The Archivists' BULLDOG


Vol. 1, No. 25

21 September 1987

Record Series of the Week Phebe Jacobsen

Maryland's Participation in the War of Jenkins' Ear

Intrigued by the title of Indexes to "Colonial Wars", I have gone through histories and records to see exactly the extent of Maryland's participation in Wars of the Empire. The index per se covers only Maryland officers and companies engaged in the Seven Years War, commonly known as the French and Indian War, 1756-1763. Some of these troops also guarded the western frontiers of the Colony before and after the French and Indian War ended. The following information, however, may be of interest.

The final stage of the 250 year struggle between the major European powers for domination of the North American continent took place between 1739 and 1763, manifested largely by wars between England and France. The year 1739 began with Britain's war against Spain, and the attempted acquisition of Spanish trade in South America. The War of Jenkins' Ear 1739-1743 was preliminary to King George's War 1744-1748, which was prior to the Seven Years War. Maryland troops participated in all three, as they never had in earlier campaigns.

By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), British merchants, except for those belonging to the English South Sea Company, and party to the Asiento Agreement {this was an agreement signed in 1713 by the South Sea Company and the Spanish Crown, whereby that Company was given the exclusive right to sell 4800 African slaves each year in the Spanish colonies for 30 years}, were greatly restricted in trade. So being the brave souls that they were as smugglers, they invaded the Spanish Main. Some British ships were seized by the Spanish, and during one such altercation, the ear of a British sailor, Edmund Jenkins, was cropped by his captors. The story of Jenkins' ear, raised the wrath of all red blooded Englishmen.

As early as June 1739, the British government had authorized Governor Ogle, as it no doubt authorized other colonial governors, to issue letters of marque and reprisal against Spanish ships. In the following months, as a logical step in preparation for the coming conflict, Ogle ordered a list of his militia from the colonels of each county's militia units.

War was formally proclaimed October 19, 1739, but not until the following spring did Maryland's participation actually begin. His majesty requested able-bodied, debt free freemen for whom His Majesty's government would provide arms and clothing, return transportation, and a share of booty. The war was, His Majesty said, against Spain and the Spanish settlements in the West Indies. Transportation for a general rendezvous would be provided by the Province, as would be the funding for enlistments.

A disagreement arose over the enlistees' debt free status in the initial bill offered by the Lower House. Eventually, L2562.10 in current money, in Bills of Credit were to be applied to persons who volunteered. On September 6, 1740, the following officers received appointments and royal commissions: Captains John Milburn, John Lloyd, and Thomas Addison. There is no record of these men {Volume 1 of The Iron Chest Accounts has an entry dated February 25, 1740 [1741] saying that Patrick Creagh was paid by agents for maintaining and transporting. . . troops as per order December 10, 1740. Others were paid for enlisting persons in His Majesties service}. Scharf says that most colonies sent volunteers.

Although there were skirmishes and battles along Florida borders, involving the new colonies of Georgia and the Carolinas, the greatest action was far to the south.

The American Regiment (this was the first time "American" had been used by the British military) fought alongside British regulars. Twelve thousand soldiers and fifteen thousand sailors embarked on a fleet of 115 ships, many of them Ships of the Line. The expedition, composed of forces from England, as well as volunteers from the colonies, made rendezvous in Jamaica early in 1741. There they set sail for Carthagena, now in northern Colombia, and then the largest stronghold of Spain in South America. From March 4 to April 16, 1741, the expedition labored and fought near the city which was protected by four forts. Two fell under the onslaught of British soldiers, and fortifications had been erected for assaults upon the other two when the rains came and yellow fever struck. Vernon, much against his will, was forced to withdraw. Hall says that "the loss of life from sickness was appalling. Hundreds fell before the guns of the Spaniards, but thousands perished from disease."

Thus ended the first campaign in which Britain had used her colonial troops outside of North America. Only two-thirds returned. So far as we know, there were none from Maryland. But George Washington's stepbrother Lawrence, an aide to Vernon, came back to establish an estate on the Potomac, named Mount Vernon, for the admiral. It is also written that Vernon, being so disgusted with the amount of rum his forces consumed, had water added to the bottles, thus creating Grog.

The last battle of the War of Jenkins' Ear took place near the Florida border in 1742, when a Spanish counterattack was repulsed. Already, the War of the Austrian Succession had begun in Europe. Spain and France had joined forces against Prussia and Britain. In the colonies, this conflict was known as King George's War (1744-1748), because it involved the family connection of German born and German bred George I. To a large extent, it was fought in Europe, but in the New World, it took place in Canada.

Contenders for land in Canada had long ago narrowed to Britain and France. Spain's dominion day to the South and West. By the national Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Britain received Newfoundland, Acadia (Nova Scotia), and the Hudson Bay area. France retained islands of the St. Lawrence, and Cape Breton. Neither country was satisfied with this part of the treaty any more than England had been satisfied with the section limiting her right to trade in the Spanish Main.

News of the declaration of war had just reached the small British island of Canso, at the extreme northeast corner of Nova Scotia, when it was captured in May 1744 by the French. Canso was an important port for New England fishermen, and offered a place for them to cure cod. In retaliation, Governor Shirley of Massachusetts, with the help of local fishermen, made plans to take Louisbourgh, the great French fortress guarding the St. Lawrence. New Englanders believed that Louisbourgh harbored pirates, and it certainly harbored privateers. With assistance from the northern colonies, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and an army of civilians, led by William Pepperrell, aided by the British, fleet, the impossible was accomplished. After a siege of two months, Louisbourgh surrendered on June 1744. News of the victory traveled throughout the colonies, and was met with great joy. In Maryland, subscriptions were taken up for New England soldiers and their families, while provision and arms were sent to the garrison at Louisbourgh.

Governor Shirley now turned to plans for the invasion of Canada by a colonial militia, but the British military were not about to allow such an independent venture for their colonial subjects. Instead, they proposed that an integrated force strike against Quebec. The British plan was not disputed, and as a request for the usual levy, went out to all colonies. The General Assembly of Maryland voted L4500 for the cause, and on September 15, 1745, the Maryland Gazette reported that three companies under Captains Campbell, Crofts, and Jordan had sailed northward. The planned expedition never took place, but the volunteers were retained at Albany for eighteen months. The British officials asked Maryland for further money to maintain them, but outside of the L1100 voted in November of 1754, the General Assembly refused to accept further obligation.

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle was announced in Annapolis May 5, 1749. One of its provisions directed Louisbourgh be returned to the French.


Original Laws in more recent times are quite useful for tracing the legislative history of an act of the General Assembly. The laws show the original bill number and indicate the dates on which the three readings of the bill took place in each of the houses of the legislature.


Vol. 1, No. 26

28 September 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Eleanor L. Albright and Mary A. Dye, Naturalized in Cumberland (Cumberland, 1987) Loc: LIB-3-1-1

R. Benice Leonard, Talbot County Maryland Land Records, Vols. I and II (St. Michaels, 1987) Loc: LIB-3-2-3

Naturalized in Cumberland is a transcription of the original Allegany County Naturalization Indexes dating from 1820 to 1852. This publication duplicates the information on the cards in Index 42. You should note that we do not have the actual naturalization records for Allegany County on film or in the original until 1845. Don't be surprised if a request slip appears in the tray asking for a pre-1845 naturalization that is still only available at the courthouse in Cumberland.

Mrs. Leonard's books abstract the first two volumes of Talbot County land records. Her index is particularly useful because it not only includes grantors and grantees, but also names of witnesses, adjacent property owners if mentioned in the deed and tract names.

Record Series of the Week Pat Melville

DHMH, Division of Vital Records

(Death Record, Counties)

1898-1910 TRANSER 322

These are certificates of death for which we do not have microfilm. The Guide to Birth and Death Records currently states that the original death certificates for 1898-1910 are not extant. This statement is now "inoperative." The certificates do exist, in the form of index cards in index cabinets. The cards are printed forms on which the information is handwritten. They are arranged in the same manner as the later certificates: year and month; alphabetically by county; and then alphabetically by decedent's name.

Use the cards with caution because they are brittle. For circulation in the search room, an individual card should be placed in a red folder. If someone needs to peruse a set of cards, we can let a patron use one drawer at a time. These records will be accessioned in the near future and then microfilmed.

The certificates are on cards which begin in May of 1898. There is a single drawer containing undated certificates, certificates for dates prior to 1898 (mainly from Washington and Allegany counties for disinterments), and a few certificates for other states (West Virginia).

The certificates for 1898-1902 include the full name, sex, race, marital status, age, place of birth, and occupation of the decedent; names of spouse, father and mother; number of living children; date, place and cause of death; names of attending physician and informant (including his/her relationship to decedent). In 1902 the form adds the father and mother's place of birth, how long the decedent was ill, and whether the death was an accident or suicide. This form drops the number of living children. None of the certificates indicate date of birth (although it can be figured by age at time of death which is given in years, months and days) or date and place of burial.


Index 42 - (Naturalizations Index), 1781-1906

The end of proprietary rule in Maryland in 1776 resulted in important changes in the laws dealing with naturalizations. A naturalization act passed in 1779 abolished the religious restrictions imposed by English law which had allowed naturalizations only to Protestants. This act also extended the privilege of holding public office to naturalized persons, provided they had been residents of the state for seven years prior to their election. To become a citizen, under the terms of this statute, an alien could petition the Governor and Council, the General Court of the Western Shore, the General Court of the Eastern Shore, any of the county courts, or the federal courts. The requirements were simple: an alien had to be a Christian, a resident of the state for seven years, and swear an oath of allegiance to the State of Maryland.

