations, locations for black and white negatives (do NOT circulate), and locations for color slides. Note that only some items in some collections have negatives and slides. This list simply shows us where to look to see whether negatives and slides exist for a specific image.

The complete and correct title of each collection is also included. This is needed for writing correct citations on PD orders.

This finding aid does not include a description field, so it does not indicate the content of the collections. It is not intended as

a finding aid for patrons, but rather as a help to the reference staff in retrieving photographs, checking restrictions, and writing correct citations.

Another new finding aid for photographs is on the guide table. It has 4X5 inch xerox images from Special Collections 1672 (partial), 1751, 1754 (partial), 1804 (partial), 1936 (partial), 1943 (partial), 2010 (partial), 2305 (partial), 2140 (partial), 2181 (partial), 2238, 2376, 2446, and 2596. Patrons wanting identification, dates, etc. for these collections should consult PHOTOS in Wordcruncher. The exceptions are MSA SC 1672 and MSA SC 2238. The xeroxes for both of these collections are all Annapolis images. No databases have been created for them yet, but the xeroxes are ready, so I am putting them out to give some access to these collections. Patrons may order prints from all of these collections without restrictions.

PHOTOS has been updated in the computer. There are now more than 6,000 photographs in PHOTOS accessioned at the item level. Collections included in PHOTOS are: 182 (partial), 656 (partial), 908 (partial), 985, 1406, 1477, 1751, 1754 (partial), 1804, 1882, 1887, 1890 (partial), 1936, 1943 (partial), 2010 (partial), 2140, 2181 (partial), 2305, 2372, 2376, 2380, 2446, 2557, 2558, and 2596. Please note that for some collections, only a few items of a much larger collection are included in PHOTOS.

Be sure to encourage patrons to search SPECCOL in the computer also. There are many photographs in Room 303 that have not been indexed at the item level. There are extensive descriptions in the SPECCOL database for these collections. Tell patrons to do a combined search on the word "photograph" (or "photographs") and the key word they are researching. In the case of portraits, sometimes only a surname is included in the description, so the collection must be reviewed to see whether the individual they are looking for is included.


SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (DC Department of Corrections Collection) Registry of Runaway Slaves, 1848-1863 [MSA SC 3170, M9597].

The Archives recently received the above record which includes many runaways from Maryland. When a circulation copy is made, the film will be available for use by researchers and staff. In "Runaway Slaves," American Visions, Vol. 6, No. 1, Feb. 1, 1991 John Hope Franklin describes and analyzes the record.

"...Not long ago, some members of the staff of [the District of Columbia Department of Corrections] discovered in the D.C. Correctional Complex, which it operates in Lorton, Va., a 'Registry of Runaway Slaves' covering the period 1848 to 1863. The registry provides the names of the alleged runaways as well as the names of who committed them, how many days they remained in custody, what magistrate remanded them to their owner or claimant, and what their maintenance costs were. The registry reveals that most runaways remained in jail from three days to two weeks, although there were instances in which the runaway was kept for more than a year. With maintenance costs at approximately 75 cents per day, an owner could be expected to pay out as much as $100 or more, although the typical maintenance cost was much lower."

"Finally, the registry yields an assortment of interesting information. A very few alleged slaves were discharged as free persons either because they proved their freedom or because no one claimed them. Some blacks were taken up for 'safekeeping,' presumably on suspicion of having run away, and they were disposed of as runaway slaves. The registry indicates the gender of alleged runaways, with females in the 1850s absconding with about the same frequency as males. Some of the latter were designated as boys, but in the absence of any listing of ages, this could merely indicate a lack of recognition of the manhood of blacks by the recording clerk."

"Clearly, there was a increase in the number of runaways taken up and held in the Lorton jail with every passing year of the 1850s. Perhaps the zeal of owners and their supporters increased and, thus, more runaways were taken up. Perhaps slaves had a greater urge to run away. Perhaps it was some of both. What is important is that sources such as the Lorton Registry of Runaways provide one more way of better understanding the institution of slavery and the willingness of those in bondage to assume the great risk of making a dash for freedom."


Vol. 6, No. 9 March 2, 1992


Wells, Charles J. Maryland and District of Columbia Volunteers in the Mexican War 2-1-6

Peden, Henry C., Jr. Marylanders to Kentucky 1775 - 1825 REF A-3-3

Doliante, Sharon J. Maryland and Virginia Colonials: Genealogies of Some Colonial Families REF C-3-1

Bittinger, Emmert F. Allegheny Passage: Churches and Families, West Marva district, Church of the Brethern 1752 - 1990. 2nd printing REF A-5-1

Wind, James P. Places of Worship: Exploring their History 13-1-1

Fowler, Alice S. Autographs: Verses from New England, Autograph Albums 1825 - 1925, 1st ed. 2-2-2

Smith, Herbert F. Some Descendants of Immigrant Thomas Plummer REF C-1-1

Randers-Pehrson, Nancy and Glenn Robert and Elizabeth (Hamilton) Little Family of Harford County, Maryland REF C-2-4

Patrick, Stephen E. <169>I Would Not Begrudge to Give a few Pounds More<170> Elite Consumer Choices in the Chesapeake, 1720-1785: The Calvert House Ceramic Assemblage ECP

Maryland Municipal League Directory of Maryland Municipal Officials 1989 - 1990 3-4-4

Kanely, Edna Agatha Directory of Ministers and the Maryland Churches They Served 1634-1990, 2 vols. REF A-2-5

Morgan, Ralph H., Jr. Harford County Wills 1774-1800 Harford County, Maryland 3-1-1

Chapman, G. E. Chapman Family Historical Workbook, 2vols. REF C-3-4

Kloman, Erasmus Helm, Jr. Chronicles of a Virginia Family: The Klomans of Warrenton REF C-2-4

Katz, William Loren Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage REF A-5-1

Utley, Robert M. Indians Wars 15-4-2

Johnson, Michael G. American Woodland Indians 15-4-2

Bausell, Patricia M. Bausells, Banners, Freinds and relatives in the Lebanon News, Lebanon, Virginia 1900 through 1910 REF A-3-3

Lankford, Wilmer O. 1733 Tax List Somerset County, Maryland 3-1-1

Johnston, Joyce Maryland REF A-3-2

Camusso, Lorenzo Voyages of Columbus 1492-1504 9-2-5

De Camp, L. Sprague Ancient Engineers 16-4-1

Stein, Charles Francis, Jr. History of the Southern Maryland Society 8-3-5

Crist, Lynda Lasswell Papers of Jefferson Davis, vol. 7 1861 9-3-1

Society of American Archivists Directory of Consultants 1992 3-4-5

Library of Congress Publications in Print 7-3-2

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division Acqusitions 1990 7-2-6

Mudd, Richard D. Dr.Samuel Alexander Mudd and His Descendants, 6th ed. REF C-2-5

Hartstone, Eleanor J. Britten Family Connections: Some Southern Ancestors and Allied Lines REF C-2-3

Vol. 6, No. 10 March 9, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


FREDERICK COUNTY (created (Laws) 1748, chapter 15)


Potomack Lower Mannor

Potomack Upper Pipe Creek

Newfoundland Kittocton

Rock Creek Middle Antietum

Sugarland Marsh

Sugarloaf Salisbury

Linganore Conocochegue

Linton Monococy Lower

Monococy Middle Monococy Upper

Source: FREDERICK COUNTY COURT (Judgment Record) 1748-1750, pp. 20-21 March Court, 1748 [MSA C 810, MdHR 6838, 1-40-7-23].


East Frederick Town Tany Creek

West Frederick Town Pipe Creek

Monococy Middle Westminster

Israels Creek Burnt House Woods

Monococy Upper Unity

Manor Linganore

Toms Creek Sugarloaf

Piney Creek Monococy Lower

Catoctin Lower Catoctin Middle

Catoctin Upper Liberty Town

Berlin Middle Town

Source: FREDERICK COUNTY LEVY COURT (Proceedings) 1795-1799, n. p. May Term, 1797 [MSA C 851, MdHR 19,249, 1-54-10-2].

Vol. 6, No. 11 March 16, 1992


Once again there was a wide variety of research topics being pursued in the search room. Religion was the focus for two patrons. One was studying Quakers in Southern Maryland in the 1850's and their support of African-Americans. Another was concentrating on the 18th century Maryland Catholic community. Other topics pertaining to groups of people included slavery in early America and Maryland watermen. Another maritime related subject involved ships built at Steward's shipyard. One researcher was interested in surface transportation, i.e. roads and highways in Maryland.

Local history topics included Maryland place names in general, founding of Charles County, history of Severn, history of Fells Point, 1890's depression in Baltimore City, early Montgomery County history, naming of Bloody Point, and history of Harford County. One patron was seeking biographical information about Mary Katherine Goddard. Specialized subjects not often encountered included botanical gardens and the history of diet.

Because this is an election year we continue to get requests for campaign finance reports. Perhaps related to this same fact was the search for Maryland voting regulations. Another legal topic involved the history of family law.

Other subjects of research included welfare in Maryland from 1800 to 1850, publishers and booksellers in the 18th and 19th centuries, penitentiary workshops, and forts around the Chesapeake. Finally, there was one individual who wanted the weather forecast for December 3, 1989.


World War II Service Records

The General Assembly in 1991 created a World War II Memorial Commission to design and recommend a site for a monument to those Maryland residents who served and those who died in World War II. The governor recently appointed the members of the Commission, and we were asked to provide information on the number of Maryland participants in the war and the number of casualties.

By Chapter 728, Acts of 1945, the General Assembly authorized the Board of Public Works to "collect, compile, and publish, or make provision for the collection, compilation and publishing of, the records of all residents of Maryland who served in any of the Armed Forces of the United States in the present war or in any of the agencies which were closely affiliated with the said Armed Forces." At its June 1, 1945, meeting, Governor Herbert O'Conor advised the Board of Public Works that he had been in contact with Sen. George L. Radcliffe, president of the Maryland Historical Society, "relative to the work to be done under the supervision of the Maryland Historical Society on the war records which the State will create covering the activities of the citizens of the State during the present war period." The Board referred to its secretary "the matter of working out the details of paying for this work." (BPW Minutes MSA SM 108, pp. 395-96). At its August 20, 1945, meeting, the Board of Public Works approved an annual budget of $22,000 for the project. (Ibid., p.. 427).

Work on the project apparently began at the Maryland Historical Society in 1946. The Maryland Manual, 1945-46, mentions that the project was being directed by Dr. Nelson B. Lasson "under the jurisdiction of the Maryland Historical Society." (p. 52) When the 1948-49 edition of the Manual was compiled, the War Records Division was treated as a separate agency of state government. It had a staff of five, an appropriation for 1948 of $27,000, and was now directed by Harold R. Manakee. The Division's work was described as "securing information regarding the service record of each Maryland resident who was a member of the Armed Forces during the War[and] collecting data concerning the participation of Maryland Industry as well as information about the activities of civic and patriotic groups during the war."

A subtle change in the description of the War Records Division occurred over the years. By the 1965-66 edition of the Maryland Manual, it was described as "the War Records Division of the Maryland Historical Society," created "under delegation of authority from the Board of Public Works." Furthermore, funding for the Division had now been subsumed in an annual state grant of support to the Historical Society. The Division appears to have completed its work in 1966, and funding for the program ceased in 1967.

During its twenty years in existence, the War Records Division's principal task was compiling a service record for every Marylander who could be documented as having served in World War II. Materials collected apparently included copies of official military service records for each Maryland participant. If this is the case, these files may contain copies of information destroyed in the St. Louis federal record center fire in 1972. Lost in that fire were virtually all service records for Army and Air Force personnel who served during World War II.

The results of the War Records Division's labors were published in several volumes, the most important of which are the Gold Star Honor Roll (Baltimore, 1956), which lists those who died, and the five-volume Register of Service Personnel (Baltimore, 1965), which lists every Marylander who served. We have all of these volumes in our library.

No summary number of participants from Maryland appears in the introduction to the five-volume Register, but since 50 names appear on each page it is possible to calculate that 237,192 Marylanders were determined by the War Records Department to have served in the war. The introduction to the Gold Star Honor Roll does provide a summary total: 6,454 Marylanders were determined to have died during the war.

In using these published records compiled by the War Records Department, two points should be kept in mind. First, the dates chosen by the Department as the beginning and ending dates of World War II are September 16, 1940 (when the Selective Training and Service Act went into effect) and December 31, 1946 (when hostilities were formally ended by presidential proclamation [turns out I am a "war baby" after all!]).

Second, the five-volume Register only includes persons in the "regular" services: Army, Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps. The Honor Roll, however, includes a category for persons in the "Allied and Auxiliary Services," mostly U.S. Merchant Marines, but some Red Cross, Canadian Air Force, and other affiliations as well. Therefore, the universe of persons considered for inclusion in the Honor Roll was larger than that used for the Register. As a result, there are people listed in the Honor Roll as having died during World War II for whom there is no service listing in the Register. For example, Anne Kathleen Cullen, an American Red Cross "Clubmobile Operator" from Baltimore City, earned a listing in the Gold Star Honor Roll by getting killed, but her willingness to risk her life as a volunteer "Clubmobile Operator" was not deemed worthy to gain her a service listing in the Register.

When the War Records Department concluded its work, it appears to have been the intent of Harold Manakee to retain the Department's records (nearly a quarter-million service files) at the Historical Society, since he notes in the introduction to the Register that copies of service personnel files could be secured from the Society for a copying charge. In fact, at some later point the records were moved to the War Memorial Building in downtown Baltimore. Built to honor Maryland's World War I dead, the War Memorial Building is currently maintained jointly by the city of Baltimore and the state Department of General Services.

