Archives of Maryland
(Biographical Series)

Mathias de Sousa
MSA SC 3520-2810
Freeman in attendance at the Legislature, 1642

Berlin, Ira. "Chapter 1: Emergence of Atlantic Creoles in the Chesapeake," in Many Thousands Gone:  The First two Centuries of Slavery in North America.  Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Bogen, David S.  "Mathius de Sousa; Maryland's First Colonist of African Descent." Maryland Historical Magazine 96(1) (Spring 2001), pp. 68-85.

Gray, Steven.  "History Emerges in Md.; Settlement Thought to be One of State's First."  Washington Post, October 6,  2000.

King, Julia A., Edward Chaney, and Iris Carter Ford.  "Defining Race and Identity in Early Md." Baltimore Sun, February 4, 2001.

Stone, Garry Wheeler.  "Fur Traders and Field Hands:  Blacks in Manorial Maryland, 1634-1644." Unpublished manuscript, 1984. In Maryland State Archives SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Biographical Series) Mathius de Sousa file,  MSA SC 3520-2810.

Archival Sources-
Document Listing de Sousa as being brought into the province in the year 1633  LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Original) MSA S 920-1 ff. 19, 20, and 37

Assembly record from March 23 showing De Sousa's presence (Matt das Sousa) GENERAL ASSEMBLY UPPER HOUSE (Proceedings) 1637-1658, Liber MC, folio 178, MSA S-977-1, 2/20/4/42

Document listing de Sousa as a mulatto ("Mathias Sousa a Molato") LAND OFFICE (Patent Record, Original) 1646-1657, liber ABH, folio 65, MSA S920-4, 1/29/2/45)

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