No one appears to have been naturalized in Maryland between 1776 and 1780. Aliens were no doubt anxious about swearing allegiance to a revolutionary government when the success of the rebel cause was far from assured. The first naturalization following statehood is that of John Wigglesworth who appeared before the Governor and Council in August 1780 to be naturalized.

The legislature passed laws in 1797 and 1812 that conferred citizenship on all individuals who had been resident in the state before a given date. The 1797 act naturalized persons who had been residents of Maryland prior to July 22, 1779, and the 1812 law extended citizenship to those in the state before the adoption of the Federal Constitution in 1789.

The General Assembly ceased to pass private acts for naturalization, but it did enact many laws enabling aliens to own land or to secure title to land bought before naturalization. The intent of the laws of 1797 and 1812, as well as the various private acts, is clear. If title to land bought by individuals who were aliens, regardless of later naturalization, could be successfully challenged in court, considerable confusion concerning title to significant amounts of land would have resulted. Naturalizing the entire pre-Revolutionary population was far easier than to allow their descendants' title to land to be contested.

Card Index 42 was compiled by Mrs. Irvin C. Brown and Mrs. Truman F. Hienton who gave it to the Archives in 1976. The researcher should know that not all the counties in Maryland are included in Index 42, not are all of the naturalization records of each county indexed. In some instances records included in the index are not available in the original or on film at the Hall of Records. Researchers should be referred to the appropriate county circuit court.

Only a few individuals were naturalized before the Governor and Council from 1780 to 1790. Original papers relating to these naturalizations are found among the records of the General Courts of the Eastern and Western Shore. The dockets of the General Court of the Eastern Shore contain the names of individuals naturalized by the Governor and Council, 1780-1790. The Test Book of the General Court of the Eastern Shore (1778-1805) contains the oaths for naturalizations and the signatures of individuals naturalized before the court. The Test Book of the Council (1775-1793) also contains signatures of individuals naturalized before it, as do the test books for the various county courts. These records are not included in Index 42.

Index 42 includes the following records:

General Court of the Western Shore:

(Judgment Record), 1778-1805

(Minutes and Proceedings), 1778-1805

General Court of the Eastern Shore:

(Judgment Record), 1778-1800

(Minutes), 1778-1805

(Docket), 1778-1805

(Naturalization Record), 1796-1816

Allegany County Court, Circuit Court:

(Minutes), 1822

(Docket), 1798-1821. 1823-1844

(Naturalization Docket), 1845-1904

Anne Arundel County Court, Circuit Court:

(Proceedings), 1783-1792, 1826-1903

(Judgment Record), 1807-1829

(Minutes), 1834-1867

(Declaration of Intention), 1899-1903

(Military Naturalizations), 1899-1903

(Naturalization Record of Minors), 1899-1903

Baltimore County Court:

(Minutes), 1782-1851

Remember that most Baltimore County naturalizations before 1851 are found in Index 43.

Carroll County Court and Circuit Court:

(Proceedings), 1842-1906

Cecil County Court:

(Minutes), 1800-1848

(Docket and Minutes), 1818-1820

Charles County Circuit Court:

(Proceedings), 1874-1903

Dorchester County Court and Circuit Court:(Minutes), 1817-1911

Frederick County Court and Circuit Court:

(Minutes), 1795-1885

(Judgment Record), 1787-1788

(Test Book), 1785-1799

(Naturalization Record), 1785-1906

Garrett County Circuit Court:

(Alien Docket), 1873-1905

Howard District Court and County Circuit Court:(Minutes), 1840, 1847-1904

Kent County Court:

(Minutes), 1789-1797

(Docket and Minutes), 1838-1844

Montgomery County Court and Circuit Court:

(Minutes), 1781-1906

Prince Georges County Court and Circuit Court:

(Docket and Minutes), 1778-1835

(Minutes), 1815-1900

(Court Record), 1777-1788

(Short Entries of Judgments), 1818-1857

Queen Anne's County Court and Circuit Court:

(Minutes), 1787-1792, 1799-1803, 1806-1906

Somerset County Court and Circuit Court:

(Minutes), 1898-1901

(Judicial Record), 1797-1898

Talbot County Court and Circuit Court:

(Naturalization Record), 1802-1906

(Minutes), 1826-1904

Washington County Court and Circuit Court:

(Docket), 1793-1906

Worcester County Court and Circuit Court:

(Docket and Minutes), 1825-1827, 1829-1906

One should remember that there are a number of naturalization records from Maryland counties which are not indexed in Index 42, but may be indexed in the individual volumes. Check both COAGSER and TRANSER for other records.


Vol. 1, No. 27

5 October 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Black's Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition (St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Co., 1981) Located in the Encyclopedia/Dictionary area opposite Index 2

We recently acquired this new law dictionary which is much easier to use than the Bouvier upstairs in the library (although it lacks the Common Law precedents supplied back to the Magna Carta by Bouvier). This edition of Black's contains 10,000 new or revised entries and usage examples for many entries. While it is up-to-date, it does not neglect the old English, European and feudal law words and terms that our patrons will find useful. The dictionary has a table of abbreviations, a list of justices of the United States Supreme Court though Sandra Day O'Connor (although Richard will have the privilege of writing in Chief Justice Rehnquist, and Justices Antonin Scalia and Robert Bork), a United States Government Organizational Chart (that should be a revelation to almost anyone) and a table of British regnal years.

Record Series of the Week Pat Melville

(Marriage License Applications)

BC Court of Common Pleas, 1886-1935 TRANSER

BA Circuit Court, 1886-1896 COAGSER

BA Circuit Court, 1922-1945 Microfilm

CV Circuit Court, 1886-1953 Microfilm

CE Circuit Court, 1978-1979 Microfilm

FR Circuit Court, 1938-1941 TRANSER

HO Circuit Court, 1886-1919 COAGSER

MO Circuit Court, 1886-1967 TRANSER

PG Circuit Court, 1886-1975 TRANSER

QA Circuit Court, 1908-1915 Microfilm

SO Circuit Court, 1886-1938 COAGSER

SM Circuit Court, 1886-1976 COAGSER

WO Circuit Court, 1886-1900 COAGSER

These are applications for marriage licenses. Applications were first required by law in 1886. The law specified that certain types of information be supplied as indicated below. However, for some unknown reason, the law was not applied in Baltimore City. The city records include only the names of the parties, date of application and signature of the applicants, all of which is written in pencil. In other words, researchers should probably not be directed to these records for Baltimore City since they would be better served by marriage licenses or marriage records.

Entries give name, residence, age, race, occupation and marital status of each party to the marriage (until 1970); date of application; sometimes the date of the license; sometimes the date of marriage; consent of the parents or guardians for minors. Each application is signed by the party applying for the license. The entries are arranged chronologically by date of application.


Vol. 1, No. 28

13 October 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Lynn Ann Catanese. Guide to Records of the Court of Common Pleas, Chester County, Pennsylvania 1681-1900. West Chester: Chester County Historical Society, 1987. Lib Call # 686 P, Location 6/1/1

Edward W. Hocker. Genealogical Data Relating to the German Settlers of Pennsylvania and Adjacent Territory. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1981. Lib Call # 686 P, Location 6/1/1

As we all know, the tripod on the surveying equipment used by Mason and Dixon had one leg shorter than the others, thus causing an inaccurate survey that placed large portions of Maryland in Pennsylvania. Although the revanchist movement in Maryland is still in its formative stage, we should be familiar with the records we stand to acquire someday after our victory in the Great War to Liberate the Occupied Territories. Cantanese's Guide is quite useful not only as a description of the court records of Chester County (just across the provisional truce line from Cecil County, Maryland), but also as a concise introduction to county court records in general. The Guide includes a thorough section explaining the process for civil actions, the various types of cases and the responsibilities of court officials. There is also a handy legal glossary that may even surpass our venerable "Glossary of Legal Terms."

Hocker's compilation was taken from advertisements in German newspapers published in Philadelphia and Germantown from 1743 to 1800. Many of these ads are requests for help in locating missing family members who were separated as indentured servants. I did note several references to locations in Maryland.

Record Series of the Week Pat Melville

Court of Appeals: Case Files

Among the records of the Court of Appeals are several series of case-related papers. The keys to locating the files relating to a specific case are the date and docket number when a decision is rendered. This information is obtained from (Docket), (Docket, Eastern Shore) and (Docket, Western Shore). When an appeal is filed, it is given a docket number for that particular court term. Usually the judges do not decide a case during the court term it is filed. Thus, a case is usually carried over into the next court term and given a new number. A researcher must continue to search the dockets until finding the entry that shows a decision is rendered. This docket entry is the key for locating the case papers. The court term - month and year - and docket number, also called case number, are components of the series unit description for each series of papers which are described below. Except as noted, all are arranged chronologically by court term and then numerically by case number.

(Opinions) STAGSER 393, 1851-1980 and TRANSER 1217, 1981-1983

(Opinions, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 395, 1820-1851

(Opinions, Western Shore) STAGSER 394, 1810-1851

An opinion is the decision of the judges and outlines the precedents and reasons for the decision. There are two types of opinions--reported and unreported. The reported opinions are printed in Maryland Reports, found in State Publications. Unreported opinions are not

printed and exist only in manuscript form, except for those recorded in (Unreported Opinions) STAGSER 392, 1865-1947. Written opinions were not required until 1810.

(Briefs) STAGSER 375, 1851-1886

(Briefs, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 376, 1835-1851 (Briefs, Western Shore) STAGSER 377, 1832-1851

Briefs are the written arguments submitted by attorneys for the litigants. Written briefs were not required until 1832. Briefs after 1886 are retained by the Clerk of the Court of Appeals.