The staff of the War Memorial Commission will provide copies of War Records Department files on Maryland World War II personnel on request. You can either go to the War Memorial Building to request a copy in person, or they will send you a form to complete by mail.

Vol. 6, No. 12 March 23, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


HARFORD COUNTY (created (Laws) 1773, chapter 6)


Broad Creek Bush River Lower

Deer Creek Harford Lower

Spesutia Susquehannah

Source: COUNCIL OF SAFETY (Census of 1776) 1776 [MSA S 961, MdHR 4646-12/17, 1-1-4-29/1-1-5-56]


Broad Creek Gunpowder Upper

Bush River Lower Gunpowder Lower

Bush River Upper Harford Lower

Eden Harford Upper

Deer Creek Lower Spesutia Lower

Deer Creek Middle Spesutia Upper

Deer Creek Upper Susquehannah

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MARYLAND HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 [MSA S 1161-6-1/12, 1-4-5-49]


Found loose in KENT COUNTY COURT (Proceedings) C 1091 was a document listing the "Rules for regulation of the Grand Jury" with the fine for each rule infraction.

1st: The roll to be called each morning of the session of the grand jury on the assembly of the jury in their room. Anyone late ten minutes or more to be fined $.25.

2nd: No witness to be questioned but by the permission of the foreman, penalty of $.10.

3rd: No member to leave the room without the permission of the foreman, penalty of $.25.

4th: Smoking in the grand jury room, fine of $.25.

5th: Profane language, fine of $.25.

6th: Private conversation while a witness is in the room, fine of $.10.

7th: Colts to pay footing [I have no idea what this means], at least $1.00.

8th: Members leaving the room by permission of the foreman not to remain out more than twenty minutes, penalty of $.20.

9th: The foreman leaving the room without appointing a foreman pro tem, fine of $.25.

10th: The foreman shall give notice when the door of the jury room is open by a rap on the table, fine of $.10 if not done.

Any member feeling aggrieved by any fine may appeal to the grand jury and his fine may be remitted by a two thirds vote.


Vol. 6, No. 13 April 6, 1992

TRANSER NOTES Pat Melville and Dean Yates

In the past Ed and Pat attempted several times to locate and transfer to the Archives the police dockets of the Baltimore City Police Department. Last fall one of Greg's students came to class with one of the dockets. Greg persuaded him to give it to the Archives. Later Edna Kanely, then a member of the Search Room Advisory Committee, advised us that she and Diane Stenzel, now a member of the Committee, had retrieved several volumes from one of the district stations. (Finding records for the Archives is not a prerequisite for membership on the Committee). Diane gave the records to us; we in turn filmed them and furnished her with copies so she can transcribe the names. While these transactions were happening, Ed contacted officials in the police department about the possibility of transferring all the dockets to the Archives. That approval was secured and transfer plans were put into effect.

While researching the history of the Maryland National Guard on duty at the Great Fire in 1904, Dean came across several references to persons arrested and taken to Baltimore's Eastern Police Station. Because none of the Eastern District dockets were at the Archives, he arranged through Kevin's contact at the Baltimore Police Property Division, to see the records still held by the Eastern District. On 11 March, he traveled with an officer from police headquarters on E. Fayette Street to the Eastern District station, located on Edison Highway. What Dean discovered was bizarre. Arrest records were shelved in an unlighted, unventilated catacomb, to which one could gain access only through a small metal door built into the back wall of a janitor's closet!

Upon his return to the Archives, Dean reported the situation to Kevin, who promptly arranged to secure the records. On 26 March Kevin, Wilder, and Dean journeyed to the Eastern District to rescue the approximately 300 dockets held in its crypt. They went loaded for bear, bringing gloves, dust masks, a drop light, three sections of roller-conveyors, eight carts, and cameras to record the event for posterity. Kevin volunteered to be the man in the hole and was soon liberating volumes one-by-one (see the pin-up on the lunchroom bulletin board). Their work proceeded quickly. Aided by wide doorways and a convenient ramp, it took only about an hour to load the truck.

State and Local Records has arranged for three more transfers to take place over the next few weeks. The Southeastern, Southern/Western, and Northern Districts are each thought to hold over 300 dockets.

According to the retention schedule prepared in 1968 the police dockets dated from the 1830's through the 1960's. Thus far the earliest records found date from the 1890's into the 20th century.


The Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin, Fall 1991, Vol. 32, No. 4, contains an alphabetical list of Baltimore City birth records, 1865-1894. Mary K. Meyer transcribed these records from a book that was created as a result of a 1865 law that required the recording of births and deaths by clerks of the county circuit courts and the Baltimore City Court of Common Pleas. The Baltimore City record somehow ended up at City Hall where it was found in 1971. A newspaper reporter then took it to the Maryland Historical Society where Ms. Meyer made her transcriptions. After that the book was supposedly sent to the Baltimore City Archives. But as of last year no one had any knowledge of its location.

Like the county records, the Baltimore City birth record probably contains substantially less births than actually occurred. But for the period 1865 to 1874 especially the transcriptions provide another potential source of birth information. Each entry gives the name of the child, sex, race, date of birth, names of the parents, occupation of the father, and date recorded.

Vol. 6, No. 14 April 13, 1992


Fire Protection - Life Safety with the Water Sport Option

The design of sprinkler systems for fire protection has been evolving for a number of years. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) adopted its first standards for installation in 1896, most likely in response to the concerns of insurance underwriters. Although there has been a great deal of practical experience with these systems over the years, librarians and archivists have been skeptical about the amount of damage that could be. Not only do you have the chance to lose a lot of records to fire, what remains will be very wet.

We get a lot of visitors to the Archives who are in some stage of design for a new facility. The topics most often discussed are the shelving and the fire protection system. Considerable concern, and in some instances, downright skepticism of fire protection systems and engineers, is expressed, both by architects and clients. The virtues of wet pipe systems, which we have, dry systems, and Halon as fire suppressants are much debated.

No matter how design professionals and their customers might feel about the fire protection code, in Maryland the State Fire Marshall interprets the code. For all practical purposes their opinion on design is the law. Their approval is required before construction is undertaken. The plans for the Hall of Records were subjected to considerable scrutiny by tha office and the recommendations were for the most part beneficial. For example, the architect, Bruce Rich, was advised by his staff at VVKR that the fire code required installation of rolling metal fire doors behind the stack windows to achieve a two hour separation. The Fire Marshall suggested that a revision to the sprinkler design would provide reasonable protection. Savings amounted to about $250,000.

Early on we were advised to insist that the sprinkler system in the stacks be equipped with on-off heads. This device will discharge when the temperature reaches 130 F and will cease operation as the bi-metal disk cools to 100 F. This seemed at the time to offer the best fire protection for records without the liabilities of a traditional sprinkler which discharges until the water is valved off. The Fire Marshall was amenable and the vendor selected by the mechanical contractor, Ingleside, was Grinnell. Not that there was a great deal of choice in the matter. At that time there were only two manufacturers of this type head. Now there is only one, and it is not Grinnell.

Secure in the knowledge that we had gotten the best advice and that all the disciplines involved were proceeding according to plan we had little reason to inquire further about fire protection. All was well until Ed wandered on the site early on Memorial Day in 1986 to reflect on the beauty of this monument to the history of Maryland in progress. He descended to the lower level and as his foot left the last stair to alight on the landing his pace was dampened by approximately four inches of water. It was only then that we began to understand fire protection as a science, a learning process that continues to this day. (to be continued)


Tisdale, Robert L. Descendants of John Tisdale (1614-1675) Colonial Massachusetts, 1st ed. REF C-1-4

Office of the Congressional Directory 1981 Official Congressional Directory, 97th Congress 2-2-5

Office of the Congressional Directory 1983-1984 Official Congressional Directory, 98th Congress 2-2-5

Kelly, Jacques Bygone Baltimore: A Historical Portrait 10-1-2

Mudd, Rose Marie Krummack From The House of Mudd, Family History through Letters REF C-2-5

U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division Large-Scale Mapping Guidelines ECP

Gillen, Larry Photographs and Maps Go to Court ECP (missing)

Antenucci, John C. Geographic Information Systems: A Guide to the Technology ECP

Payne, Robert History of Islam 12-1-6

Pickthall, Marmaduke Making of the Glorious Koran: An Explanatory Translation 12-1-6

White, Christopher P. Chesapeake Bay: A Field Guide 8-4-3

Oklahoma Department of Libraries Directory of Oklahoma 1985-1986 6-1-2

Information Please Almanac 1986, 39th ed. REF D-2-4

American Library Association Directory of Government Document Collections and Librarians, 6th ed. Shashi

Whitfield, Rita A. Tennessee Blue Book 1973-1974 6-1-6

Whitfield, Rita A. Tennessee Blue Book 1975-1976 6-1-6

Blizzard, Dennis F. Roster of the General Society of the War of 1812 8-2-5

Stenzel, Dianne Genealogical Gleanings Abstracted from the Early Newspapers of Penn Yan, Yates County, New York 1823-1833 and 1841-1855 6-2-6

Ruffner, Kevin C. Border State Warriors: Maryland's Junior Officer Corps in the Union and Confederate Armies (Ph.D. Dissertation, George Washington Univ., 1991) ECP

Jackson, Vern Ronald Maryland 1890 Veterans REF A-2-2

U. S. Department of Interior. National Park Service Held in Trust: Preserving America's Historic Places. National Historic Preservation Act 1966, 25th Anniversary Report 3-4-2

University of Pittsburgh, School of Library and Information Science Archival Administration in Electronic Information age: An Advanced Institute for Government Archivists Tim/Kevin

Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center, University of Oklahoma Extensions, winter 1992 6-1-2

New York State Department of Education, State Archives and Records Administration Guidelines for Arrangement and Description of Archives and Manuscripts 6-2-6

Princeton University Library From Circle to Sphere: Historic Maps Since Columbus: A Catalog of Exhibition Jan. 17 - Apr. 12, 1992 by John Delaney 6-2-5

Kilbourne, John Dwight Short History of the Maryland Line in the Continental Army 8-3-3

National Archives and Records Administration Report to Congress on the Joint Resolution to Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers Tim

Butler, Jean Fuller Old European Progenitors and May Flower and Ancestors of the A.T.F. and Mary Swain Fuller Family REF C-2-1

Whitelock, Nancy R. Croxall Family of Garrison, Baltimore Co., Maryland Restoration of Their Family Cemetery REF C-3-4

Maryland State Archives Rhetoric and Reality: Individual Rights, States Rights, and Civil Rights in Maryland History, 1632-1992: Documents Workshop for Teachers at Maryland State Archives 7-4-1

Kinsey, Margaret B. Ball Cousins: Descendants of John and Sarah Ball and of William and Elizabeth Richards of Colonial Philadelphia Co., Pennsylvania REF C-3-3

Anderson, Irma Ruth M. Blake-Ambrose Family History REF C-3-3


A wide variety of research topics were brought into the search room in March. In broad terms they included military matters, structures, churches, local history, and government history.

Military research involved the Civil War in Southern Maryland, the prisoner-of-war camp at Point Lookout, the Antietam Battlefield, the 6th Maryland Regiment, and the Marine Corps in the Revolution.

Structures being studied included Maryland bridges between 1915 and 1935, Gen. William Hammond Marriott's house, Mattapeake Ferry and Baltimore & Annapolis Railroad, Clifton and other early homes in the Sandy Spring area, Circle Theater in Annapolis, and golf courses in Maryland. One patron was investigating the history of the Episcopal church in Maryland. More specific religious topics included Hunts Memorial Church, St. George's Church (Spesutia), and Johnstown Chapel. Other local history subjects involved Oliver Beach, St. Michael's and Easton for 1850 to 1950, Eastport, theatre in Annapolis in the 18th century, Gambrills, Chesapeake Beach, and Main St. in Annapolis in the 18th century. The role of government figured prominently in several studies which consisted of the civil rights movement in Cambridge and Maryland as a whole, mental health legislation, budget analysis of corrections and state police, Annapolis police department, Article 40 (freedom of the press) of the Maryland Constitution, and capital punishment legislation.

Other research topics included Maryland photographers, women's physical culture for 1880 to 1920, prostitution in Baltimore City in the 19th century, and Nanticoke Indians. Several middle school students were studying slavery in Maryland with emphasis on Howard County.

LOST AND FOUND Michael O'Connor

LOST: A LARGE WOODEN BOX approximately 2' X 2.' The box allegedly contains the COMMISSION ON BANK OF MARYLAND (Proceedings) [MSA S1060]. The key to this box was discovered in State Pubs (2/4/6/?). It's tag reads: "key to large wooden box." If you know where this box is, please report it's location to me.


The following letter was found on page 14 of the GOVERNOR (Letterbook) series, [MSA S1076, MdHR 5210, 2/26/2/34]. It raises many questions concerning J. Thomas Scharf, late 19th century genealogy, and the use of documents held by the Land Office.

[2 March 1889]

Col. J. Thomas Scharf.

Dear Sir:

Governor [Elihu E.] Jackson has requested me to write you in regard to Mr. [William Francis] Cregar, who has informed him that he has received notice from Mr. [George H.?] Shafer that he cannot longer continue his searches of the records in your office- The Governor says he is sorry to hear this, as he considers Mr. Cregar to be a competent and accurate genealogist and that the work he is engaged in, while mainly for his own profit, must [disclose?] many items of importance in State history and is entitled to encouragement- The Governor further says that of late the feeling of all governments is to offer facilities and encourage such investigations, and he is sorry to hear of any attempt in our State to embarrass the same, and that he will take it as a personal favor if you will allow Mr. Cregar to continue his researches subject of course to proper restrictions-

Very resp. &c,

E. W. Le Compte

[Secretary of State]

Cregar compiled two indexes, Index to Maryland Wills [LIBRARY, [3-1-3] and Index to Depositions Recorded in Chancery Records - Maryland, 1668-1790, LIBRARY, [3-1-2].

