Archives of Maryland
(Biographical Series)

Irene Morgan Kirkaldy (1917-2007)
MSA SC 3520-15242


Newspaper articles -

Dier, Richard. "Mrs. Morgan Hails J.C. Bus Victory." Afro-American, June 15, 1946.

Dier, Richard. "Morgan Vs. State of Virginia: Case to be Supreme Court Hot Potato." Afro-American, January 26, 1946.

Goldstein, Richard. "Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, 90, Rights Pioneer, Dies." New York Times, August 13, 2007.

Lamb, Yvonne Shinhoster. "Irene M. Kirkaldy; Case Spurred Freedom Rides." Washington Post, August 13, 2007.

Morello, Carol. "The Freedom Rider a Nation Nearly Forgot: Woman Who Defied Segregation Finally Gets Her Due." Washington Post, July 30, 2000.

Books -

Catsam, Derek Charles. Freedom's Main Line: The Journey of Reconciliation and the Freedom Rides. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 2009.

Arsenault, Raymond. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Other Sources -

1930 Census, Baltimore City, 12th Ward ED 572, p. 84, Amos household.

Chideya, Farai (host) "Fighting Jim Crow Before Rosa Parks." NPR. News & Notes. August 15, 2007.

"Irene Morgan." Contemporary Black Biography.  Vol. 65. Gale, 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2010.

Lichter, Jaclyn R. "2010 Maryland Women's Hall of Fame Nomination." Maryland Commission for Women, 2009.

Lyden, Jacki (host) "Irene Morgan Kirkaldy Discusses the 1944 Incident in Which She Refused to Give Up Her Seat on a Bus to a White Couple." NPR. Weekend All Things Considered. August 5, 2000.

Morgan v. Virginia, 328 U.S. 373 (1946).

Return to Irene Morgan Kirkaldy's Introductory Page

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