(Notes on Arguments and Opinions, Western Shore) STAGSER 428, 1806-1833

(Notes on Arguments, Western Shore) STAGSER 427, 1806-1851

(Notes on Opinions, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 390, 1819-1821

(Notes on Opinions, Western Shore) STAGSER 391, 1819-1821

These series contain notes kept by the court clerks. The notes are based on attorneys' arguments before the court and on the judges' decisions. The manuscript notes are arranged by court term and bound together in volumes. Each volume is indexed by the names of the litigants. Notes after 1851 are not retained in manuscript form, but some are printed in Maryland Reports.

(Decrees) STAGSER 379, 1851-1903

(Decrees, Western Shore) STAGSER 378, 1806-1851

The decrees contain transcripts of equity cases appealed from the county courts, county circuit courts and the Baltimore City equity courts, and estate cases appealed from the county and Baltimore City orphans courts. The decrees series ceases in 1903 for unknown reasons.

(Judgments) STAGSER 381, 1790-1805, 1852-1906

(Judgments, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 380, 1806-1851

(Judgments, Western Shore) STAGSER 382, 1806-1851

The judgments contain transcripts of circuit and criminal cases appealed from the General Court of the Western Shore, General Court of the Eastern Shore, county courts, county circuit courts and Baltimore City criminal and civil courts. The judgments series ceases in 1906 for unknown reasons.

(Transcripts, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 435, 1824

This series contains two extant transcripts--one from the Kent County Orphans Court and one equity case from the Somerset County Court.

(Transcripts, Western Shore) STAGSER 436, 1806-1851

This series contains transcripts of equity cases appealed from the Chancery Court. They were bound in volumes and given reference numbers. (Docket, Western Shore) provides the volume references to the transcripts. The series ends when the Chancery Court was abolished.

(Transcripts) STAGSER 434, 1857-1880, 1945-1952

This series contains transcripts of all types of cases appealed from the county circuit courts, Baltimore City courts and county and Baltimore City orphans courts. The Court of Appeals no longer retains transcripts. They are returned to the lower court where they become a permanent record, transferrable to the Archives.

Sometimes a researcher is looking for a lower court case file that has not been transferred to the Archives, is missing from the case files we do have, is incomplete or cannot be located easily because of the chronological rather then numerical filing system. If the case was appealed to the Court of Appeals, the series of decrees, judgments or transcripts may contain a transcript of the lower court proceedings and thus provide the requested information. With criminal and civil cases the transcripts will usually contain more information than found in the files of the lower courts. A transcript of the spoken word in a court proceeding is made only when a case is appealed.

(Miscellaneous Papers) STAGSER 397, 1776-1805, 1852-1980 and TRANSER 1216, 1981-1983

(Miscellaneous Papers, Eastern Shore) STAGSER 398, 1806

(Miscellaneous Papers, Western Shore) STAGSER 399, 1806-1851

Miscellaneous papers contain case papers that were not filed in any of the series described above. These papers may include letters, court orders or petitions. Many boxes also contain unnumbered case papers, including exhibits, and court administrative documents such as correspondence, court rules, appointments, resignations and accounts.


A gentleman this week noted that the Assessment of 1783 index names certain individuals as single men and noted that those men are listed on the assessment sheets by a cryptic note: "Sty. 15" followed by the name of another person, usually someone with the same surname.

In Article 35 of the law governing the assessment, Chapter 17 of the 1783 Laws, "An Act to raise the supplies for the ensuing year," there is a provision that all free able bodied single males between 21 and 50 years of age who did not have sufficient property to be taxed should nonetheless be subject to a 15 shilling assessment. These single men were required to give security that they would pay or else be subject to arrest and confinement in jail (hence the security statement in the assessment). Any attempt to leave the county to avoid assessment would also result in jail and an assessment of 30 shillings plus costs of imprisonment.


Vol. 1, No. 29

19 October 1987

Record Series of the Week Ben Primer


This "series" currently titled ADJUTANT GENERAL (History of Maryland Volunteers Papers) is the records of the above named commission created by Chapter 134 of the 1896 Laws of Maryland. The law created a three member commission to oversee work on what ultimately became the two-volume History of the Maryland Volunteers. The law initially provided $15,000; another $7500 was appropriated under two subsequent acts in 1898. The laws authorized 2000 copies of the History: 300 copies to the Maryland Grand Army of the Republic and its local branches; 2 copies to every public and school library in the state; one to the Adjutant General of each state for donation to the state library; 10 copies to the Library of Congress; 1 copy for each member of the general assembly and 1 copy for identifiable descendants of soldiers.

The Commission noted the "incompleteness and paucity of muster rolls" in the hands of the Adjutant General and actively solicited the loan of muster rolls, rosters and historical data in private hands. It also contacted the Adjutant Generals of surrounding states for records that might be in their hands. In addition, the commission paid the War Department for completing service data where names were available, but records incomplete. The final volume was modelled on the volumes prepared by Pennsylvania and Minnesota.

The "series" is actually a number of series which were organized in "packets" by the adjutant general's office. The packets have since been foldered and are clearly marked. For most of the files there is a handwritten item listing of each piece of correspondence by date, writer, subject and recipient.

Seven boxes contain the records and correspondence of the Commission. Included are records of the Grand Army of the Republic's legislative committee which campaigned for the laws, copies of the laws, papers related to commission organizations, military unit summary statistics, incoming correspondence (arranged alphabetically by name and date), outgoing correspondence (same organization), publicity files, muster rolls (including several original ones from the 1860s which remained in commission hands), historical data (including letters from officers of the 19th United States Colored Troops), copyrights for the volumes, commission financial and personnel files, letters of commendation for the volume, requests for copies, acknowledgements from members of the General Assembly, receipts and thanks (including comments on errors or elaboration of detail in the History).

The other seven boxes contain the Governor's requests for War and Navy Department service records, the service record cards provided by those departments (which generally give no more than muster in and out dates), and typed summaries of those cards prepared by the commission. These are arranged by unit. For a number of names the War Department could find no record.

Pat has a series unit listing sheet for these records, and the revised series title and detail on box contents will be available in the STAGSER guide that is forthcoming.


Index 5 (Marriage Reference-Index, Hodges), c. 1674-1851.

Refers to land, court, and probate records which infer marriage. Date given is that of record not of marriage. Compiled by Mrs. Margaret Roberts Hodges.

Commissioner of the Land Office James S. Shepherd, reporting to Governor Harrington in his 1915-1917 biennial report, recommended that "an up-to-date index of early marriages" be introduced at the Land Office. Researchers seeking marriage information were forced to study documents page by page resulting in damage to the records. Shepherd requested a "reasonable appropriation" be made to secure such an index.

Shepherd relates in the 1917-1919 report the passage of a law (Chapter 435 Acts of 1918) authorizing him to purchase "10,000

marriage references prior to 1777 collected by and then in the possession of Mrs. George W. Hodges." The index was purchased and was "considered one of the most valuable assets of the Land Office." That index was transferred to the newly opened Hall of Records on December 4, 1935.

Morris L. Radoff, Archivist of Maryland, reported in 1940 that the index was overhauled during the fiscal year 1939-1940. He notes:

Whenever corrections had been made and new cards inserted these new cards were withdrawn and the old index reestablished. . . . references to the Chancery Papers . . . which had been withdrawn four years ago were replaced. All additions and corrections made by the Hall of Records have been placed in a separate file.

The references from Chancery Papers were withdrawn because the papers were kept by the Land Office. The "separate file" Radoff referred to was kept on the second deck of the original Hall of Records building in metal file cabinets just inside the vault door from the staff office area. These cards were transferred to blue boxes in 1986 in preparation for the move to the new Hall of Records building. The boxed indexes are described as follows:

Marriage References from Prerogative Court Accounts, 1718-1777 [3-52-7-48/54]

St. Mary's County Marriage References from County Probate Records, Archives of Maryland, Prerogative Court Records, Maryland Historical Magazine, 1650-1820

[3-52-7-54 & 55]

Charles County Marriage References from Land Records, Probate Records, Prerogative Court Records, 1650-1820 [3-52-7-55 & 56]

Marriage References from Provincial Court Judgments and Anne Arundel County Court Judgments, 1660-1800 [3-52-7-56/58]

Prince George's County Marriage References from County Probate Records, Prerogative Court Records, and Land Records, 1696-1789 [3-52-7-58 & 59]

Marriage References from Prerogative Court Records, Laws of Maryland, Land Office Records, and Quaker Records, 1600s-1777


Marriage References from Prerogative Court Records, Land Office Records, 1600s-1777 ? [3-52-7-60]

Marriage References from Balance of Final Accounts, 1748-1777 [3-52-7-60]

Marriage References from Probate references and research for Calvert County from Prerogative Court, Land Office, and Chancery Court, 1600s-1800 [3-52-7-60/62]

Marriage References to individuals moved from Maryland, Testamentary Proceedings, Chancery Papers, Prerogative Court, County Records, and research notes for Anne Arundel County from Prerogative Court, County Records, and Land Office Records

1600s-1800 [3-52-7-62]

The indexes listed above were apparently prepared by the Hall of Records Staff between 1935 and 1939.

The Hodges card index is described in Maryland Hall of Records Bulletin No. 6 dated October 1, 1941 as follows:

Card index to Maryland marriages covering materials of the colonial period and a few later records. The compiler of this index included, in addition to actual records of marriages, all references to marital unions. For example, if in a will probated in 1750 the testator gives the name of his daughter and of her husband the index will include this marriage with the date 1750. Therefore, dates given should not be considered as the dates of marriage except where the citation is to a marriage record.

It should be noted that Hodges Index #5 is notoriously inaccurate. The cited references are often not cited correctly. A recent typical example referenced "Chan. Pro." volume 27. The reference turned out to be Prerogative Court Wills volume 27 and not Chancery Record volume 27. Some references are impossible to decode and users must realize that while a marriage reference was found decades ago, it may be impossible to easily locate the document once again.