According to Pat, much of the information contained in the latter index is "erroneous, unclear, or enigmatic" (Archivist Bulldog vol. 3, no. 1, 3 JAN 1989). Perhaps Shafer was doing us a favor by refusing Cregar access to records held by the Land Office. Or, perhaps Shafer was acting on instructions from Scharf who didn't want someone else "invading" his territory.

Vol. 6, No. 15 April 27, 1992


Water, Water Everywhere - Now It's Time To Stop & Think

The lower level lagoon Ed found on Memorial Day 1986 could have been caused by a number of events. At first glance the most likely causes appeared to be a plumbing failure or groundwater intrusion. There is a domestic water system, cooling water for the HVAC, the stormwater system, and a fire protection system associated with the building. All have the potential to fail. In addition, there is substantial groundwater activity about the building.

One of the less conventional features of the Hall of Records is the use of a below grade area for the storage of records. Purists contend that this will ultimately lead to water intrusion. It was a concern we were sensitive to during design and had addressed in the bid documents.

Prior to any sizable construction project, the site is evaluated by a civil engineering concern. Their interests relate to the stability of the soil and the presence of any unusual formations which might disrupt the placement of foundations. As a part of this work, core samples were obtained by drilling at six locations. The findings were used to select the most appropriate method for placing piles that support the structure. The core samples did not indicate any unusual conditions.

The building is erected on a portion of the WBA right of way and was formerly the site of a concrete plant. The tracks were found below grade beneath what is now the registration desk. That they were solidly contained beneath several feet of concrete contributed to additional charges for removal. The discovery of this unexpected site condition prompted the superintendent to request that I take the tracks home for use with our train set. The tracks still run through the patch of woods towards College Greek and the pilings for the trestle are visible at low tide on the point.

One other unexpected condition was first encountered during excavation under what is now Kevin's office. The concrete plant operators had systematically disposed of excess product in the ravine which runs (or used to) between the helipad and the Navy lot towards the firehouse. This is why the patch of woodland towards town will never encroach on the site. The soil by the helipad towards the creek is less than six inches deep in many places.

The contractor had to remove almost 1,000 yards of concrete rubble from the site by the time excavation was complete. As the concrete was hammered out the excavation began filling with water. The best assessment indicated the concrete had effectively blocked a shallow aquifer.

As the cost for excavation went ballistic and the schedule for construction was restrained by delays, the design team developed a solution for the disposal of groundwater. The civil engineer suggested that a drainage system be installed and an extra sump pump be placed in the lower level mechanical room. The drainage system consists of two perforated pipes running from Stair 1 to the mechanical room approximately two feet below the finished floor. These were placed in a layer of crushed rock with filter cloth to strain the fines out of the water. The architect also recommended the installation of a bituminous membrane on the exterior of the foundation walls to further inhibit water intrusion. This measure was incorporated in the work.

All this preamble is meant to inform the reader of the range of potential water problems that could explain the flood discovered in 1986. It also explains why Ed was so incredulous to find that a sprinkler head was leaking at what we now denominate as 00/10/5. After all, the assurances that had been made about the integrity of the sprinkler system specified that this failure was not only unexpected but incomprehensible. (To be continued.)



I attended a workshop, "TERMINAL FITNESS: Working Safely With Video Display Terminals," on Wednesday, April 14, 1992. The workshop was presented by the State Employees Risk Management Administration to provide VDT operators with information on the most comfortable arrangements for long-term periods at computer terminals.


They began by introducing the term ergonomics, which means a study of adapting the work place to the worker.

Proper equipment and its positioning are important. Adjustable desks and chairs are considered the most ideal because they are likely to be used by any number of people of varying sizes. State Use Industries is a good place to look for furniture (use their catalog).

Four major considerations for evaluating a work station are the effect on vision, proper lighting, work station design, and body movement.

Recommendations of State Employees Risk Management Administration

The PC screen should be located so that you look downward, much as you do when reading.

The top of the screen should be located from eye level to approximately 60 degrees below eye level. You should always be able to look down at the screen, not up. This should prevent neck strain and fatigue. The distance of the screen from the eyes should range from 20 to 28 inches.

The terminal itself will not make your vision go bad. Its extended use will bring out any existing vision problems. Extended use may result in eyestrain which can be relieved by practicing some simple eye exercises and by resting the eyes.

Assurance was given that there is no ultraviolet radiation from a VDT. Any ultraviolet radiation would come from lighting fixtures. Although ELF (extra low frequency) radiation exists, it diminishes to nothing after two feet. Research into the possible effects of this radiation is continuing.

Locate and use the contrast knobs on your screen terminal. The contrast of the screen should be comfortable for you, the user.

Don't forget to blink when composing on-screen. Eye itching and burning are the result of forgetting to blink when you are using the screen and not from something the screen is doing to you.

Adjust lighting to reduce glare. Tilt screen when lighting can't be changed. Screen should be perpendicular to the windows. You should not be facing, nor should you have your back to a window. When possible, cut back the amount of light by turning off overhead lights that are not needed. In areas so equipped, turn off half of the florescent light tubes.

Use nonreflective surfaces and walls where equipment is located. If necessary, use a filter to eliminate glare that can't otherwise be eliminated.

Clean the surface of the screen periodically with an anti-static fluid (an old antistatic sheet from your laundry dryer is good for this purpose; its perfume odor is diminished and it has been found to work well).

Keep wrists straight to avoid wrist fatigue. This practice and periodic exercises to relax the wrists help minimize fatigue and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Change work station around periodically. Vary your tasks. Perform recommended work station exercises. When you feel tired, take a break.

Vol. 6, No. 16 May 4, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


KENT COUNTY (in existence by 1642)


Town Island

Chester River Lower Eastern Neck

Langfords Bay Lower Chester Upper

Swann Creek

Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 23, p. 25; see also William R. Howell, The Government of Kent County, Maryland: Historical and Descriptive, pp. 1-17 [MdHR Library 1074, 10-3-2].


Lower Langford Bay (First District)

Eastern Neck (First District)

Chestertown (Second District)

Upper Langford Bay (Second District)

Chester (Third District)

Worten (Third District)

Morgans Creek (Fourth District)

Lower South Sassafras (Fourth District)

(Fifth District)

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY, HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Kent County [MSA S1161, MdHR 1161-7-1/10, 1-4-5-50].


Eastern Neck (First District)

Lower Langfords Bay (First District)

Upper Langfords Bay (Second District)

Chester Town (Second District)

Worton (Third District)

Chester (Third District)

Morgan Creek (Fourth District)

Lower South Sassafras (Fourth District)

Upper South Sassafras (Fifth District)

George Town (Fifth District)

Chappel (Fifth District)

Source: KENT COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF THE TAX (Proceedings) 1786-1797, p. 1 [MSA C1092, MdHR 16,637, 1-15-4-24].

Vol. 6, No. 17 May 11, 1992


The majority of new researchers in April were looking for genealogical information and court documents. Among other records being sought were the mortality books of cabinetmaker William King.

Environment related topics included water and sewer systems in Maryland, general bay studies, and hydrographic surveys. Civil war subjects involved confederate flags and the Baltimore riots on April 19, 1961. Another researcher was studying anti-slavery activity in Maryland in the 19th century.

Local historical studies included Eastport School, Eastport community, school house in St. Indigoes, current Annapolis population and income data, and African-Americans in Calvert County. Students from law enforcement classes were researching the Patuxent Institute, Maryland Correctional Institution for Women, and DC Youth Center.

One on our most popular topics was being investigated again - movie censorship. Some of us have the transer number memorized by now. The most unusual subject was the study of haunting events in haunted houses.


In the October term 1829 of the Frederick County Court Robert Chapman was indicted on three counts of passing counterfeit bills. On November 7 he was arraigned and pled not guilty. He was found not guilty on one count and guilty on two counts. The judge sentenced Chapman to a total of 10 years in prison with 10 months in solitary confinement. Appearing in the case file is one of the counterfeit bills and a drawing of the bill. (See copies at the end of the newsletter.)

This document was brought to my attention by a researcher who is studying the criminal justice system in Frederick County. The case file has been accessioned in FREDERICK COUNTY COURT (Court Papers) C 773-34; l/41/8/44.

Vol. 6, No. 18 May 18, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


MONTGOMERY COUNTY (created by resolve of the Constitutional Convention of 1776)


Linganore Sugar Loaf

Lower Newfoundland Sugarland

Upper Newfoundland Seneca

Lower Potomac Rock Creek

Middle Potomac Georgetown

Upper Potomac North West

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Montgomery County [MSA S 1161-8-1/8, 1-4-5-51]

1793 - 1797

George Town (First District)

Lower Potomack (First District)

Middle Potomack (First District)

Upper Potomack (Second District)

Sugarland (Second District)

Linganore (Third District)

Sugar Loaf (Third District)

Upper Newfoundland (Fourth District)

Seneca (Fourth District)

Lower Newfoundland (Fifth District)

Rock Creek (Fifth District)

North West (Fifth District)

Source: MONTGOMERY COUNTY COMMISSIONERS OF THE TAX (Assessment Record) 1793 - 1797, pp. 1-2, 31-32, 65-66, 89-90, 109-110 1793 [MSA C 1110, MdHR 20,115-1-1, 1-18-14-17]


Laws of Genealogy [Quoted in a paper submitted by one of my students]

The document containing evidence of the missing link in your research invariably will be lost due to fire, flood or war.

The keeper of the vital records you need will just have been insulted by another genealogist.

Your great, great grandfather's obituary states that he died, leaving no issue of record.

The town clerk you wrote to in desperation, and finally convinced to give you the information you need, can't write legibly and doesn't have a copying machine.

The will you need is in the safe on board the "Titanic."

The spelling of your European ancestor's name bears no relationship to its current spelling or pronunciation.

That ancient photograph of four relatives, one of whom is your progenitor, carries the names of the other three.

Copies of old newspapers have holes which occur only on last names.

No one in your family tree ever did anything noteworthy, always rented property, was never sued, and was never named in wills.

You learned that your great aunt Matilda's executor just sold her life's collection of family genealogical materials to a flea market dealer "somewhere in New York City."

Yours is the only last name not found among the 3 billion in the world-famous Mormon Archives in Salt Lake City.

In fades and paper deteriorates at a rate inversely proportional to the value of the data recorded.

The 37-volume, sixteen-thousand-page history of your county of origin, isn't indexed.

The critical link in your family tree is named "Smith."

Vol. 6, No. 20 June 8, 1992


Among the researchers in the search room in May were those studying groups of people, including American women silversmiths and Maryland Germans and capitalism. Another student was investigating sheriffs and local government in colonial Maryland. Someone else was searching for slave narratives. Educational topics included academies in Maryland and school charters.

Locally oriented subjects encompassed St. Mary's Hundred in 1798, Anne Arundel County, Church Circle and State Circle in Annapolis, Greenbury Point, historic buildings in Annapolis, and tobacco industry in Southern Maryland. Several teachers used the Archives to locate documents for use in the teaching of the Civil War. Another researcher was seeking information about Indians in the Civil War. World War II was the only other military related topic.

Miscellaneous subjects included the history of the state song "Maryland, My Maryland," Maryland housing stock in 1800, sexual identities and sexual rights in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, state holidays, and oysters bars (the underwater variety I assume).

Vol. 6, No. 19 June 1, 1992


In the early 1970's the Archives (then the Hall of Records) faced a space problem in its stacks. There was very little room left for more records and an increasing number of government officials, especially circuit court clerks, were beginning to realize that they could no longer adequately house their older files. Over time Ed, first as Assistant State Archivist and then State Archivist, and I developed and implemented a plan to pack, inventory, and store large quantities of mostly county and Baltimore City records.

The clerk or register of wills and Ed or I would determine which records should be transferred to the Archives. Quite often it was as simple as the agency wanting to empty out a storage room or office by sending permanent records to us and destroying the disposable materials. We decided very quickly that trying to rearrange records into their original order (chronological, numerical, etc.) would not work well because of sometimes chaotic storage conditions. Instead the records would be boxed and inventoried as found. The labor force usually consisted of myself as supervisor and students hired by the court. For inventory control and ease of marking boxes and volumes we devised a nine digit coding system at the series level. The first set of three numbers designated the jurisdiction such as Baltimore City, the second set the office such as the Superior Court, and the third set the series. We used the Historical Records Survey files to determine the series numbers. These files were also useful for identifying and describing records that we should and might encounter.

The Archives' space problems were solved by arranging to store the records in the state record center, first in Jessup and then in Cheltenham. We used several methods of transporting the records to these warehouses including vans and staff from Records Management and the Archives and rental trucks driven by the same staff.

Many of us have fond memories of shelving records in and providing reference from the tobacco warehouse in Cheltenham.

The first tests of the inventory and transfer system occurred with records of the Baltimore City courts. Most were stored in the basement of the courthouse, a dungeon-like area littered with catacombs filled with files and books. Some rooms had been used for the storage of coal in the past and not thoroughly cleaned before records were put there. Most of the coal dust dissipated as the records were packed and moved. But some files retain a black veneer that rubs off easily onto skin and clothes.

Another unusual feature of the courthouse basement was the loading area. One could drive a car or van into the basement through a narrow, steep passage with a sharp turn at the bottom. There was room to park four vehicles; but the first one out faced the challenge of getting the car or van facing forward to drive out. There were pillars to dodge and it was impossible to back up the ramp. The state van accumulated many scratches from the brick walls. For loading and unloading a larger vehicle could be backed onto the ramp until it was stopped by the ceiling.