Even with its shortcomings, the Hodges index was an advanced finding aid for its time. The 1918 Laws of Maryland, Chapter 435, state that the index "would be inestimable in saving the original records from the effects of constant handling and in prolonging their usefulness to the public." It has served its purpose well.


Vol. 1, No. 30

26 October 1987

Record Series of the Week Ben Primer

MO (Citizenship Record) COAGSER 1120, 1902-1949

FR (Declaration of Intent) TRANSER 130, 1902-1949

BA (Election Affidavits) COAGSER 325, 1902-1949

AA (Register of Intended Voters) TRANSER 1147, 1902-1949

CV (Register of Intended Voters) COAGSER 454, 1902-1946

HO (Register of Intended Voters) COAGSER 1010, 1902-1949

QA (Register of Intended Voters) COAGSER 1468, 1902-1922

SM (Register of Intended Voters) COAGSER 1687, 1902-1958

SO (Register of Intent) COAGSER 1804, 1902-1949

All of these records, soon to be uniformly titled (Declaration of Residency) were created under Section 25B of chapter 133 of the Acts of 1902 during a time of major election reform in Maryland. This law provided that all persons moving into Maryland from another state, district or territory must "indicate their intent to become citizens and residents of the state by registering their names" with the county Circuit Court or Baltimore City Superior Court clerks. One year after such a registration of intent, a person could register to vote. Beginning in 1912 a series of laws allowed individuals to file with local Boards of Registry which would send the information to the county clerk. These laws required the individual's race to be indicated on the certificates sent to the clerk, so in many counties the race and election district are also indicated on these records. A 1929 law applying this section only to BA and PG and allowing a simple affidavit of residence witnessed by two citizens in all other counties was declared unconstitutional due to lack of uniformity. In 1949 the law was repealed (Chapter 421) because it imposed hardships on persons, often meaning citizens lost the right to vote for two years, and was unique to Maryland among the 48 states.

The law provided that name, residence, age, occupation and date of registration be recorded. As I mentioned, after 1912 race and election district are frequently added. The BA and MO records are chronological with an index for each volume. Other counties are alphabetical then chronological. Note that SM apparently did not get the message about the repeal as recordings continued intermittently to 1958. The AA, BA and SM registrations also indicate the place from and date on which the person moved to Maryland. Certain counties also indicate issuance of certificates to registrants so they could vote at some time following the one year waiting period. Radoff's county records volume (which also terms these records Registry of Intent, Record of Intent, Declaration Records and Voters' Intent Record) indicates that AL, CA, CR, CE, CH, GA, KE, TA, WA, WI and WO also had these records which presumably are still at the county courthouses. Interestingly, the AA and SM records do not appear in Radoff.

Needless to say these books are valuable guides to immigration into Maryland from other states, particularly during the two war-time/post-war periods and the Great Depression. The migration into Montgomery County of government bureaucrats during the 1930s is remarkable. The fact that many of these records provide indications of race should also help in the movement of blacks from the South. The counties with records of place of removal should be particularly valuable for studying migration patterns and of course for genealogical purposes. Unfortunately the Baltimore City records do not seem to be extant.



DISTRICT COURTS OF MARYLAND (Naturalizations Index) 1797-1951

Index 142 is the naturalizations index that was located in the metal card catalog on the third deck of the old building. An inventory of what is in the index and where it is located in the stacks (3-52-7) is available at circulation in the PRIMER. This index has

been filmed by the National Archives which uses the film index in its operations. Following filming the cards were donated to us. The cards do not have holes to tie them in, so patrons should be advised to handle them with care. This index will be mentioned in the revised checklist of indexes. As with all of these indexes that circulate, Pat and I hope to move them closer to the search room, somewhere on the first deck.

The index is actually three separate indexes. The first runs from 1797 to 1906. The cards may include all or portions of the following information (usually less): the person's name, their country of allegiance, a certificate number or volume reference, the court, the naturalization date, the date and port of arrival, witnesses to the naturalization. If the card is a declaration of intention, that information will be on the back of the card with a date, court and reference. For this time period, the cards provide all the information available, i.e. the references refer to books that contain no more information than is on the cards. The original petitions are not extant.

The second index is for military naturalizations 1918 to 1923?. As you know, the United States has granted citizenship to those honorably discharged from the military. These cards generally include only a name, volume and petition number. A few also provide company of service, country of origin, certificate number and date. These volumes are in the Philadelphia Branch of the National Archives. The patron will need to know the petition number to locate the record in Philadelphia.

The third index is for naturalizations between 1925 and 1951. These cards may include the following: name, address, age, date of order of admission, certificate date, court, petition number, alien registration number, signature. Between 1925 and 1930 they also include the declaration of intention date and place which may have been prior to 1925. There may also be names, ages and residences of minor children. There are also a number of cards indicating name changes as various nationalities took more-English sounding names. Unfortunately these are only indexed by the new name. Again the records referred to on these cards are located at the Archives branch in Philadelphia and are accessed by the petition number.

The U. S. Circuit and District Court Minutes, 1790-1810 are available on microfilm (MdHR M-919). This film should be consulted for naturalizations for the unindexed period before 1797. Also, remember that the U.S. District Court Docket, 1852-1856, which was in the custody of the BC Court of Common Pleas, is indexed in Index 43

Patrons may go to the Philadelphia Branch in person and copy a record for 65 cents. Copies by mail cost $5 which includes a search and copying fee. The address and phone number is:

National Archives - Philadelphia Branch

Ninth and Market, Room 1350

Philadelphia, PA 19107

(215) 597-3000


Vol. 1, No. 31

2 November 1987

RECORD SERIES Phebe Jacobsen

Colonial Wars: Part III Prelude to the Seven Years War


Between 1748 and 1756 the French strengthened their position along the Ohio and the Great Lakes by erecting a series of forts and cementing their friendship with local Indian tribes. The French aim was to contain the English Colonists behind the Alleghanies and along the coast. His Most Christian Majesty's people had come to the New World in centuries past to mine the fur trade and convert the Indians. Only later did they begin to settle. By the 1750's much of Canada was in their possession and lands from Canada to Louisiana within their grasp.

In 1749 a small number of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania speculators established the Ohio Company, obtaining title to 500,000 acres of prime land south of the Ohio River and west of the mountains from Virginia. Virginia, Pennsylvania and other colonies claimed land as far west as the Mississippi, but French explorers traversed the region too. The French reacted slowly but deliberately to the intrusion of the English traders, initially through services of their allies, the Indians. English traders among them were slain or made prisoners and many English trading posts burned. Not until the fall of 1753, however, did the English confront the French and officially question their advance eastward. Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia sent young George Washington, a colonel in the colonial militia to meet with the French Commandant at Fort Le Boeuf and deliver a warning against further French encroachment. Besides delivering a message of warning to Gov. Duquesne, Washington was also directed to observe French strength and decide on sites the English might want to fortify. Washington and his party returned from Fort Le Boeuf in February keenly aware of the growing French military presence and with the knowledge that open hostilities in the near future were unavoidable. The French officers had treated Washington with cool restraint and had promised to see that Dinwiddie's communiques were delivered to Governor Duquesne, who was not at Le Boeuf when Washington arrived. It was obvious the French were in Ohio to stay. As ordered, Washington also viewed the land over which he traveled on his mission carefully. He quickly decided that one site for a fort should be near the Ohio trading post at the conjunction of the Monongahela and Alleghany Rivers, which was a virtual gateway to the Ohio lands.

Even before Washington's return from Le Boeuf, Gov. Dinwiddie was already planning an expedition against the French. He contacted Horatio Sharpe, the new Maryland Governor, who succeeded Samuel Ogle (1753), asking Maryland to join this venture, along with neighboring Pennsylvania. Sharpe unsuccessfully urged the Lower House of Maryland's General Assembly to assist the sister colony. Bolstered by Washington's report on the situation, Dinwiddie made another call on Sharpe and the Maryland Assembly for funds and troops after Washington's return from Le Boeuf.. The Lower House proposed that the L300 come from hawkers' and peddlers' licenses. The Upper House rejected this proposal because the source for funds was the licenses, a prime revenue source for the proprietor.

Governor Sharpe learned quickly that he could expect little financial help for frontier defense from the legislature. Arthur M. Schlesinger, in an article published in the Maryland Historical Magazine in 1912 titled "Maryland's Share in the Last Intercolonial War", describes Maryland's participation in the impending conflict as "a barren expanse of military inactivity brightened here and there by the exploits of Governor Sharpe, preformed on his own initiative, often at his own expense, invariably in the face of opposition of the Assembly." There were a coalesce of reasons for the attitude of the delegates which has been explained, argued and interpreted by many historians.

The Lords Proprietor hit a new low when Frederick, the sixth Lord Baltimore succeeded to the Barony. Frederick's only interest in the colony was the rents and fees he collected from it. His Uncle Cecilius served as his secretary and it was this Calvert with whom Horatio Sharpe had to deal. Cecilius was every bit as avaricious as his nephew, if not more so. From Sharpe's salary of L1400 per year Cecilius had saddled (a term meaning a kickback) a yearly payment of L250. Moreover, Sharpe had no way of bestowing patronage as early Governors had done (only Cecilius could do that) which meant Sharpe had little control of Proprietary officials in Maryland. But Sharpe certainly got along with them as he did also with the individual delegates. The Calvert money in the colony came from various sources, largely from duties, rents and license fees. The Lower House of the General Assembly, as was true of most Colonial Assemblies, at the time, was responsible for the public funds of their respective governments. Composed of elected delegates the General Assembly of Maryland, by mid-18th-century, consistently opposed the levying of most military taxes that did not include some of the revenues collected from the coffers of the Proprietor. Although the Lower House, in session after session, passed bills granting the money requested by Sharpe, they also stipulated that the money come from ordinary licenses and licenses of hawkers and peddlers and later that it come from the reserve land that was tenanted, all of which by Charter right, was part of the Calvert income.

The Upper House, composed of Proprietary officials or their friends turned down every funding bill so designed thereby saving Sharpe the trouble of veto. In no way would the Calverts give up or share any revenue to which their Charter entitled them. Despite pleas to the Crown to intercede in the endless struggle between the Calverts and their Colony, the Crown could not and would not interfere or amend a Charter. On the other hand, the Maryland Charter had granted invaluable rights to Maryland Freemen. All Freemen with property could vote and elect members to the General Assembly. The Assembly, in turn, had oversight of the colonial purse strings. The Legislature reasoned that in time of war the cost of the colony's defense should also be shared with the Proprietor whose very colony was being secured along with the property of other Marylanders. Moreover, there was also a growing feeling that King George should pay for his own Wars and for the troops and provisions to fight them. In most instances Parliament paid for clothing, arms and equipment, but provisions, transports and usually pay were left to the individual colony. Maryland's legislature was not the only one to object to funding the War effort - but the Maryland Delegates were the most obstinate and parsimonious. J. Thomas Scharf has pages of explanation and justification for the attitude of the Maryland Assembly. But it boils down to their resentment of the Calverts, and the fact that Maryland's frontier was a comparatively small one. Compared to the vast wilderness claimed by Virginia, Pennsylvania, the Carolinas and New York, Maryland had little to defend. It was suggested too that Maryland's eastern cities and towns were growing and prosperous and she was not happy to lose those families that poured westward. Finally, the delegates were alert to the philosophical teachings of their time although there is no indication that dislike of the Calverts had yet been transferred to the Crown. So far as the Crown was concerned Governor Arthur Dobbs of North Carolina expressed the feeling for England well: "Loaded with debts, and enormous, tho' necessary taxes [the government of Great Britain] nevertheless hath not only protected these colonies, but indulged them in. . .the easiest taxes [spent for their own support] of any civilized nation on the globe."


Index 143 - PROVINCIAL COURT (Judgments, Index) 1679-1696, 1698-1717, Located in Stacks, 3/52/8/85--97

This is a card index located in the stacks. It does not index the mixed land and judgments

volumes which run to 1679. It begins with liber WC and continues through liber VC#2 which runs to 1717. It does not index two libers between these dates, TL#2 (1696-1697) and HW#3 (1697). It does, however, index liber SS (1689) which is not indexed in Index 136 (the 3-volume index).

This index has several advantages over the volume index. First it is alphabetical by name and covers the entire time span, whereas the volume index simply lists names as they appear in each liber. Second, it provides more complete names than the volume index which usually gives only a last name. It also indicates the court term in which the record appears. The role of the party names in the case is given, and all docket citations are indexed fully.

Its chief problems are the time periods it does not index: 1659-1678; 1696-1697; and 1717-1778.


Vol. 1, No. 32

9 November 1987

RECORD SERIES Phebe Jacobsen

The Colonial Wars (continued)

The Militia Act of 1748 under which the war was fought made it difficult for Sharpe to carry on the conflict. According to Schlesinger, by the 1750's a series of militia laws dating from 1715 exempted at least 10,000 of the 26,000 men of militia age. The Governor had the power to call out the Militia in times of foreign invasion, domestic insurrection (meaning slave rebellions) or war with the Indians, and the General Assembly would supply the funds. In 1754 Maryland's Assembly would not even acknowledge that any of the reasons for calling of the Militia had occurred, and in truth, war against France was not declared until 1756 by England.

In May 1754 the General Assembly agreed to spend L500 for gifts to the Iroquois Indians and L150 for Maryland Commissioners to attend the Albany Conference with the Indians called by the British Government (June 1754). The method of payment provided in the bill, however, precluded its final passage by the Upper House. The Albany Conference was to reaffirm relations between the Colonies north of the Potomac and the Six Nations. It was at this time (July 1754) that the Albany plan of Union was introduced by Franklin for a sort of colonial confederation. The Conference with the Indians was a mild success but the plan of Union was rejected by the colonies and the Home Government. It was not democratic enough for the colonies and too radical for London.

In the spring of 1754 while the Virginia frontier geared for war and the Maryland legislature sparred for position, both the French and Colonial armies hurried to construct a fortification at the juncture of the rivers. Washington set out from Alexandria on April 2, 1754 with 160 recruits to guard and help the workers sent earlier by Dinwiddie to construct a stockade at the forks. On his way, news came that the French had captured it on April 20. After Washington reached Wills Creek he held a council of war and decided that he and his troops, now about 200 strong, would begin their march to the Ohio. There they were to secure the second post of the Ohio Trading Company on Redstone Creek. Their presence, it was assumed, would strengthen the position of the British with the Ohio Indians. By May 24, after a hard, slow journey over the Alleghanies, the regiment reached Great Meadows. By then more Virginia volunteers and two independent Carolina companies had joined the original contingent. Friendly Mingos, led by Half King, had attached themselves to the troops. Sometime on the 25th of May Half King told Washington that a detachment of French soldiers were hidden nearby. On the night of the 27th Washington with 40 of his men ambushed the French, killing their leader (young Ensign Jumonville) and nine other men and capturing 21 soldiers. According to Douglas E. Leach, author of Arms for the Empire the French party was actually a diplomatic mission journeying to meet Governor Dinwiddie to warn him away from French lands. This was the same kind of journey Washington had undertaken the previous winter when he was sent to meet Governor Duquesne (this was all part of eighteenth-century military etiquette that demanded a warning before engaging in actual battle). One of the French escaped to tell the tale at Fort Duquesne, and soon all Europe leaned that Jumonville had been assassinated while acting as an emissary.

Aware of the danger of his position, Washington completed a stockade for his troops at Great Meadow by June 8. Reports reached Washington that the Shawnee and Delaware had joined the French. He felt impelled to go meet these Indians and try to reason with them, so he trekked further west, cutting a road through forests. Washington and the Shawnee, Delaware and Mingo Indians met near Gists Plantation and despite his attempts at persuasion, the Conference failed. Washington later decided the French had sent the Indians to spy on the colonials. Rumors of approaching Indians sent Washington hurrying back to Fort Necessity with his soldiers. By this point (July 2) Washington's force had been drastically reduced by desertions. When the French arrived, led by Jumonville's brother, Washington and his Virginians capitulated and signed articles of surrender stating that France had rightful claim to the territory. The French prisoners which Washington had sent to Williamsburg were to be returned, and he and his troops were allowed to go free. The young Colonel had now made three costly mistakes in 1754. His advance to the forks was too slow, he lost Fort Necessity and a detachment of men he had ordered while in command at Wills Creek to cut out a road to the Ohio had been annihilated. Like Dinwiddie, he would not rest until Fort Duquesne was finally in English hands.

News of the surrender at Fort Necessity compelled the Maryland Assembly finally to make some provision for colonial defense. It voted L6,000 to be used as the Governor saw fit to aid Virginia and support of families of friendly Indians. Half of the money from ordinaries, hawkers and peddlers licenses was to be used by the colony, with the rest going to the Proprietor. Sharpe and the Upper House, believing there had been some concession on the part of the Lower House, agreed to the bill. Unfortunately, the Calverts felt otherwise, and never again could a compromise of this nature occur in Maryland.

With the funds Sharpe ordered that 100 men be raised to join units of Carolina, Virginia and New York troops stationed at Wills Creek. Col. Thomas Cresap was to procure rations for the new Maryland force and recruiting began immediately. A native of New Jersey, John Dagworthy, now a resident of Worcester County, was given command of the new company. (Dagworthy had been a captain for Jersey in the aborted Canadian Campaign.) Both Dinwiddie and Sharpe planned a fall campaign against Fort Duquesne. In early October 1754, Horatio Sharpe received notice from White Hall of his appointment as Commander in Chief of His Majesties Forces Engaged Against the French. He would only hold the post for three months, but he used his position well, most of the time rectifying past errors made by Dinwiddie. Meeting first with Dinwiddie and other officials at Williamsburg, he soon began touring the perimeters of his charge. As soon as Sharpe saw the fort at Wills Creek he knew what must be done.

The fort itself was largely constructed by soldiers from other colonies. At Gov. Dinwiddie's instructions, buildings from the trading post at Wills Creek were included in the fort which unhappily was situated between two high hills so that an enemy could pour down shots within the walls of the fort. Sharpe, who knew more about proper fortifications than others, revamped and enlarged the buildings, placed stockades on the hilltops, and used the old trading huts for storage. He tried to make it a usable fortress, although Washington always felt it was useless. Although Gov. Sharpe was well aware of the short comings of Fort Cumberland he recognized the need for a military supply center for the British army in the frontier region. To that end, he reorganized the Commissary Department on a more efficient basis. Sharpe made an attempt to eliminate graft and the high prices paid for needed supplies. Provisions were laid by and contracted for future expeditions. The fort at this point was not considered by the General Assembly and the Governor as belonging to the colony. Virginia and local inhabitants looked on it as the Kings Fort, which should be garrisoned by British regulars and paid for by the Home Government. Status of the fort and its commander was to cause problems between Washington and Dagworthy in later months.