[In the next installment I will discussed highlights of individual inventory and transfer projects in Baltimore City.]


Power to the Printers?

If your laser printer is not in use for most of the day or is used only during certain times of the day, please turn the printer off. Not only will this extend the life of the printer and reduce the number of costly repairs required, it will save a considerable amount of electricity (about 600-800 watts per printer!). This is not intended to inconvenience anyone. By all means, if your printer is in constant use throughout the day, leave it on. If you do not use your printer for most of the day, turn it off.

Vol. 6, No. 21 June 15, 1992


Gray Market Films

Professional and amateur photographers in the United States take a great risk in using gray market films. These films may not meet their needs for optimum quality and consistency of key film characteristics including speed, contrast, and color balance. Gray market films enter the U.S. from foreign sources through uncontrolled distribution channels. As a result, these films may not have received the careful handling and storage that is a primary feature of professional films distributed around the world through authorized distribution channels.

Gray marketing generally results from fluctuations in currency values, pricing differences, special promotions and other needs in individual markets, out of date film, fire loss, and misrepresentation of the warranty.

Professional films are close to optimum color balance when they are manufactured and packaged. The film will stay near this balance when it is stored around 55F (13C) or lower (under refrigeration) and processed as soon as possible after exposure and before the expiration date printed on the film carton. Store your unused film in your refrigerator (not freezer) and take out and let set for two hours before using in your camera.

Heat and high temperature cause damage throughout the balance of the film life. Poor transit or storage conditions result in premature aging of film so that the expiration dating is no longer an indicator of product acceptability. With all products excessively high temperature can result in physical damage including emulsion pick off, backing paper transfer, orange-peel effect, and film sticking in a roll.

Take care of your film and camera. Never put rolls of film or camera on the dash board or seats in the sun. If you are traveling, on a picnic, or boating, keep your film (not camera) stored in your ice chest. Wrap in a piece of newspaper and let it sit on top of the ice. The newspaper will absorb the moisture. After exposing the film, have it processed as soon as possible.

Photographers may not easily be able to identify gray market film. The best ways to avoid such films is to purchase your film from your local suppliers, check the expiration date on the box when buying the film, and never purchase film having low price, fast developing specials.

Buy your film before you travel and most times you will be free of gray market films.

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY (created (Laws) 1695, chapter 13)


Mattapany Mount Calvert

Petuxant Piscattoway

Collington New Scotland

Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 23, p. 23; see also Louise Joyner Hienton, Prince George's Heritage, pp. 1-10 [MdHR Library 1076, 10-3-5] and R. Lee Van Horn, Out of the Past: Prince Georgeans and Their Land, pp. 35-45 [MdHR Library 1076, 10-3-5].


Mount Calvert New Scotland

Patuxent Rock Creek

Collington Mattapony

Piscattaway West Branch

Source: MARYLAND STATE PAPERS (Black Books) 10, pp. 7-14 [MSA S 987-17, MdHR 4365, 1-6-3-31].


Mount Calvert Rock Creek

Patuxent Mattapany

Collin Western Branch

Upper Piscattaway Eastern Branch

Lower Piscattaway Monocasie

New Scotland Potowmack

Source: MARYLAND STATE PAPERS (Black Books) 2, pp. 110-124 [MSA S 987-3, MdHR 4621, 1-6-3-17].


New Scotland Western Branch

Patuxent Mount Calvert

Rock Creek Collington

Eastern Branch Piscattaway

Marlbrough King George

Bladensburgh Prince Frederick

Source: PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY COURT (Levy Book) B, pp. 2. 16 [MSA C 1245, MdHR 6178-1, 1-30-10-34].


Upper Marlbrough New Scotland

Charlote Oxon

Mount Calvert Bladensburgh

Mattapany Horsepen

Washington [City] Patuxent

Prince Frederick Eastern Branch

King George Collington

Grubb Western Branch

Piscattaway Rock Creek


Source: PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY COMISSIONERS OF THE TAX (Assessment Papers) 1786 [MSA C 1159, MdHR 40,220-5, 1-21-10-11].

RESEARCH NOTES Shirley Bodziak

Occasionally we get calls at the Archives regarding corporations, i.e. names, charter dates, etc. I found through some investigation that there is a corporation information line for the state of Maryland. The number is 800-962-7010 or 410-225-1330.

Vol. 6, No. 22 June 22, 1992


The last article outlined the procedure for the inventory and transfer of large quantities of records, that was developed in the mid-1970's. The labor pool usually consisted of an Archives' staff person and students hired by the agency. Within a three year period, 1974 to 1977, the Archives inventoried and transferred about 9000 cu. ft. of material from the Baltimore City courts. The general working conditions were described previously. However, not all records were located in the basement. Some were found in the offices and upper level storage areas. In this and subsequent articles I will concentrate on the interesting challenges and unique discoveries encountered during inventory and transfer projects in the Baltimore City courthouse. The first test of the inventory and transfer procedures with the records of the Superior Court ran fairly smoothly.

The second attempt with the records of Circuit Court No. 2 did not proceed as smoothly. The overall atmosphere of the office was clouded by malfeasance charges against the clerk. Employees were taking sides, concerned about who was talking, and apprehensive about their jobs. The students hired to work with me picked up these tensions and involved themselves in the office politics to the point where two of them could not work together. One day they even got into a fist fight. Interference from the regular staff caused additional tensions and extra work.

Hundreds of loose case files were lying around because few people bothered to refile them. We boxed the files as found, but had to inventory each file number.

The ultimate test of my ability to withstand mental stress occurred on a Friday, on what was anticipated to be the last day of inventorying. A fairly large quantity of records remained to be transferred, including a small room filled from top to bottom with about 400 boxes. Above this room was a holding area for juveniles. Just after we quit work on Thursday one of these individuals tore out some plumbing in the bathroom. The water entered that small storage room in the basement and poured into the hallway where more records were being temporarily stored. The water was shut off, but the records were allowed to sit in water overnight. The cleanup, drying, reboxing, and reinventorying extended over four days. Fortunately the boxes in the small room were so tightly packed that the containers in the middle were unaffected.

When the project was completed, the Archives became the depository of over 1700 cu. ft. of permanently valuable equity papers. We found several interesting exhibits, mostly photographs. One exhibit is still fascinating. Two Baltimore firms were manufacturing ice cream biscuits, rectangular containers that were forerunners of the current round cake cones. The firms were disputing exclusive manufacturing rights in 1927. In 1977 we found one of the exhibits, a box of biscuits in perfect condition. The Archives has retained this document ever since, except when it was on exhibit at the Baltimore Museum of Industry.


On the last page of this newsletter is a copy of a flyer concerning a trip around the world. It was found by Beverly in a church record recently loaned to the Archives for filming. [MSA SC 1630].

Vol. 6, No. 23 June 29, 1992


This article continues the saga of record transfers from the Baltimore City courthouse.

During the summer of 1976 the records of the Court of Common Pleas and Register of Wills were inventoried and transferred; a total of 1381 cu. ft. Prior to that time there had been leaking water pipe problems in one of the basement storage rooms used by the Court of Common Pleas. Most of the files were stored in metal cabinets covered with plastic and thus remained dry. Some of the cabinet drawers had rusted shut. We solved that problem by using crowbars.

The metal cabinets mentioned above are not the same file cabinets we use today for flat filing of letter and legal size papers. Clerks and registers throughout Maryland used large cabinets for storing folded documents. Each drawer in a cabinet measured about 9" high, 5" wide, and 15" long. Some cabinets were built into or anchored onto walls and others were placed loosely in storage areas. The Baltimore City Register of Wills had one room filled with these cabinets to the top of the 14' ceiling. One gained access to the upper files by climbing a ladder that moved along a track built into the ceiling. We began the boxing of these files by carefully carrying each drawer down the ladder and taking the empty one back up. The students quickly abandoned this practice and used a system of dropping the documents to the person packing the box. This method usually worked well because most papers were tied into bundles. Loose papers were carried down. As might be expected, some bundles did break. At that point we simply retied the papers.

This room with the high cabinets apparently had been used for purposes other that the storage of records. A few drawers contained empty whiskey bottles behind the documents. One day I discovered the students huddled behind a door looking at something with great interest. They had found a deck of pornographic playing cards.

Vol. 6, No. 25 July 27, 1992


The previous issue should have been numbered

Vol. 6, No. 24.




Chapter 5, Acts of 1992 (SB 101, Chair, Judiciary Proc. Committee - Dept.)

Records - Evidence (optical imagery)

Chapter 6, Acts of 1992 (SB 103, Chair, Judiciary Proc. Committee - Dept.)

Criminal Law - Trespass (Governor's Mansion)

Chapter 22, Acts of 1992 (SB266, Sen. Pres., Dept. of Leg. Ref.)

Annual Corrective Bill

pp. 863-864 Archives address corrected

p. 981 Archives code citation corrected

Chapter 49, Acts of 1992 (HB 317, Chair, Ways & Means Comm. - Dept.)

DHCD - Historical & Cultural Museum Assistance Program - Eligibility

Chapter 100, Acts of 1992 (SB 702, Sen. Baker)

Access to Public Records

(police reports of traffic accidents; traffic citations)

Chapter 122, Acts of 1992 (HB 197, Chair, Env. Matters Comm. - Dept.)

Health Occupations - Destruction of Medical Records

Chapter 131, Acts of 1992 (HB 219, Del. Dixon)

Pensions & Retirement

Chapter 157, Acts of 1992 (HB 429, Montgomery Co. Delegation)

Montgomery County - Public Libraries - Video Rentals

(fees for rentals)

Chapter 183, Acts of 1992 (HB 717, Del. Frosh, Del. Heller)

Local Health Depts. - Death Certificates - Fees

(not to exceed actual costs)

Chapter 199, Acts of 1992 (HB 1414, Del. Masters)

Baltimore Co. Land Recordation - Indexes - Required Information

Chapter 250, Acts of 1992 (SB 391, Sen. Pres.)

Appearance Fees (to fund county law libraries)

Chapter 291, Acts of 1992 (HB 167, Del. Franks)

Appearance Fees (for law library fund to purchase & maintain legal publications & equipment)

Chapter 338, Acts of 1992 (HB 646, Del. Harkins)

Vehicle Law - Computer Printouts - Admissibility in Judicial Proceedings

Chapter 490, Acts of 1992 (SB 550, Sen. Winegrad)

State Buildings - Energy Conservation

Chapter 570, Acts of 1992 (HB 905, PG & MO Delegations)

MNCPPC & PG Co. - custody of records in zoning map amendment cases - availability to public

Chapter 625, Acts of 1992 (HB 1450, Del. Bell)

County records - Foreclosure sales & foreclosure of right of redemption

Chapter 630, Acts of 1992 (HB 1538, Del. Vallario et al.)

Automated Mapping - Geographic Information Systems

Chapter 643, Acts of 1992 (HB 937, PG & MO Delegations)

Montgomery County Planning Board & historic preservation grants

Chapter 645, Acts of 1992 (HB 1081, Chair, Const. & Admin. Law Committee - Dept.)

DHCD, Maryland Historical Trust - transfer of human remains


(effective 1 July 1992)

Chapter 208, Acts of 1992

New Community College of Baltimore renamed Baltimore City Community College

Chapter 412, Acts of 1992

DEED, Governor's Employment & Training Council renamed Work Force Investment Board

(effective 1 Oct. 1992)

Chapter 8, Acts of 1992

DJS Boys' Village of Maryland renamed Cheltenham Youth Facility

Chapter 42, Acts of 1992

SDOE Division of Vocational Rehabilitation renamed Division of Rehabilitation Services

Chapter 71, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Commission on Hereditary and Congenital Disorders renamed State Advisory Council on Hereditary and Congenital Disorders

Chapter 71, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Commission on High Blood Pressure and Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors renamed State Advisory Council on High Blood Pressure and Related Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Chapter 71, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Commission on Physical Fitness renamed State Advisory Council on Physical Fitness

Chapter 71, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Commission on Arthritis and Related Diseases renamed State Advisory Council on Arthritis and Related Diseases

Chapter 270, Acts of 1992

DHCD Commission on Afro-American History and Culture renamed Commission on African American History and Culture

Chapter 326, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Board of Examiners for Audiologists renamed State Board of Examiners for Audiologists, Hearing Aid Dealers, and Speech-Language Pathologists


(effective 1 July 1992)

Chapter 248, Acts of 1992

DHMH Montebello Center transferred to University of Maryland Medical System Corporation

Chapter 598, Acts of 1992

General Assembly, Department of Fiscal Services restructured: Division of Budget Review abolished; Division of Fiscal Research abolished; Division of Audits renamed as Office of Legislative Audits

(effective 1 Oct. 1992)

Chapter 165, Acts of 1992

Attendant Care Program transferred from SDOE Division of Vocational Rehabilitation [Rehabilitation Services] to DHR

Chapter 169, Acts of 1992

Domestic Relations Division of Baltimore City Circuit Court and Collateral Nonsupport Unit of Baltimore City State's Attorney transferred to DHR Child Support Enforcement Administration

Chapter 182, Acts of 1992

DPSCS Patuxent Institution placed under Division of Correction and only for funding educational programs under jurisdiction of Education Coordinating Council for Correctional Institutions

Chapter 270, Acts of 1992

Victim Services Program of Attorney General's Office transferred to Office of Justice Administration


(effective 5 May 1992)

Chapter 197, Acts of 1992

DOE Controlled Hazardous Substances Task Force created

(effective 1 June 1992)

Chapter 395, Acts of 1992

General Assembly Joint Committee on Health Care Delivery and Financing created

(effective 1 July 1992)

Chapter 137, Acts of 1992

DAG Nutrient Management Advisory Committee created

(effective 1 Oct. 1992)

Chapter 165, Acts of 1992

DHR Attendant Care Program Advisory Committee created

Chapter 265, Acts of 1992

DHCD Maryland Affordable Housing Trust created and Board of Trustees created

Chapter 385, Acts of 1992

DHMH Bottled Water Advisory Committee created

Chapter 406, Acts of 1992

Lead Paint Poisoning Commission created

Chapter 437, Acts of 1992

Economic Growth, Resource Protection, & Planning Commission created within Office of Planning

Chapter 493, Acts of 1992

Board of Trustees of the Maryland School for the Deaf created

(effective 1 Jan. 1993)

Chapter 649, Acts of 1992

State Board of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, & Refrigeration Contractors created


(effective 7 April 1992)

Chapter 60, Acts of 1992

Baltimore Convention Center Authority abolished

(effective 1 June 1992)

Chapter 395, Acts of 1992

General Assembly Joint Committee on Health Care Cost Containment abolished

(effective 1 July 1992)

Chapter 12, Acts of 1992

DPSCS Advisory Board for Correction, Parole & Probation abolished

Chapter 17, Acts of 1992

DHMH Hospital Licensing Advisory Board abolished

Chapter 29, Acts of 1992

DAG Maryland Wholesome Meat Advisory Council abolished

Chapter 127, Acts of 1992

DOT State Railroad Administration abolished; functions transferred to Mass Transit Admin.

Chapter 201, Acts of 1992

Baltimore Regional Council of Governments abolished; Baltimore Metropolitan Council (not a State agency) created, will assume assets of Regional Council

Chapter 227, Acts of 1992

DHCD Maryland Ethnic Heritage Commission abolished

Chapter 395, Acts of 1992

General Assembly Joint Committee on the Medical Assistance Program abolished

(effective 1 Oct. 1992)

Chapter 326, Acts of 1992

DHMH State Board of Examiners for Speech-Language Pathologists abolished

Chapter 326, Acts of 1992

DLR State Board of Examiners for Hearing Aid Dealers abolished

Chapter 493, Acts of 1992

Board of Visitors of the Maryland School for the Deaf abolished


Several researchers in June were studying localities throughout Maryland including Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Mt. Clare, Queen Anne's County from 1900 to 1930, Second Presbyterian Church in BC, historical properties in PG, Highland Beach, colonial Annapolis, and Patapsco Female Institute. Economic topics encompassed ground rents in Baltimore, economy of the Confederate states, and early state financial records. Political subjects included the first Democratic National Convention in 1832 and voting and party affiliation in Baltimore from 1936 to 1960. Population groups being studied consisted of African Americans in Annapolis, Germans in the 1780's, and colonial Baptists. Biographical information was sought about George Armwood, a lynching victim in 1933, and William Paca.

Other subjects included the documentary history of the U.S. Supreme Court for 1789 to 1800, Revolution and War of 1812 in Baltimore, and skipjacks.

At the end of the month fifteen teachers began a three-week institute on the use of original records in history and social studies classes. The teachers conducted research on Civil War soldiers using original records and document packets prepared by the Archives.

Two more topics are worth noting - ghosts in a house (the researcher's own home) and how to file a claim for precious metals.


The delegates and staff of the Constitutional Convention of 1967 found themselves laboring under a heavy workload and severe time constraints. After putting in astonishing amounts of unpaid overtime and enduring numerous canceled holidays, the long-suffering conventioneers began to circulate memoranda and proposals for constitutional articles as comic relief. Some of these were preserved by the convention historian in his general file [MSA S870, 1/33/2/49], including the following proposal for the legislature.

A Proposal that there shall be a bifurcated, dichotomous legislature, the upper bifurc or dichot of which shall be known as the Senate, and the lower bifurc or dichot of which shall be known as the Residue; that each of such bifurcs or dichots shall be apportioned on the basis of the last preceding decennial census, extrapolated over the ensuing quadrennium, adjusted to reflect expected in and out migration of population, the Commissioners of Standard Ordinary Mortality Tables and anticipated industrial plant closings and openings; that the membership of each of such bifurcs or dichots shall be composed solely of eximious demys chosen from among hebdomadal perscrutators of the lexicon, on nominations by a blue-ribbon commission of pseudo or quasi intellectuals, who shall further allocate such members between the said bifurcations in such manner that the Senate shall contain such members, not to exceed one-fourth of the whole, as shall be deemed most apt to paralogize in a pellucent manner but no one shall be eligible to serve in the Residue who shall not be intuent or likely to lucubrate in a manner premiating to the welfare of the general public; that districts shall be comprised of compact, contiguous, concurrent, concrete and congenial territory, substantially equal in population (substantially equal shall be defined as within a variant of a logarithmic equivalent of the cosine of two one-hundredths of one per cent of the extrapolated population of persons over 19 1/2 years of age not residing on military enclaves within such district, adjusted as heretofore required) and each of which shall contain not less than one major autonomous or quasi-autonomous educational institution, the political science faculty of which shall constitute the nominating commission for such district; that no person shall be permitted to serve in both bifurcations, except schizophrenics, who shall be eligible to serve in both upper and lower bifurcations simultaneously; provided however that non-identical twins resulting from artificial insemination shall not be considered to be one person, but shall be deemed dichotomous.

For those of you who were counting, yes, the proposal is just one sentence.

Vol. 6, No. 26 August 3, 1992


The Hall of Records Commission met in the Archives's Conference Room at noon on Monday, July 27, for one of its four annual meetings. The Hall of Records Commission, established in 1935, is an advisory body that reviews and comments on Archives's programs, publications, and proposed budget submissions. The eleven-member body consists of the State Comptroller, State Treasurer, secretary of General Services, president of the Maryland Historical Society, the chancellor of the University of Maryland System, the presidents of The Johns Hopkins University, St. John's College, and Morgan State University, a member of the Maryland Senate, a member of the House of Delegates, and the chief judge of the Court of Appeals, who serves as chairperson. At Monday's meeting, General Orwin Talbott, chair of the Archives Trust of Maryland (ATOM), attended as a guest.

The Commission carries on its agenda under "old business" the old Hall of Records Buildings and the Baltimore City Archives, and both topics were reviewed at Monday's meeting. The Commission has an abiding interest in the old Hall of Records Building, especially with regard to its historical significance and architectural integrity. The Baltimore City Archives is also a continuing matter of concern because the City's financial woes have in the past threatened the agency.

If the City Archives were to fold, the State Archives would have the legal obligation to ensure protection of its collections.

State Archivist Ed Papenfuse reported to the Commission on his participation in a National Association of Government Archivists and Records Administrators (NAGARA) conference that focused on the new National Archives Building (Archives II). He chaired a session at the conference and participated in a tour of Archives II, which includes several features first used in our own building. Dr. George Callcott mentioned that Archives II will be the second largest federal facility in the Washington, D.C., area, second only to the Pentagon.

Dr. Papenfuse reviewed acquisitions received since the last Commission meeting, highlighting the Baltimore City Police dockets, the A. Roe Preston Collection of materials relating to the reinterment of John Paul Jones, the Voss Family Papers relating to the Civil War, the Chatelaine Papers, and the Gutman Collection of travel books and Marylandia.

Dr. Papenfuse briefed the Commission on the Archives's Volunteer Program and noted what a success it had been to date. Mame Warren's ongoing program using volunteers to accession historical photographs has recently been augmented by the new search room volunteer program. Participants in these programs, as well as volunteers working on other projects, have rendered valuable service, helping the Archives provide an acceptable level of service in the face of severe budget and personnel cutbacks.

Dr. Papenfuse reviewed progress on the newspaper microfilming project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the state records series description project, funded with a grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, and the new NEH preservation grant received by Johns Hopkins, which Doug McElrath of our staff will direct. He pointed out that these grants have enabled the Archives to accomplish important work and to preserve staff positions that otherwise would have been lost due to the state's budget problems.

Dr. Papenfuse reported on the status of the new edition of Organization of Maryland State Government, which is due out in September 1992, and the new edition of the Maryland Manual, which will appear early next year. Both publications are edited by Diane Frese. He also noted publication of the revised edition of the Guide to Public Records.

Dr. Papenfuse reviewed the exhibit and outreach activities undertaken since the last Commission meeting. He suggested that Commission members look at the two exhibits in the search room, one concerning Puritan settlement in the Annapolis area in the mid-seventeenth century and the other focusing on Maryland-born African American soldiers in the Civil War. He described the Archives's role in creating the new First Citizen Award for the Maryland Senate and the Maryland Legislators Who Made a Difference exhibit in the State House. He then described his own role in a collaborative project of scientists, historians, and others to examine the history of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Dr. Papenfuse reported on the Archives's summer teacher's institute, funded this year by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and reported on the Archives's summer internship program, which under a grant from Gerson Eisenberg is working on biographies of Marylanders who played an important role in national politics. Finally, Dr. Papenfuse mentioned the groundwork being done to submit a grant for the first phase of biographical research on Marylanders who served in the Civil War.

Under administrative matters, Dr. Papenfuse outlined his strategy for meeting the current budget crisis, expressing the hope that no further staff cuts would be necessary in light of the revenue-producing activities of the Archives that were either underway or planned for the coming months.

Finally, Dr. Papenfuse briefly described plans for the new Archives Trust of Maryland (ATOM), and thanked General Talbott for his efforts in chairing the Trust. The goal of the Trust is to raise funds to help support Archives's programs in three areas: biographical research, initiatives in historical geography, and educational outreach, especially teacher training and continuing the conferences on Maryland history.

Vol. 6, No. 27 August 10, 1992


Mount Vernon Ladies' Association Annual Report 1991 7-1-3

Davidson, Thomas E. Free Blacks on the Lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, Part 1: The Colonial Period 1662-1775 12-4-3

Ray, Frederic Antietam: A Concise Illustrated Story of the Battle Fought at Sharpsburg, Maryland, Sep. 17, 1862 15-1-4

Ray, Frederic Story of Fort McHenry and the Star-Spangled Banner 14-3-3

Livezey, Jon Harlan Aberdeen Centennial Alamanac 10-3-2

Bogen, David S. Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment: Reflections from the Admission of Maryland's First Black Lawyers 12-4-3

Turner, Dorothy Williams Williams-Wolcott and Related Families REF C-1-5

Turner, Elridge Hoyle, Sr. Turner-Hoyle and Related Families REF C-1-4

Nelker, Gladys P. Town Neck Hundred of Anne Arundel County: The Land REF A-1-4

Malloy, Mary Gordon, et al. Abstracts of Wills Montgomery County, Maryland 1776-1825 3-1-2

Schreiner-Yantis, Netti Genealogical and Local History Books in Print, vol. 4, Supplement to 4th ed. Shashi

Peden, Henry C, Jr. Maryland Deponents 1634-1799 3-1-2

Dauner, Carolyn Wells Wells Family Sketches: Our History in America 1682-1992 REF C-1-5

McElvey, Kay Najiyyah Early Black Dorchester 1776-1870: A History of the Struggle of Afro Americans in Dorchester County, Maryland, to be Free to Make Their Own Choices (Ph.D. Dissertation 1990), 2 parts 12-4-3

Lester, Robert E. Civil War Unit Histories: Regimental Histories and Personal Narratives, Part 1: Confederate States of America and Border States 15-1-3

Matthews, Harry Bradshaw Puckhams of Maryland 1682-1910: Seed From An African American-Indian Union REF C-1-1

Rossbach, Jeffery Ambivalent Conspirators: John Brown, the Secret Six, and a Theory of Slave Violence 9-2-3

Washington County Free Library Index to Hager's-town Newspapers January 1825 - December 1829 3-2-1

Hartstone, Eleanor J. Britten Family Connections: Some Southern Ancestors and Allied Lines REF C-3-2

Russo, J. Elliott Tax Lists of Somerset County 1730-1740 3-1-1

Orrell, Reverdy Lewin, III Orrell Family Records at the Maryland State Archives REF C-1-1

National Institute for Citizen Education in the Law Annual Report 1990-1991 19-1-5

Gordon, Ann D. Using the Nation's Documentary Heritage ECP

Gordon, Ann D. Using the Nation's Documentary Heritage Doug

CDIE Planning Committee Documenting Diversity: A Report on the Conference on Documenting the Immigrant Experience in the United States of America, Nov. 15-17, 1990 6-2-4

National Endowment for the Humanities Reference Materials Program: Guidelines Application Forms 19-1-5

Ernstein, Julie H. Archival Investigation of Cultural Resources Associated with 202 South Paca Street: Block 677 of Market Center Urban Renewal Area Baltimore, Maryland 8-2-4

Filby, William P. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index 1992 Supplement REF A-2-3

Hagley Museum and Library Annual Report 1991 6-3-3

Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs Delaware Documentation, 30th issue, Feb. 1992 6-3-3

Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs Delaware Documentation, 31st issue, May 1992 6-3-3

Friends of the Delaware Canal Delaware Canal Master Plan: A Summary 16-3-2

Friends of the Delaware Canal Delaware Canal Master Plan 16-3-2 National Archives of Canada Annual Report 1990-1991 7-1-6

U.S. Legislation & Regulatory Affairs Subcommittee Association of Records Managers & Administration Essential Elements of Local Government Record Management Legislation 3-3-5

Paul, Karen Dawley Records Management Handbook for United States Senators and their Archival Repositories 3-3-5


Last September, the Archives was awarded $113,700 by the NEH's Office of Preservation & Access to continue the Maryland Newspaper Project as part of the NEH's ongoing United States Newspaper Program. Some 152 titles (over 800,000 estimated pages!) of historically important Maryland newspapers were targeted for preservation microfilming. In addition, the Archives took responsibility for storing and preserving the Enoch Pratt Free Library's collection of 1,500 reels of negative newspaper microfilm.