Index 39 - QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY (Certificates of Freedom--Index to Names of Free Blacks), 1807-1864

This is principally an index to blacks born free requiring certificates of freedom. It also includes a few names of persons freed under Acts of the General Assembly and by judgments where no party is named. Most of the references are to Court and Circuit Court records that are indexed as and currently titled (Manumissions). In fact these are (Certificates of Freedom), and Pat will be changing the series title shortly, noting that

they are "Indexed as Manumissions." In addition, there are a few cards for the

Register of Wills (Certificates of Freedom); most of these certificates, however, were issued to persons freed by will. Blacks freed by will or manumitted by deed are not indexed here (they are indexed, but only by owner, in Index 40). For a full discussion of the purpose of the (Certificates of Freedom) see Phebe Jacobsen's "Record Series of the Week" in THE ARCHIVISTS' BULLDOG, Vol. 1, No. 6, 13 April 1987.

The index supplies the following information: name (often only a first name); date of record; age at time of record; how freed [usually "free born"]; date freed [usually blank]; physical characteristics[height, complexion, identifying marks or deformities]; reference.


Vol. 1, No. 33

16 November 1987

RECORD SERIES Phebe Jacobsen

Colonial Wars (continued)

By now Sharpe and Dinwiddie realized that no advance against the French could be made in the fall and winter of 1754. Not only was Duquesne too well garrisoned, but the colonists were ill prepared. British regulars would be needed now.

Meanwhile, both Governors took measures to recruit 700 men for frontier duty. The first Maryland troops under Dagworthy, part of the 100 first recruited, reached Wills Creek in November 1754 and spent the winter in huts they constructed outside the Fort since the barracks were not yet completed. Here they joined their South Carolina and Virginia counterparts. The soldiers were described by contemporaries as a mutinous, undisciplined lot, some without arms or supplies. Several months later, the British regulars would dismiss 40 men from one independent South Carolina company alone as totally unfit.

By early 1755, 53 Maryland rangers had already been recruited for frontier duty, and Maryland agents appointed by the Governor continued to supplement the contracting done by Cresap and to comb the country side for provisions needed for the coming campaign. Sharpe himself made a study of the terrain looking for easy ways to transport provisions and equipment into the interior.

Enlistments were increasing, volunteers had come from the Eastern Shore, as well as the Western Shore, and were ordered to join others in Frederick. The Maryland Assembly, however, continued to quarrel with the Proprietor and no more funds or supplies for military were agreed upon in succeeding months.

Nevertheless, the draft of seven hundred men from Virginia and Maryland was completed by the time the British Regulars, one thousand strong, had landed at Alexandria, Virginia on March 28, 1755. Major General Edward Braddock, commander of the expedition, arrived a few weeks earlier and had already been to Annapolis and Williamsburg. Because the Maryland legislature, as usual could pass no workable supply bill, no means for paying the 120 men already recruited for the Maryland quota of the 700, was at hand. These Marylanders then at Sharpe's instructions, were drafted into the regular British Royal American Regiment. But Sharpe kept Dagworthy and his company for the honor of the colony and paid for them himself.

At a Governors' conference in the spring of 1755, Braddock took pains to explain British plans for the conquest of the French. These plans were outlined carefully from Braddock's expedition against Fort Duquesne, Sir William Johnson's campaign in the Champlain Valley and the assault against Chignecto to Governor Shirley's advance on Niagara. The New England troops with British regulars had already begun their assault against Fort Beauseqour a few days before Braddock left Fort Cumberland. In his talk to the Governors, Braddock also asked for provisions, men and money from the respective legislatures. Both Sharpe and the Governor of Pennsylvania knew that the legislative response in their respective colonies would not be an agreeable one.

In the few weeks prior to their march and during the journey to Fort Cumberland, Braddock, as per instructions, was able to enlist or press enough men to double the number of troops he had on arrival. As was usual in Europe, the army took indentured servants and any male between ages 16 and 60 who was reasonably fit, much to the anger of local inhabitants. Wagons and horses were pressed as well, particularly in Baltimore, Frederick and Prince George's counties.

On the 9th of April 1755, Sir Peter Halket's 6 companies of the 44th Regiment followed by artillery began their march to Fort Cumberland by way of Winchester, Virginia. Ten days later Colonel Dunbar with ammunition, military stores and men from the 48th Regiment left for Frederick. Because there was no road between Fort Frederick and Wills Creek, Colonel Dunbar's regiment was forced to detour 94 miles through Winchester.

Fort Cumberland, as the Wills Creek Fort was called by this time, was literally a proverbial mad house when General Braddock arrived. Without doubt the General was a well-trained British Officer but nothing in his background prepared him for the colonial field. Transportation problems proved his undoing. It had been planned in London that Braddock take a cannon with him to batter down the walls of Fort Duquesne. The British felt this would save many lives. But no one had thought of a way to transport a cannon over mountains and rough terrain where there was no road. To be sure, long before Braddock's arrival a detachment of men were out preparing a 12 foot wide trail for the army. But no road could be made quickly. It would be tough going for both man and beast as the Redcoats advanced through the eastern wilderness.

Despite Sharpe's efforts to see that provisions were at hand at Fort Cumberland for the army, many contractors fell short when it came time to deliver their supply. Furthermore, there were not enough horses, wagons or wagoneers to cart the equipment and food. Benjamin Franklin came to meet Braddock in his capacity as Postmaster General and was able to see that an additional 100 wagons and wagoners were gathered from Pennsylvania, while Sharpe used the Maryland Militia for transport duty, as well.

The maps show Fort Duquesne laying somewhat 100 miles north-west of Fort Cumberland. Fort Necessity stood midway between the two forts. Because of the wagons with their heavy loads, the army made only two miles a day and Braddock worried that additional reinforcements would reach Duquesne long before his army did. At Washington's suggestion Braddock and 1400 men hastened ahead leaving the wagons and their escorts to follow. By the 8th of July, Braddock's force was only a few miles from Duquesne. Meanwhile the French, keenly aware of their coming, sent a hundred regulars, a like number of Canadian militia and 650 Indians to stop the redcoats. A mere handful of men guarded Fort Duquesne.

Colonel Thomas Gage led the advance party as the army crossed the Monongahela and one of its tributaries. The crossing was safely completed and Gage's men with scouts ahead led the way when one of the British soldiers glimpsed an Indian in the woods. The firing began and the British were even able to use the cannon, but that created so much smoke they could not see the enemy. Both armies were startled when the fight began, but the French and Indians reacted as woodsmen and kept behind the shelter of trees dividing quickly into two groups, one on each side of the British, while the Redcoats, at the command of Braddock kept together in easily seen squads. It must be remembered too that except for rangers, the colonial militia man and volunteer had no more experience in Indian warfare than his British counterpart.

Braddock had five horses shot under him before he was himself mortally wounded as were most of his officers and aides-de-camp. The British soldiers began to flee back on the road they had come after the first two hours of heavy fighting. Many reached Gists Plantation about 30 miles from Fort Necessity, waiting there until Col. Dunbar and his wagons hurried to them. Braver men remained near the battlefield to care for the wounded, bury the dead, and collect disregarded weapons. Braddock stayed in command as long as he was able, but until Dunbar arrived it was Washington who ordered the army. All equipment and artillery that could not be carried easily, was destroyed. Unfortunately Braddock's private papers which included detailed plans of other campaigns and thousands of pounds sterling meant to pay the troops, fell to the enemy!

Fortunately, the French did not attempt to pursue the British army after the battle was over. The Indians were too busy with scalps and booty to bother with pursuit. Remnants of the British force did not leave the area until July 13th - 5 days after the battle began. Braddock died that same night and was buried under the road that led to Fort Necessity.

Leach gives the number of French casualties as 3 officers, 2 soldiers, 3 Canadians, 15 Indians killed and 16 men wounded. As for the British - out of 86 officers, 63 were casualties, and out of 1,373 enlisted men 914 were casualties. Col. Dunbar now in command of the British Army (colonials, Regulars and volunteers) made his way back to Fort Cumberland. Soon after his command was safely in the fort and after consultation with Gov. Sharpe and other officials who hastened to Fort Cumberland, Dunbar insisted on finding winter quarters in Philadelphia immediately.

The Indian allies of the French had begun raiding the Maryland frontier as soon as Braddock's troops had left Fort Cumberland and headed for Fort Duquesne. Braddock had ignored these small raids knowing they would cease as soon as Duquesne was conquered. But with Braddock's defeat no British Army now stood between the French and Indians and the mid-Atlantic cities of Baltimore and Philadelphia.


Index 40 - QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY (Certificates of Freedom--Index to Names of Owners), 1807-1864

This is an index to those who freed blacks, either by will, deed or court judgment where an owner is named. The records indexed are the same as those in Index 39, namely the Register of Wills (Certificates of Freedom) 1807-1863 and the County and Circuit Court (Certificates of Freedom) 1826-1864 which are indexed as "Manumissions." The cards are arranged alphabetically by owner whose name appears on the third line of the card. Neither this index nor Index 39 provides access to the names of blacks freed or manumitted. Again, for a full discussion of (Certificates of Freedom) see Phebe Jacobsen's "Record Series of the Week" in THE ARCHIVISTS' BULLDOG, Vol. 1, No. 6, 13 April 1987.

The index supplies the following information: name (often only a first name); date of record; age of freed black at time of record; how freed [usually name of owner and indication whether by will , deed or judgment]; date freed; physical description [height; complexion; identifying marks or deformities]; reference; and cross reference to land record for most manumissions.

I hope we will be able to copy these cards and add them to Index 39 at some date so we will have access to all names of blacks freed as well as those born free.