As of the end of June, the Archives has completed work on 53 of proposed titles representing over a half-million images (of which 227,000 have been filmed by the Archives). This work has been accomplished in spite of staffing turnover, including the departure of the Assistant Project Director, Les White. Peter Hennig joined the project this June, taking on many of Les' former duties. Other staff funded by the project include: Doug Creek, Chris Probst, Raymond Connor, David Holland, and Kim Saville.

Many of the Archives' permanent staff have been active with the project as well. Teresa Fountain and myself supervise the overall preservation and photographic aspects of the project; Chris Allan administers the NEH funds; Nancy Bramucci integrates the information generated by the project into the Special Collections framework and creates the newspaper catalog; Skip White, Shirley Salisbury, and Elaine Hunt assist with the microfilm processing, inspection, and duplication.

Funding for this project is scheduled to end October 31, 1992. However, we have applied for an additional $53,000 to fund the microfilming of 77 newspaper titles (250,000 estimated pages). This funding would be for calendar year 1993.

Vol. 6, No. 28 August 17, 1992


The number of researchers in July may have declined, but the variety of research topics remained constant. Land use studies included the history of forests along the Chesapeake and historical extent of the Blackwater marshlands. Institutional subjects involved the orphans courts, forestry boards, and state government, 1864-1870. Local history topics included Jug Bay, Potomac River, Kensington, Hance Point, and Baltimore Jewish community. One patron was researching the management of cultural resources. Others were studying the

resources themselves - William Paca House and Main St. in Annapolis.

African American studies included slave laws and blacks in medicine. Other research topics in July involved the history of garbage disposal, railroad rights of way, biographies of Pennsylvania legislators, comparison of proprietary land grants in Maryland and Delaware, jousting, 2nd Maryland Infantry in the Civil War, and housing at the Mt. Vernon mills.

RESEARCH NOTES Stephanie Thorson

Morgan State University, formerly Morgan State College, existed for seventy-two years as a Methodist Episcopal institution before it was purchased by the State in 1939. Most accounts of the sale remark that old Morgan College had fallen on hard financial times (although the negotiations for purchase had begun in 1936, when everyone was suffering from hard financial times). However, a recent survey of the minutes of Morgan College as part of the NHPRC project has revealed another cause for the sale.

In 1934, Donald Gaines Murray filed suit against the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland on the grounds that he had been unfairly denied admission to the law school because of his race. The case began in Baltimore City Court and eventually reached the Court of Appeals in late 1935. The appellate court found for Murray, stating that under the Fourteenth Amendment the state could not deny admission to the law school on the grounds of race unless it provided equivalent schools for each race, and ordered the University of Maryland to admit Murray.

In December of 1936, the Maryland Commission on the Higher Education of Negroes invited the Morgan College trustees to a joint meeting. A summary of that meeting includes the following statement: "However, it must be remembered that the State is confronted, by reason of the decision in the Murray case, with the present necessity of abandoning its policy of segregation, or of establishing a State institution for colored persons in order to furnish them educational facilities equivalent to that furnished to white persons" (MORGAN COLLEGE Minutes series [MSA S362, MdHR 18,432-27], 1/10/5/2). The State appears to have twisted the trustees' collective arm by pointing out that if the State was forced to start its own institution, it would be unlikely to appropriate aid for Morgan "without which new courses of study and new buildings and equipment which Morgan College sorely needs will not be obtainable." It seems apparent that financial difficulty was by no means the sole motivating factor for the sale of Morgan College.

Vol. 6, No. 29 August 31, 1992

RESEARCH Pat Melville

When working with the records of the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Stephanie found some unique, but vital documents. In (Minutes) [MSA T 1358, 2/60/5/7] she discovered blueprints for the Department of Health Approved Sanitary Privies, which were billed as combining "the features of fly-tight construction and good ventilation". The blueprints were accompanied by step-by-step instructions for building the privies including specifications for the size of the seat and a pulley and sash weight to keep the door closed. [See next pages for copies of the blueprints.]

Vol. 6, No. 30 September 8, 1992


This article is the last installment in the saga about record transfers from the Baltimore City courthouse.

In December 1976 and January 1977 I supervised the inventory and transfer of records from the Baltimore City Circuit Court. We boxed and moved 2377 cubic feet of equity papers and 195 volumes of related records. Once again students hired by the clerk's office did the boxing and inventorying. We were able to handle a large amount of material in a relatively short period of time because the files had been maintained in an orderly manner, even in the basement catacombs.

Problems encountered in previous transfers were minor compared to what happened during this one. Many files were stored in large metal cabinets, about 6' by 4', some of which were stacked two high. One day a student was standing on a ladder and handing me the files to put in boxes. Suddenly he yelled, "It's falling." I ran and then turned around to see what had happened. The top cabinet had fallen to the floor and tilted against filled record center boxes stacked along the wall. The student on the ladder was nowhere to be seen. We quickly found him physically unharmed behind the fallen cabinet. When the cabinet had begun to move, he had jumped to the floor and was protected because the boxes of files had prevented the cabinet from falling flat on the floor.

We did not reenter that storage room until the fallen cabinet was removed and all the other stacked cabinets were braced. No one begrudged the sorting and reboxing of files from boxes that had been crushed by the falling cabinet. After all they had saved one person from injury or death. During the remaining time in that room we worked with extreme caution and jittery nerves. We would all jump when hearing an unexpected noise such as a dropped file or a creaking door.

In planning all future record transfers I placed safety high on my list of factors to consider.

Vol. 6, No. 32 September 21, 1992


In this installment I will highlight unusual happenings during a few more record transfer projects. A future article will concern the adventures of other staff members.

I have one more note about a transfer from the Baltimore City Courthouse. In the summer of 1977 we inventoried and transferred 500 boxes and 300 volumes. As boxes were filled we stacked them against a wall and in the process covered a vent for the air conditioning system. This incident caused the air conditioning to stop functioning in one of the courtrooms. The judge was somewhat unhappy.

In the summer of 1976 we inventoried and transferred 461 boxes and 809 volumes from the Frederick County Circuit Court. The records were stored in the third floor attic which had a floor covered with dirt as a fire prevention measure. Some of the files had remained in good order in cabinets. Others had migrated to piles in cardboard boxes and on wooden shelves. The Archives and the court received a fair amount of media coverage during this project. The local newspaper sent a reporter and photographer and featured an article and photograph on the front page. The local radio station interview me for one of its news broadcasts.

We rented a truck to move the Frederick County records to Cheltenham and I was the appointed driver. One day after traveling about a mile I noticed that smoke seem to be coming

into the cab. Soon I saw flames coming from underneath the cab. I left that vehicle in one heck of a hurry and called the fire department. Only then did I remember that the truck was loaded with records. Luckily by the time the fire truck arrived the fire had burned itself out. Foolishly I had left the emergency brake on and it got too hot. As I recall that was the last time I drove a rental truck.

In the summer of 1981 two Archives interns and I moved 137 volumes from the St. Mary's County Register of Wills. (We used a state van.) It was raining when we left Annapolis and it was raining even harder when we reached Leonardtown. Old courthouses, of course, do not have loading docks. So we were planning to use the handicap ramp, which meant the records would get wet. We did devise a way to load the records while keeping them mostly dry. The maintenance department provided a flat bed cart and the register of wills found large, white plastic cloths. So down the hall and outside we went with white shrouded loads of records, causing stares and comments from many people. It looked like we were removing a body.

Several years earlier Ed, Greg, and I had moved circuit court records from the basement of the jail in Leonardtown. It was so hot and humid in that storage area that we were going outside during a typical sultry summer day to cool off. In addition, we were wearing face masks because of the insecticides and other products being used to control bugs and vermin. Some records were so badly mildewed that we eventually had to dispose of several boxes of matted papers.

Vol. 6, No. 33 September 28, 1992


The Calvert family received Maryland from the King as an outright gift. The Calverts spent a large part of their fortune settling and securing the province, and the successive Lords Baltimore were determined to recoup as much as possible from their colony in the New World.

The Calverts initially granted land to settlers who would pay their own way to Maryland or who would pay the cost of transporting others. Later they sold land outright. In either case, the Calverts retained a perpetual interest in all land granted by charging an annual fee per acre, called a quitrent. A great part of the profits that flowed into the Calvert coffers came in the form of these annual rents collected by their agents in Maryland. The annual rents due were carefully recorded in the Rent Rolls, which today are an invaluable source for studying the early settlers and landholding patterns in colonial Maryland. These records are particularly useful for counties where earlier land records are not extant, such as Calvert and St. Mary's.

Patrons using the Rent Roll series at the Maryland State Archives should be aware of the Rent Rolls found on microfilm number M921 through M927. These were filmed by the State Archives in 1966 from the Calvert Rent Rolls at the Maryland Historical Society. They compliment the volumes at the State Archives, and in certain respects provide information available nowhere else.

The Calvert Rolls were sent by the provincial secretary or later by the Rent Roll keepers of both shores to the Lords Baltimore. The Calvert Rolls are indexed by the name of tract and all persons who at one time or another possessed, leased, or fell heir to the property. The Calvert Rent Rolls provide the only complete index to those people who possessed the land, since the Archives indexes access only the tract name and original grantee. Of particular importance are the early rolls for St. Mary's, Calvert, Charles, and the Isle of Kent. The Calvert Rent Rolls cover the periods 1659-1660, 1704-1707, and the later ones begin in the 1730s.

For other information about rent rolls and their indexes, see Bulldog, Vol. 2, Nos. 25 and 35.

Vol. 6, No. 34 October 5, 1992


ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Wills, Index) 1777-1958 [CR 3229] is an incomplete index. The record contains names beginning with A through M for 1777-1958. But for names beginning with N through Z the date span is 1819-1958. Thus for 1777-1818 for N-Z there is no index to wills on microfilm. Instead we must use one of the original volumes MSA C 154.


GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL (Pardon Papers) [MSA S 1061-1, MdHR 5401-1-46, 1/46/1/1] contains documents pertaining to John Derr who was accused of passing counterfeit bills. On July 20, 1780, Richard Potts wrote to Gov. Thomas Sim Lee, requesting a pardon for Derr. "There is a man confined in this [Frederick Town] gaol on suspicion of having knowingly passed counterfeit money. This man is a native of Pennsylvania, has a wife and four children, and a good home in that State, was taken up at Tawney Town on his way to Virginia and committed by Mr. [John Ross] Key. To avoid the ruinous Expense of waiting a Trial at the General Court, and tempted by the great premiums given men to raise the new Regiment, he wishes to enlist as a soldier during the War in the Regiment, if he can obtain a pardon and receive the large Bounty given by Classes."

Potts went on to explain that John Derr used several bills that he thought were legitimate to pay expenses at a tavern and that the counterfeits closely resembled the real thing. Potts also described Derr as a model prisoner, unlike others at the jail. On July 24 the governor did pardon Derr "on condition that he do forthwith enlist himself into the Regiment extraordinary for some one of the Classes of the Militia in the same County and that he do not depart the same Regiment during the War or until regularly discharged."

The file contains two of the counterfeit bills (see copies at the end of the newsletter) which have been removed to Special Collections and replaced by xerox copies.

Vol. 6, No. 35 October 13, 1992


In the last issue I wrote that the Archives has no index to wills for Anne Arundel County on microfilm for names beginning with N through Z, 1777-1818. Thanks to Carson Gibb I now can say that I was wrong. A full index for 1777-1893 does exist on film, the number of which is WK 201. This film was overlooked because it was not included in the microform guide for Anne Arundel County. The matter will be rectified when the guide is updated.

Vol. 6, No. 36 October 19, 1992

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson


QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY (created (Laws) 1706, Chapter 3)


Island Wye

Upper Town

Lower Worrell

Source: QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY (Judgment Record) ET B, p. 18 March Court 1710 [MSA C 1416, MdHR 8819, 2-1-2-36]


Island Wye

Upper Worrell

Lower Walsey

Town Tuckahoe

Source: QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY (Census Record) 1778 [MSA C 1365, MdHR 8849-1, 2-1-5-1]


Island (Corsica District) Wye (Tuckahoe District)

Worrell (Corsica District) Tuckahoe (Tuckahoe District)

Walsey (Island District) Town (Upper District)

Upper (Island District) Chester (Upper District)

Lower (Island District)

Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Queen Anne's County [MSA S 1161-8-9/11, 9-1; 1-4-5-51/52]


Researchers continued to revisit old topics of research and to find new ones. Local history subjects included Worcester County during the colonial period, colonial Annapolis, Providence - Greenbury Point, Leonardtown, East New Market, and Point Lookout. Local institutional studies encompassed the Carroll County Almshouse, Galilee Baptist Church, and South River Club.

African American topics covered slavery in general and more specifically historic Black communities in Annapolis. Legal issues included sovereign immunity of counties and colonial constitutional history. Health related subjects included the history of the medical treatment of the elderly in Maryland and history of the anti-tuberculosis movement in Baltimore. A member of the Churchill Society was studying the relationship between Winston Churchill and Gov. Albert Ritchie.

Sports topics included horse racing and history of U.S. Naval Academy football. Other subjects consisted of urban analysis of Annapolis, oystering in the 19th century, and U.S. military population in Maryland. One researcher was studying the Bolshevik Revolution.

Vol. 6, No. 37 October 26, 1992


We recently received a letter requesting information on the charter of a Baltimore parochial school founded in the mid-19th century. The researcher already had a copy of the original charter, but was interested in any post-1929 changes or amendments to the charter.

I started my search with the STATE TAX COMMISSION (Charter Record, Index) 1908 - 1965 [MSA SM 81]. The entry for the school stated that there was not a charter record in the tax commission records, but it did show that the charter had been annulled by proclamation of the Governor (Oct. 1956) according to the Laws of 1947, ch. 485.

Chapter 485 is an act that allows the Governor to void charters for the non-payment of taxes by the organization. While we do not have a proclamations series for the Governor, the Secretary of State maintained gubernatorial proclamations as part its (Proclamations) series [MSA S 92] and [MSA T 876]. The 1956 proclamation was found as part of MSA T 876. The document declared the charters of organizations on the attached 37 pages (single-spaced, legal sized) to be revoked according to the Laws of 1947, ch. 485. The school in question was listed.


The Summer 1992 issue of the NAGARA Clearinghouse contains the 1991 statistical report from state archives and state record centers throughout the United States. (NAGARA refers to the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators.) The report provides statistical information concerning budgets, staffing, record center holdings, record center activities, records disposition, microfilm services, archival holdings, archival accessioning, archival reference, preservation activities, and technical assistance and outreach.

In most categories the Maryland State Archives falls within the upper quarter of the figures. In other areas the Archives is at or near the top. We have the largest quantity of paper records -115,000 cubic feet. Following us is Georgia with 94,140 cu. ft. and Wisconsin with 94,054 cu. ft. We also have the building with the largest capacity - 160,000 cu. ft. [misprinted in the report as 190,000]. Next in size is 116,088 cu. ft. in Illinois. In addition, our holdings are increasing at a higher rate than other states. We transferred 7,861 cu. ft. in 1991, compared to second highest figure of 4,650 shown for Wisconsin.

As demands increase and resources diminish the Archives cannot pursue all activities as vigorously as desired. Processing of records is one of these activities. During 1991 we arranged and described only 578 cu. ft. of material. This figure puts us near the middle compared to other states. The highest quantity - 6,676 - comes from Kentucky.

In the area of reference in the search room the Archives ranks fourth. We handled 14,310 patrons during 1991, while Virginia had 25,149, Georgia had 20,048, and North Carolina had 16,795. Mail requests were especially high - 27,542 for us. The next highest was 15,335 for the state of Kentucky.

Of the thirty-one states reporting preservation activities Maryland ranks second in the area of sheets of paper cleaned and third in sheets deacidified. We cleaned 48,064 sheets, compared to 95,708 by North Carolina. We deacidified 11,628 sheets, compared to 26,063 by Kentucky and 17,870 by Florida.

You may well ask how our staffing to handle all this work compares to other states. The comparison is a mixed bag. In total staffing we rank second; the Archives has 39 employees and North Carolina has 43. The report divides staffing into two categories - professional and other. Ten other states have a larger professional component than our staff of 12. North Carolina ranks the highest with a professional staff of 24. Maryland ranks the highest in the category of other staffing with 27 employees, followed by North Carolina with 19.

Vol. 6, No. 38 November 2, 1992



[The following is an extract from Wayne Bruce Cook, "Federal Censuses: Unlocking Scholarly Treasures, Community College Update ll, Fall 1991, p. 1.]

Since 1790, federal decennial censuses, or population counts, have served as dynamic instruments of democracy to help equalize political power and benefits at a stable, measured pace. Emerging as part of the Great Compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, censuses meet requirements of the U.S. Constitution; lead to reallocation of seats in the House of Representatives and state and local legislatures; and determine the number of state votes in the electoral college, which selects the President and Vice President. Censuses also affect the distribution of billions of dollars in federal grants to states and localities.

The census schedules, or completed forms, are restricted for 72 years to protect individuals' privacy. On March 2, 1992, the National Archives [released] microfilm copies of the 1920 census as well as the Soundex, a phonetic index.

Schedules from 1790 to 1840 mostly name heads of households and then enumerate household members by legal status (free and slave), gender, and age ranges. From 1850 to 1910, the schedules, except those for slaves from 1850 and 1860, enumerate all persons by name and also include such data as age, birthplace, schooling, and impairments such as blindness and insanity.

Fire destroyed nearly all of the 1890 data, but many special schedules enumerating Union veterans of the Civil War or their widows have survived.

The versatility of census documents enables researchers from a wide variety of disciplines to glean valuable information. Personal census data can help not only genealogists but also historians and biographers.

Occupational data and the property values notes in 1850 and 1860 may interest economists. Inquiries regarding Revolutionary War pensioners (1840) and Civil War veterans (1890 and 1910) can aide military research. The background and data on immigration and naturalization can help sociologists and political scientists. The 1850 to 1880 schedules on agriculture, industry, social statistics, and mortality can enrich college instruction in many fields.

Special censuses reveal much about the history of territories, and the 1900 and 1910 censuses provide details about Indians.

Censuses provide us with a panoramic snapshot of America every 10 years; the results invite scholarly examination.

[Now that the census of 1920 is available in the search room at the Archives it seems appropriate to quote from the following article: Diana A. Hale, "The Opening of the 1920 Census", PGCGS Bulletin, April 1992, Vol. 23, No. 8.]

Thousands of enumerators throughout the United States, pens and papers in hand, began knocking on doors Friday morning, January 2, 1920 to mark the official start of the 1920 census.

The 1920 Census set several new precedents. There was change in date with all previous censuses beginning no earlier than April 15th. Weather proved such a problem that Census Day was changed to April 1 for all subsequent censuses. Schedules were included in the census for Guam, American Samoa, and the Panama Canal Zone, as well as a census of the Virgin Islands completed in 1917, which spoke to our expanding territorial interests. This was also the only census in which house seats were not reapportioned.

The census also included seven modified population schedules -- a record number. It was the first to inquire about the year of a persons's final naturalization and to specify the province or city which was the birthplace of the respondent born in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia or Turkey.

Of perhaps more importance than the census queries themselves was the commentary brought to light about life in America in 1920. The ravages of World War I, the 1917 influenza epidemic and the restrictions placed on immigration during the prior ten years affected the population - as revealed by the smallest increase in population by the nation since the first census in 1790. In 1920 we were 105,711,000, compared to the 249 million counted two years ago. Also life expectancy in the United States was 54 years, compared to 75 today.

Individuals were enumerated as residents of the place in which they regularly slept, not where they worked or might be visiting. People with no regular residence, including "floaters" and members of the transient railroad or construction camps, were enumerated as residents of the place where they were when the enumeration was taken. Enumerators were also to ask if any family members were temporarily absent; if so, there were to be listed either with the household or on the last schedule for the census subdivision.

There was no separate Indian population schedules(s) for 1920. The inhabitants of reservations are enumerated in the general (principal) population schedules.

The Bureau of the Census created and filmed Soundex index cards for the entire 1920 census. The Bureau used two separate cards, the "family card" and the "individual card." Both types of cards are arranged by the Soundex code, and then alphabetically by the first name and initials of the head of the household on the family cards and the first name and initials of the individual on the individual cards.

The 1920 census included four new questions on the schedule. One asked the year of final naturalization while the other questions related to the mother tongue of the person and his or her parents.


John Cullom found a source for the acquisition of used microfiche readers. Besides making them available to genealogical societies and individuals, he generously has donated six readers to the Archives. For the present one of them will be placed in the search room. Four will be held on reserve for the times when more than two readers are needed by researchers. In the future the demand for fiche readers will increase as more records, available only on fiche, such as modern assessment records, are placed in film room. The sixth reader, not currently operational, will be used for parts as needed. Thanks to John for his generous gift. [See Reference Staff Minutes for more exciting news about film readers.]

Vol. 6, No. 39 November 9, 1992


Even with the departure of our NHPRC funded project archivist, Dean Yates, work still continues. In October, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) loaded 435 records created by the project. This brings our total for records on RLIN to 650. This week another 355 records were submitted (the results of a hard Summer's work!). Once loaded, descriptions for 907 series and 98 agency histories will be available online. This represents 60% of our state agency record holdings (measured by number of series, not by cubic feet).

Work for 14 other agencies and their records has been drafted, but is not in final form. While the search for a new project archivist is occurring, some work continues thanks to the efforts of our Catholic University intern, Michelle Torney.

During the next week, a revised version of the draft "Guide to State Agency Records" will replace the copy currently at Circulation. This revision will reflect all 98 agency histories and 907 series descriptions. A copy the draft "Guide" will be placed next to the search room Stagser guides as well. I will also route a copy to interested staff.

Please look over the revised "Guide." Your input is welcome!


[ATOM=Archives Trust of Maryland]

Over the past two weeks we have been actively engaged in promoting fund raising and two of the goals of the Trust: improving our geographical knowledge of Maryland and reaching out to the educational community with the resources of the Archives.

On Thursday, October 29 Ed and Diane hosted an interagency Geographical Information Systems (GIS) committee chaired by Greg Tilley of DNR. The Committee is attempting to get state agencies to coordinate their mapping activities and to reinforce the need to maintain permanently valuable map files (both paper and computer based) in an accessible archival environment (read State Archives).

With the promise of help from the Genealogical Council of Maryland, ably solicited by Mimi on Saturday, October 31, the Archives provided matching funds to acquire twelve nearly new microfilm readers for the search room. One of our volunteers, John Cullom, also generously gave us six used microfiche readers, one of which will be placed in the search room and the remainder held in reserve for use on especially busy days and for lengthy research projects.

We have also opened an exhibit in the search room entitled "Cast Your Ballot;" which draws from our Special Collections and includes an original ballot box on loan from Delegate Ronald Franks. The exhibit grew out of a suggestion from our volunteers that we needed a place where voluntary contributions could be made by our patrons. Accompanying the exhibit is a brochure explaining the appeal for help and setting forth some of the goals of the Archives Trust of Maryland.

On Monday, November 2 Ed presented the draft of a new document packet entitled "Close Encounters of the First Kind, 1585-1767, " to an overflow crowd of more than 60 teachers at the Mid-Atlantic Teachers Conference in Baltimore. The packet in designed for grades 4-12 and focuses on early contacts among explorers, colonists, Native Americans, and African Americans. The teachers proved as enthusiastic as the presenters (Dr. Mercer Neale of Gilman School as co-presenter with Ed) and we expect several orders. Thanks to Oscar's help, the whole packet was produced using Archives scanning equipment. Nancy, Doug, Tina, Teresa, and Susan assisted in putting everything together on schedule.

On Tuesday, November 3 Lois Carr and Ed, in their capacities as historians on the Coffin Advisory Committee, were in St. Mary's City to help interpret the lives of those who may be in the lead coffins. On Friday the 13th the mystery of who is in the largest of the three coffins may be solved. A probe into the coffin discovered brass tacks that seem to spell out the initials of the deceased. After Lois outlined her research on the most likely candidate, Philip Calvert, Ed talked to one group of about 120 visitors about Philip Calvert's significance to Maryland History. Referring to him as the "Consummate Public Servant and the Keeper of Maryland's Conscience" for more than a quarter of a century (1657-1683), Ed suggested that Philip Calvert deserves to be better known for the calming influence he had on the colony and the effective way in which he pursued the public good as the State's first professional archivist. Without the records at the Archives (which include letters by Philip and his first efforts at public record keeping in his own hand [MSA S541-1]), we would not know of the crucial role Philip played in maintaining order in an increasingly chaotic world. Indeed, it might be argued that Lord Baltimore lost his political hold over the colony in 1689 because he no longer had his uncle to help him. Ed mentioned that in addition to the public records that have survived from Philip's time, we also have a manuscript copy of the Charter which Ed believes was Philip's personal copy which he used as Chancellor to interpret the often conflicting views of the rights of the colonists and the privileges of the Lord Proprietor.

Vol. 6, No. 40 November 16, 1992


In October researchers came to the Archives with many interesting and unique research topics. Some of the more encompassing studies included land distribution, politics and law in the 18th century, historical towns and natural resources, and colonial history of Maryland. Some of the more narrowly defined topics pertained to child custody cases in the 1950's, inaugural speeches and their effect on the local population, social columnists in colonial America, licensing of midwives, pirates in Maryland, film censorship, and life insurance industry in the 19th century.

A long term project involving African American history was begun in October. It is a documentary project to locate and copy court documents in Maryland and other slave states regarding slaves and free blacks from the end of the Revolution to the time of emancipation.

Local history research included Annapolis, historical maps of Anne Arundel County, crime in Baltimore City from 1900 to 1930, compulsory education in Anne Arundel County, Magothy River, Fells Point, and Patapsco State Park. Institutional studies concerned Patuxent Iron Works, Christ Church Parish in Calvert County, U.S. Naval Academy, and Green Ridge Railroad. Several college students were conducting biographical research on several Marylanders - George Calvert, Joshua Barney, John Franklin Goucher, Ezekiel Cooper, and Margaret Mercer.

Military topics centered around the Civil War and the War of 1812. Some patrons were studying the Civil War in general. Others had more specific interests including women in the Civil War, Monocacy Battlefield, and Battle of Perryville in 1862. One person was researching Maryland and Fort McHenry in the War of 1812.

During the height of the fall foliage season we were asked for the name of the red-leaved bush in the hedge in front of the building. Chris' landscaping file provided the answer - Euonymus Alatus Compactus, more popularly known as dwarf winged euonymus or flaming bush.


Calvert Family Motto

The motto of the Calvert family, "Fatti Maschii Parole Femine," appears on Maryland's great seal and is often, though erroneously, thought to be Maryland's "official state motto." The translation of the phrase given in the law is "Manly Deeds, Womanly Words." Over the years, some people have found the phrase offensive, complaining that it is "sexist."