Vol. 1, No. 34

23 November 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Eleanor M. V. Cook, Guide to the Records of Your District of Columbia Ancestors. Silver Spring, MD: Family Line Publications, 1987 [686.D2; LIB/6/3/4]

Sometimes there seems to be an inexhaustible supply of guides to genealogical research. They range in style and content from the lofty prose of the immortal classic Write It Right to the somewhat more pedestrian but useful approach of The Source. One of our frequent researchers, Mrs. Cook, has compiled an excellent example of a concise guide to the records available in a single jurisdiction: Washington, D.C. The scope includes public sources, both federal and municipal, as well as summaries of the broad range of private materials. I was particularly impressed by the information Mrs. Cook provided on each of the major religious denominations in the District. She outlines the important dates in the histories of the oldest congregations and provides the locations for their records. In addition to descriptions of the variety of available records, Mrs. Cook includes seven maps of Washington and vicinity (1752-1987), a list of repository addresses and a bibliography of additional sources. She even lists Maryland's legal holidays so you know when to go to the Hall of Records! A similar guide now in its third printing is the Genealogical Research Guide for Cecil County, Maryland by Darlene M. McCall and Lorain E. Alexander [Lib/2/2/4] Although written on a more modest scale, this guide also identifies the variety of original and secondary source material relevant to research in a specific locale.

RECORD SERIES Nancy Bramucci


The Archives has been given the responsibility for storing and preserving the battle flags which are now on display in the lobby of the Income Tax Building. The flags will be moved here in the coming months, stored in Room 005, and photographed. Once the flags are removed from the Income Tax Building and stored in Room 005, they will be unavailable to be viewed by the public. At present, there are no firm plans to return the flags to an exhibit. Patrons requesting to see flags in this collection should be referred to MdHR G 1560.

MdHR G 1560 consists of two sets of photographs of some of the flags in the Battle Flag Collection -- the first set photographed years ago by the Army and the second set taken by the photolab after the flags are moved to Room 005. The Army photographs are useful only for reference as they are not of publication quality. The designation "OLD" follows the accession number on the back of the photograph to indicate that these photographs are from the early set. Only black and white negatives are available for these flags.

The photographs taken by the photolab have the designation "NEW" after the accession number on the back of the photograph. The flags are photographed in 4x5 color transparencies and negatives and 4x5 black and white negatives.

As the flags are moved to Room 005 and photographed, reference photographs will be added to MdHR G 1560. Thus it is possible to have more than one photograph per flag in each folder, the "OLD" set and the "NEW" set.

The photographs are keyed to the accession number of the flag. When taking a photoduplication order for a photograph from this collection, it is important to designate "OLD" or "NEW" for flags which have been rephotographed so that we will know which set of photographs is desired.

The first set of flags to be moved to Room 005 is the Confederate Civil War flags. At present, photographs of all the Confederate flags are available in color and black and white with the exception of MdHR G 1560-29 and MdHR G 1560-30 which are only available in black and white.

The flags are cross referenced to Lt. General Milton Reckord's Guide Book and Descriptive Manual of Battle Flags in the Flag Room of the State House at Annapolis, Md. A copy of this guide is included in the collection.


INDEX 33 - ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY (Miscellaneous Records - Index), 1703-1705, 1788-1867.

This index is currently located in the Freedom Records section of the Checklist of Indexes. Most of its entries have nothing to do with blacks, however. Even the Manumissions, Certificates of Freedom and Slave Statistics found here are only indexed for white owners. For purposes of Freedom Records for Anne Arundel County, consult instead Indexes 34 and 35.

Instead this is an index which was described by the WPA as (General Card Index to Names). The WPA reported that this index also included Anne Arundel County Wills, but not the Register of Wills records or slave statistics which it now includes. Presumably the former was moved to Index 3 and the latter added later. In sum, this is a general index to miscellaneous Anne Arundel County records. In the revised Checklist of Indexes it will appear under the County Records section.

The most voluminous entries in this index are for the Levy List and the Judgments, Liber G. While most entries are for names, there are a variety of subjects indexed as well. The records indexed are as follows:

County Court:

(Certificates of Freedom), 1806-1851

(Insolvency Record), 1788-1804 [indexed as Insolvent Debtors]

(Judgments), 1703-1705 [indexed as Liber G] and 1807 [indexed as Ejectments]

(Land Commission Record), 1791-1805 [indexed as Guardians for Infants]

(Manumission Record), 1791-1851 [indexed as Manumissions by date span except 1816-1844 is indexed as Liber C]

County Circuit Court:

(Certificates of Freedom), 1851-1864

(Manumission Record), 1851-1866 [indexed as Manumissions]

(Slave Statistics), 1867 [indexed as Register of Slaves]

Levy Court:

(Levy List), 1811-1828 [indexed as Levy Book]

Board of County Commissioners:

(Levy List), 1829-1837 [indexed as Levy Book]

Register of Wills:

(Certificates of Freedom), 1805-1864 [indexed as Certificates to Free Negroes]

(Certificates of Freedom, Original), 1807-1820

Most of these records are familiar to us. The Levy List includes payments for county workers (clerks, judges, inspectors, bailiffs, constables), state witnesses, crow's head bounties, pensioners, ferries and public roads, almshouses, pauper burials, support of lunatics, schools, jails, warehouses, rent, coroner's juries. The Judgments, Liber G includes cattlemarks, marriage banns, indentures, civil and criminal proceedings and licenses. The Land Commission Record is principally for sales of land for intestates. Blacks are not indexed for the Manumission Record, Certificates of Freedom or Slave Statistics. The Insolvency Record includes the petition of the insolvent, a list of real and personal property, names of creditors and appointment of trustees.


Vol. 1, No. 35

7 December 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

The newly printed copy of The History and Roster of the Maryland Volunteers has arrived and will be located downstairs in the Reference shelves under the State History section.

Record Series of the Week Ben Primer

MARYLAND STATE ARCHIVES (Municipal Charter Amendments and Annexations), 1955-1983, TRANSER 251, 2/9/10/49--60


and Annexations), 1965-1981, TRANSER 336, 3/48/7/13--21

SECRETARY OF STATE (Municipal Charter Amendments and Annexations), 1967-1983, TRANSER 1341, 3/48/7/1--12 (note that there are two time periods in this series)

On a number of occasions over the past six months we have had researchers looking for files on municipal charter amendments or annexations. You will note that we have three series of these records in TRANSER. The reasons for these separate series are explained by the history of the laws governing reporting.


The requirement for municipalities to file these changes came in the Home Rule law adopted in Chapter 423 of the Laws of 1955 [prior to this time the General Assembly had to adopt all charter changes]. This law required filing of charter amendments with the Secretary of State and the Department of Legislative Reference and of annexations with the Land Office and Legislative Reference.

Chapter 96 of the Laws of 1960 required municipalities to "deposit" a "code or compilation containing all or a portion of the public local laws" with the Archives, Legislative Reference and the State Library, a change which presumably would have led to the filing of charter amendments with four different agencies. This new law did not affect the filing of the record copy which still went to Legislative Reference and the Secretary of State. While some municipalities did send these "codes or compilations" to the Archives and State Library, most apparently did not.

Under Chapter 410 of the Laws of 1967, Legislative Reference was to publish all charter amendments and annexations in the Session Laws. In addition, all municipal charter amendments not included in the current annotated code were published in a single volume covering 1955-1967 for Amendments to Municipal Charters and 1949-1967 for Amendments to Public Local Laws of the Code Counties. As an update to this volume Legislative Reference publishes "Compilation of the Changes in the Public Local Laws of Maryland" on a quadrennial basis [see State Documents, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE (Laws-Public Local Changes)].


Chapter 628 of the Laws of 1976 revised the recording procedures for charter amendments to require filing with four agencies: the Secretary of State; the Department of Legislative Reference; the State Law Library and the Maryland State Archives. This change did not affect the filing of annexations. Thus, for this time period all four agencies received charter amendments and Legislative Reference and the Land Office received annexations.


The Laws of 1983, Chapter 78 turned over all recording of both charter amendments and annexations to Legislative Reference (and Chapter 286 of the Laws of 1984 required Legislative Reference to transfer these files annually to the Archives). Since 1983 Legislative Reference has also had a requirement to publish the Municipal Charters and revise this publication on a regular basis [see GENERAL ASSEMBLY, DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE (Municipal Charters) in State Documents].

Arrangement and Description

These series are arranged in alphabetical order by municipality. Some distinguish between charters and annexations; others do not. Most are in reverse chronological order, although the filing for the Secretary of State's copies is chaotic at best.

The Maryland State Archives series runs from 1955 to 1983. It includes the annexations filed with the Land Office. It also includes the Secretary of State's pre-1967 copies of charter amendments (so much for provenance). Thus it should be a complete series of both charter amendments and annexations to 1983. While Charter Amendments are separated from annexations in the files, not all filing is correct so check both files.

The Legislative Reference series does not begin until 1965 for reasons that are not clear since it too should be a complete series from 1955 for both charter amendments and annexations. It ends in 1981 despite the requirements for annual transfer of these records. Perhaps they are a part of session law files. Again charter amendments and annexations are theoretically filed separately, but check both files.

The Secretary of State's series is in two time spans: 1967-1971 (Boxes 10-12) and 1972-1983 (Boxes 1-9).

The series filed with the State Law Library (1960/1976?-1983) has not been transferred to us.

Research Use

Since these charter amendments and annexations have been published regularly in session laws since 1970, it might be best for patrons to start there. They appear at the end of each year's general laws in a section arranged alphabetically by city [there is also a section for changes to county codes there]. In addition, in state documents under GENERAL ASSEMBLY, DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE, see (Laws-Public Local Changes) and (Municipal Charters).

The volume on Amendments to Municipal Charters and Public Local Laws of the Code Counties, but it is available at the State Law Library.