There is no evidence that George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore, intended any offense to women when he selected "Fatti Maschii, Parole Femine" as his family's motto. In fact, a better understanding of the phrase would probably be achieved if it were translated "Deeds are of more avail than words," or even "Speak softly but carry a big stick."

One item in the latest addition to the Elmer Jackson, Jr., Collection of Maryland newspapers and related items (Mr. Jackson's spouse is State Archives's volunteer Doris Jackson), however, shows that regardless of Lord Baltimore's intent, the Maryland male of the not-too-distant past could have fun with the sexist implications of the motto's literal translation. A discussion of the motto published in the Maryland Gazette in 1927 offers the following speculation about the meaning of the Maryland motto:

"Just what his Lordship meant to establish as a rule of conduct for his colonists [by putting "Fatti Maschii, Parole Femine" on the colony's great seal], there shall be no attempt here to determine. But, to remark in passing, it seems the idea adopted by those ancient Marylanders was, that the deeds of the men should not be told to the women."

Vol. 6, No. 41 November 23, 1992


Wright, F. Edward Bible Records of Washington County, Maryland 2-1-5

Carroll County Genealogical Society Guide to Genealogical Research in Carroll County, 2nd ed. REF A-1-1

Cook, Eleanor M. V. Guide to the Records of Your District of Columbia Ancestors, rev. ed. 6-3-4

McCurdy, Hershellene Peek The McCurdy Family: Early Settlers of Dekalb County, Alabama REF C-2-5

Morrow, Dale W. Washington County, Maryland Cemetery Records, Vol. 1 3-1-6

Carroll County Genealogical Society Carroll County Cemeteries, Vol. 3: Southwest 3-1-6

Peden, Henry C., Jr. Harford County, Maryland, Taxpayers in 1870, 1872 and 1873 3-1-1

Waters, Donald Organizational Phase of Project Open Book: A Report 3-4-2

Kenney, Anne R. Joint Study in Digital Preservation Phase I: A Report 3-4-2

Lesk, Michael Preservation of New Technology: A Report 3-4-2

Kesse, Erich Survey of Micropublishers: A Report 3-4-2

Commission on Preservation and Access Annual Report July 1, 1991 - June 30, 1992 3-4-2

Munger, Donna Bingham Pennsylvania Land Records: A History and Guide for Research 6-1-4

Mack, William P. Naval Ceremonies, Customs and Traditions, 5th ed. 15-4-5

Woodlawn History Committee Woodlawn: Franklintown and Hebbvilleions, 5th ed. 10-3-3

Harrison, Richard A. Princetonians 1769-1775: A Biographical Dictionary 9-1-4

Smith, Lorna Duane Genealogy is More Than Charts REF A-1-2

Jourdan, Elise Greenup Early Families of Southern Maryland, Vol. 1 REF C-3-2

Moore, Tilden Abstracts of Marriages and Deaths and Other Articles of Interest in Newspapers of Frederick and Montgomery Counties, Maryland 1831-1840 2-1-5

Burrns, Gary L. Bible Records 2-1-5

Bendler, Bruce A. Colonial Delaware Records 1681-1713 6-3-2

Salute to the Servicemen Glenn Dale, Maryland 9-2-1

Mallick, Sallie A. Sketches of Citizens of Baltimore City and Baltimore County 9-2-1

Mallonee, Barbara C. Minute by Minute: A History of the Baltimore Monthly Meetings of Friends Homewood and Stony Run 10-1-4

Neuharth, Allen H. Truly One Nation 15-3-1

Kleinknecht, C. Fred Anchor of Liberty 14-3-2

Skinner, V. L., Jr. Abstracts of the Inventories and Accounts of the Prerogative Court of Maryland 1674-1678 and 1699-1703 (Libers 1-5) REF A-1-5

Skinner, V. L., Jr. Abstracts of the Inventories and Accounts of the Prerogative Court of Maryland 1679-1686 (Liber 6, 7A, 7B, 8) REF A-1-5

Peden, Henry C., Jr. Revolutionary Patriots of Anne Arundel County, Maryland REF A-1-4

Jourdan, Elise Greenup Land Records of Prince Georges County Maryland 1717 to 1726 REF A-1-4

Anderson, Patricia Dockman Abstracts of the Ridgely Papers REF C-1-2

McCurdy, Hershellene Peek Peak-Peek-Peake 1765-1991 Some Ancestors and Descendants of Solomon Peek and Mary Vickery Peek REF C-1-1

Cyester, Robert W. Zeister Family REF C-1-5

Wright, F. Edward Newspaper Abstracts of Frederick County 1811-1815 3-2-1

Smiraglia, Richard P. Describing Archival Materials: The Use of the MARC AMC Format Tim

Johnson, Melissa A. "Princeton, Forward March" A Guide to World War II Collections at Princeton University 6-2-5

Beard, Alice L. Births, Deaths and Marriages of Nottingham Quakers 1680-1889 2-1-5

Maguire, Joseph C., Jr. Index of Obituaries and Marriages in the (Baltimore) Sun 1861-1865 2-1-5

Billings, Warren M. The Bill of Rights and Virginia 14-3-2

Harlowe, Jerry Your Brother Will: The Great War Letters and Diary of William Schellberg 9-4-3

Kratz, Charles I., Jr. The Kratz Rolfe: Family Connections in Maryland, Virginia, England and Germany 1640-1992 REF C-2-4

Howard County Genealogical Society Howard County Maryland Records Vol. 7: St. John's Cemetery and Inscriptions from the St. John's Episcopal Church Columbarium 3-1-6

Houston, Mary Christine Ancestors and Descendants of Leonard Houston, Sr. 1633-1990, vol. 1, 3d printing REF C-2-2

Zimmerman, Elaine Obbink Records of St. Paul's Cemetery 1855-1946 located at Druid Hill Park Baltimore City, Maryland 3-1-6

Fishgall, Gary Historic Towns of America 15-4-1

Low, W. Augustus Encyclopedia of Black America 12-4-2

Powell, Lorenzo Q. George Bailey's Family REF C-3-3

National Archives and Records Administration Annual Report for the year ended September 30, 1991 4-4-1

National Historical Publications and Records Commission The American Record: A Progress Report Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 7-3-6

Awalt, Jane and Robert Index to Interments from St. James Roman Catholic Church, Baltimore, Maryland REF A-2-5

Awalt, Jane and Robert Marriage Index St. James Roman Catholic Church, Baltimore, Maryland January 1875 - April 1906 REF A-2-5

Awalt, Jane and Robert Marriage Register St. John's Catholic Church, Baltimore, Maryland 1853-1871 REF A-2-5

Maryland Municipal League Directory of Maryland Municipal Officials 1990-1991 5-4-5

Maryland Municipal League Directory of Maryland Municipal Officials 1992-1993 Diane


The discovery of three 17th century lead coffins in St. Mary's City led to a cooperative project to examine and study the contents. An organizational meeting was held last spring at the State Archives to lay out the components of the project. Participants included anthropologists, archaeologists, forensic experts, geologists, atmospheric scientists, historians, archivists, radiobiologists, and pathologists.

The coffins were finally opened this month. One contained the body of a female and another a baby. The third was opened on November 13. Members of the project had hoped to find an intact skeleton of Philip Calvert who died in 1682, but the condition of the remains is such that only through DNA analysis and other scientific data will such a positive identification be possible.

In preparation for the opening of the third coffin Ed Papenfuse and Lois Carr served on the Coffin Advisory Committee and prepared a biography of Philip Calvert. They described him as the "Consummate Public Servant and Keeper of the Conscience of Maryland." Philip Calvert was the sixth son of George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore. Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, sent his half brother Philip to Maryland in 1657 to supervise re-establishment of the government which had been seized by radical Protestants. Philip Calvert remained in Maryland the rest of his life and held a variety of offices including councilor, provincial court justice, principal secretary, judge of probate, and chancellor. For a brief period he was also governor.

ABC's "Nightline" filmed the activities of the lead coffin project from the time of the meeting last spring and features scenes at the State Archives. The program was aired on the 13th. Greg is making available his videotape of the program. Anyone reading this newsletter is invited to attend the viewings which are scheduled for Monday, November 30 at 12:30 p.m. and for Wednesday, December 2 at 12:30 p.m. People may bring their lunch and join us in the conference room.

Vol. 6, No. 42 December 4, 1992


In GARRETT COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (License Record) EZT 3 [MSA T 406; 3/46/9/18] Susan found a license for a menagerie granted to Ringling Brothers on October 16, 1890. In 1841 and 1845 the General Assembly enacted laws requiring shows and theatrical exhibitions put on for profit to acquire a license from the county court clerks or clerk of BC Court of Common Pleas. The shows and exhibitions were defined as stage players, ventriloquists, sleight-of-hand performers, rope dancers, tumblers, wire dancers, circus riders, equestrian performers, and exhibitors of animals or natural or artificial curiosities (except models of useful inventions). In the counties the license fee was $15.00 or $30.00 for one year or $1.00 for each exhibition. Shows and exhibitors in Baltimore City were required to pay additional sums of money including city taxes and special state taxes ranging from $3.00 per night to $10.00 per week.

Vol. 6, No. 43 December 14, 1992


With Electoral Colleges across the United States convening this December 14 to elect our next President and Vice-President, I thought it appropriate to share the history of Maryland's Electoral College. The following agency history and series description was created as part of the NHPRC "Guide to State Agency Records" project.

SH114 ELECTORAL COLLEGE, 1789 - present

Maryland's first electoral college met February 4, 1789 in Annapolis. At that meeting, the six electors unanimously selected George Washington as President and Robert Hanson Harrison as Vice-President.

The Constitution of the United States frames the electoral college system. It was believed that this method would bring the election close to the people yet prevent vote tampering and corruption. The Constitution specifies that all electors meet the same day in their respective states to vote for President and Vice President. Each elector signs and seals six certifications of their vote and distributes them as follows: one copy to the President of the U.S. Senate, two copies to the Secretary of [the elector's] State, two copies to the Administrator of General Services of the U.S., and one copy to the Chief Judge of the U.S. District Court in the elector's jurisdiction.

Federal law establishes the date for the electors to meet in their respective states. The law now requires that the meeting be held on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December; the place is designated by the state legislature. The number of electors corresponds to the state's representation in the U.S. Congress.

Delegates at the federal Constitutional Convention in 1787 used Maryland's system of electing state senators as a model for the electoral college. The Maryland Constitution of 1776 established a Maryland electoral college which was used until 1836. Under the Maryland system forty electors, selected by the voters of each county (with the exception of Annapolis and Baltimore), elected state senators.

Although technically federal records, Maryland began keeping its electoral college proceedings in 1841. On January 27, 1841 the Maryland Senate resolved to obtain "full and authentic copies of so much of the proceedings of each and every College of Presidential Electors of the State of Maryland, prior to 1832, as may be found; and to have the same recorded in a book, for that purpose obtained, together with the proceedings of the Colleges of the years 1832, 1836, and the present year." In 1832 and 1836, Maryland had kept local records of the electoral college proceedings.

Maryland still maintains the proceedings of its electoral college. Proceedings for 1789 - 1980 are maintained in a ledger housed at the Maryland State Archives. A new ledger was started for the 1984 election and is maintained by the State Administrative Board of Elections Laws.

MSA S0081

Electoral College.

Maryland proceedings, 1789-1980.

.5 cubic ft.

Proceedings of the electors of the President and Vice President of the U.S. Ledger starts in 1841 with previous proceedings transcribed (Senate Resolution, Jan. 27, 1841). Entries list electors present, popular vote, and how electors voted. Signed by electors, governor, and secretary of state. Arranged chronologically by election.

Proceedings transcribed in: Review of the Meetings of Presidential Electors in Maryland, 1789-1980 (Annapolis: State Administrative Board of Election Laws, 1981).

Also available on microfilm for 1789-1980, MSA SM0139.


Reference statistics for November went up in some instances and down in others compared to last year. The total number of researchers coming into the search room rose 3 percent, 943 compared to 916 in 1991. New researchers increased 12.5 percent, 314 compared to 279, perhaps due to the large number of college students seen during the month. Returnees fell slightly by 1.3 percent, 629 compared to 637.

The higher number of researchers did not translate into greater circulation figures perhaps because many of the college students visited only once and used few records when here. Total circulation declined 22.9 percent, 6592 compared to 8546. Record circulation dropped 33.7 percent, 2141 compared to 3231. The use of library books decreased 31.8 percent, 716 compared to 1050. Microfilm usage declined 12.4 percent, 3735 compared to 4265. The busiest day of the week was Tuesday with an average circulation of 483. The slowest day was Thursday with an average of 341.

Lobby sales also registered substantial declines. Total sales fell 27 percent, $3404.90 compared to $4651.47. (I hesitate to use the college students, who usually do not order copies or buy books, once more as a factor.) Sales in November 1991 were higher than normal. PD orders declined 100 percent, $1227.75 compared to $2392.75. Merchandise sales dropped 24 percent, $191.00 compared to $251.45. Reader printer income fell 21 percent, $322.50 compared to $407.70. Publication sales rose 4 percent, $1663.65 compared to $1599.57.

The mail reference program showed some hefty increases in activity. Total mail climbed 80.9 percent, 1512 compared to 836, due primarily to heavy mailings involving the Maryland Manual. This is reflected in staff mail which rose 190 percent, 977 compared to 337. TA letters increased 17.2 percent, 252 compared to 215. IIB letters rose 6.9 percent, 62 compared to 58. IIA letters remained unchanged, 70 compared to 69. Administrative mail showed the only decline, and this by 8.5 percent, 151 compared to 165.

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