The chief advantage of the files for researchers is that they contain the record copy of all a city's amendments and annexations in a single folder or two. Moreover, there are plats for many annexations in these files (although this was not required) which will not appear in the laws. Diane Frese also advises that Legislative Reference was not always very assiduous in its record keeping, so researchers may not want to rely solely on Session Laws.


Index 34 - ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY (Certificates

of Freedom - Index to Names of Free Blacks), 1805-1864

This is an index to names of blacks appearing in the certificates of freedom for whom there is no evidence of white ownership. In general this means that the certificate states that the individual was "born free." There are a few other certificates that indicate the individual "is free" or has been "certified free." Several names are individuals freed by Acts of the General Assembly or by judgment.

The following records are included:


(Certificates of Freedom), 1805-1864, MdHR 4747

(Certificates of Freedom), 1807-1820, MdHR 4843-3-2

These volumes are indexed as Certificates to Free Negroes.


(Certificates of Freedom), 1806-1807, MdHR 906-2 - indexed as Manumissions (back of book)

(Certificates of Freedom), 1807-1816, MdHR 909-2 - indexed as Manumissions (back of book) - this is not currently labelled as

such, but will be shortly

(Certificates of Freedom), 1810-1831, MdHR 911

(Certificates of Freedom), 1831-1844, MdHR 947

(Certificates of Freedom), 1845-1864, MdHR 951

The index supplies the following information: name (often only a first name); date of record; age of freed black at time of record; physical description [height; complexion; identifying marks or deformities]; reference. All references include the MdHR number so there should be no problem locating the book. The dates for the referenced books are sometimes not in accord with our accession lists. Please note that the current checklist of indexes indicates that other series are indexed here. This will be corrected in the new checklist. As I have stated before regarding these "freedom records," no names of blacks are included here if they are linked in any way to a white master (either by legal manumission or by will). For those blacks the only indexing is to the white master's name. See Phebe's article on Certificates of Freedom in BULLDOG, Vol. 1, No. 6, 13 April 1987.


Vol. 1, No. 36

14 December 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Lucille Whalen, ed. Reference Services in Archives. New York: Haworth Press, 1986. [MdHR 404; LIB 3/3/4]

In comparison to other fields, there are relatively few periodicals or journals devoted solely to archival concerns. There is some diversity in what is published, ranging from the broad scope and occasional theoretical bloodletting featured in the American Archivist (see BULLDOG, Vol. 1, Nol 19) to the specialized focus of David Bearman's new Archival Informatics Newsletter. What falls between are articles that help the practical, everyday concerns of the archivist. Our colleagues in the library world have more outlets for these types of articles, and thus if was the Reference Librarian journal that originally published Lucille Whalen's compilation of articles on archival reference services.

Overall, these articles are descriptive rather than prescriptive in character, so our own experience with high volume genealogical reference inquiries may not appear to have much in common with the 35 requests handled each week at the archives of Chase Manhattan Bank. Indeed, this reviewer was rather surprised not to find any articles featuring a state archives or large historical society that caters to a clientele similar to ours (this probably has something to do with the fact that only academic and business archivists have the leisure time to write such articles while we real archivists spend all our time staying just one step ahead of the onslaught!). Despite this shortcoming, there is much we can learn from descriptions of how other institutions approach their reference responsibilities. The computer plays a predictably major role in most plans for archival reference activities. Yet despite all the automation, on-line capability, and network access, it was Cynthia Swank who best summarized the key to good reference service when she said that the "Archives' real its people. The reference service the staff provides ensures the Archives' visibility and viability."

Record Series of the Week Pat Melville

Secretary of State:

(Motor Vehicle License Applications, Owners)
1904-1910 STAGSER 922

(Motor Vehicle License Applications, Chauffeurs)
1906-1910 STAGSER 1013

Registration of motor vehicles in Maryland was first provided for under Chapter 518 of the Acts of 1904. The Secretary of State processed the applications and issued licenses from May 1904 until July 1, 1910 when a Commissioner of Motor Vehicles took over the function. From 1906 to 1910 Maryland law also required chauffeurs to obtain licenses from the Secretary of State. The licenses served as both an automobile registration and driver's license. They remained in effect as long as the owner retained the car or the chauffeur drove the car.

The records contain the following information: name and address of owner or chauffeur; name of the automobile manufacturer; horsepower of the car; license number issued by the Secretary of State. The applications are arranged numerically by license number.


Index 35 - ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY (Freedom Records - Index to Owners), 1785-1867

This is an alphabetical index to names of owners of slaves who were freed, either by will, emancipation, judgment or the thirteenth amendment. The owner's name is on the third line of the card. The names of the former slaves are not indexed. Only blacks born free or freed by law or judgment (with no white owner given) are indexed by name (see Index 34).

The records indexed here are:


(Certificates of Freedom), 1805-1864, MdHR 4747 [indexed as Certificates to Free Negroes]

(Certificates of Freedom), 1807-1820, MdHR 4843-3-2 [indexed as Releases and Petitions]

(Certificates of Freedom, Original), 1807-1820, MdHR 4767-158


(Certificates of Freedom), 1806-1807, MdHR 906-2 [indexed as Manumissions (back of book)]

(Certificates of Freedom), 1807-1816, MdHR 909-2 [indexed as Manumissions (back of book) - this is not currently labelled as such, but will be shortly]

(Certificates of Freedom), 1810-1831, MdHR 911

(Certificates of Freedom), 1831-1844, MdHR 947

(Certificates of Freedom), 1845-1864, MdHR 951

(Manumission Record), 1797-1807, MdHR 906-1 [indexed as Manumissions]

(Manumission Record), 1807-1816, MdHR 909-1 [indexed as Manumissions]

(Manumission Record), 1816-1844, MdHR 4744 [indexed as Deeds C#3]

(Manumission Record), 1844-1866, MdHR 4748 [indexed as Manumissions]

(Manumissions), 1785-1842, 1865, MdHR 16,375 [indexed as Original Manumissions]

(Slave Statistics), 1867, MdHR 4748

Again, for a full discussion of (Certificates of Freedom) see Phebe Jacobsen's "Record Series of the Week" in The Archivists' BULLDOG, Vol. 1, No. 6, 13 April 1987.

The index supplies the following information: name (often only a first name); date of record; age of freed black at time of record; how freed [usually name of owner and indication whether by will, deed or judgment]; date freed; physical description [height; complexion; identifying marks or deformities]; reference.

I hope we will be able to copy these cards and add them to Index 34 at some date so we will have access to all names of blacks freed as well as those born free.


Vol. 1, No. 37

21 December 1987

Library Libations Doug McElrath

Ellen Thomas Berry and David Allen Berry. Our Quaker Ancestors: Finding Them in Quaker Records. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987 [MdHR 400; 2/1/4 or Room 104]

The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) were an important element in colonial Maryland and we are fortunate to have most of their records either in the original or on film. AS you know from using Quaker records, it helps to know something about the history, organization and terminology used in the meetings. We have Phebe Jacobsen's classic finding aid, Quaker Records in Maryland, but for a more general introduction to Quaker records, the Berry's concise guide (136 pp.) is quite useful. In addition to chapters on the history and organization of the Quakers, there are sections on migration patterns, the contents of monthly meeting records, techniques for locating and searching monthly meeting records, characteristic problems with the records, repositories (including us), Quaker records outside the United States, non-Quaker sources, appendices full of examples, maps, illustrations and lists, as well as a glossary defining the terminology. So to learn about Quaker records, don't wait for the "Inner Light" experienced at an indulged meeting, read this book!

Record Series of the Week Ben Primer

LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Index), 1636-1845, STAGSER 10, 1/24/5/13--19

This is a seven volume index to most of the patent records through the mid-nineteenth-century. Volume 1 (which indexes Patents Libers 1, 2 and 3, 1636-1658) is the most important volume in this series. It is a typescript index in rough alphabetical order by name (of persons, lands and some subjects). Each liber is indexed separately, but all the A's are grouped together for the three libers.

Volume 1 has enormous detail about land office transactions (patents, assignments, warrants, settlers, transportations), but it also includes much more: court matters (plaintiffs, defendants, depositions, oaths, petitions, debtors, creditors, jurors, orders, summons, writs, pardons, witnesses, verdicts, levies, arrests, banishments, confessions); other financial transactions (rents, sales, purchases, slaves, licenses, fees, gifts, receipts); probate matters (deaths, death certificates, trusteeships, inventories, accounts, administrators names and bonds, wards); governmental affairs (recorded laws [for example on adultery, executions, foreigners, Indians, hunting, and weights and measures], calling of the General Assembly, names of assemblymen, proxies, appointment of constables/sheriffs, orders, assessments, commissions, proclamations, election of the speaker of the House, letters [for example from Governor Berkeley of Virginia], salaries, erection of counties, Indian relations [arrests, treaties, laws]); cattlemarks; apprenticeships; occupations; births; marriage licenses. The Index provides specific information about the nature of charges in many cases (threats, defamation, outlaw, insurrection, trespass, loser at ten pins).

I compared this index with both Skordas and the Patents index (No. 54) and found names here that I could find in neither of the above. In addition, this index provided additional citations not found in Skordas for certain names.

Volumes 2 (1639-1695) and 3 (1694-1777) are basically liber indexes bound together (i.e. the alphabet begins over for each volume as in the Warrants and Assignments index). The names are listed by first letter of last name as they appear in each volume. They do not index land.

Volume 4 is an index to the certificates volumes in the patents series from 1784-1841. Volumes 5-7 index only patents in the patents volumes from 1680 to 1845. Again these are liber indexes, one for each individual patent volume. There is no index to land.

The dates I have assigned to these indexes reflect the dates on the patents volumes that they index, not the dates listed currently in STAGSER for these volumes.

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