Archives of Maryland
Historical List
Gubernatorial Elections in Maryland
1838-2014

The election of 1838 was the first one in which the governor was chosen by popular election. Between 1776-1837, the governor was chosen by joint ballot of the General Assembly. This changed by constitutional amendment in 1837 (1836 Md. Laws chapter 197 sec. 20.). At this time, there were three gubernatorial districts in the state, and the candidates were chosen on a rotating basis based on geographic location.1 They also only served a three year term. A four year term was established by the Constitution of 1851, and geographic requirements were removed by the Constitution of 1864.

In 1923, Albert C. Ritchie became the first governor to serve more than one term. He left office in January 1935 after his failed bid for a fifth consecutive term. Ritchie is the only popularly elected governor to serve more than two consecutive terms. A two term limit was established by constitutional amendment in 1948 (1947 Md. Laws chapter 109).
 
Date of Election
Winner
Opponent(s)
Margin of votes
Sources
October 3, 1838
William Grason (D) John Nevitt Steele (W)  
October 6, 1841
Francis Thomas (D) William Cost Johnson (W)  
October 2, 1844
Thomas G. Pratt (W) James Carroll (D)  
October 6, 1847
Philip Francis Thomas (D) William Tilghman Goldsborough (W)  
October 2, 1850
Enoch Louis Lowe (D) William B. Clarke (W)  
November 2, 1853
Thomas Watkins Ligon (D) Richard Johns Bowie (W)  
November 4, 1857
Thomas Holliday Hicks (American) John C. Groome (D)
(father of Governor James Black Groome)
November 6, 1861
Augustus W. Bradford (U) General Benjamin C. Howard (D)  
November 8, 1864
Thomas Swann (U) Ezekiel F. Chambers (W) MSA S1122-1
November 5, 1867
Oden Bowie (D) Hugh L. Bond MSA S1122-1
November 7, 1871
William Pinkney Whyte (D) Jacob Tome (R) Whyte 73,958
Tome 58,838
MSA S1122-2
1874*
election by General Assembly to fill Whyte's term
James Black Groome (D)
62 out of 70 votes
November 2, 1875
John Lee Carroll (D) J. Morrison Harris (R) Carroll 85,454
Harris 72,530
MSA S1122-2
November 4, 1879
William T. Hamilton (D) James A. Gary (R)
Howard Meeks
Hamilton 90,771
Gary 68,609
Meeks 265
MSA S1122-2
November 6, 1883
Robert M. McLane (D) Hart B. Holton (R) McLane 92,694
Holton 80,707
MSA S1122-2
1886*
election by General Assembly to fill Hamilton's term
Henry Lloyd (D) Robert B. Dixon
November 8, 1887
Elihu E. Jackson (D) Walter B. Brooks (R)
Summerfield Baldwin (Pr)
Jackson 99,038
Brooks 86,622
Baldwin 4,416
MSA S1122-2
November 3, 1891
Frank Brown (D) William J. Vannort (R)
Edwin Higgins (Pr)
Brown 108,539
Vannort 78,388
Higgins 5,120
MSA S1122-3
November 5, 1895
Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. (R) John E. Hurst (D)
Joshua Levering (Pr)
Henry F. Andrews (P)
Henry F. Andrews (S)
Lowndes 124,936
Hurst 106,169
Levering 7,719
Andrews (P) 989
Andrews (S) 392
MSA S1122-3
Maryland Manual, 1896
(AOMOL vol. 108 p. 198)
November 7, 1899
John Walter Smith (D) Lloyd Lowndes, Jr.(R)**
James Swann (Pr)
John A. Rugemer (Socialist Labor)
William Nevin Hill (Union Reform)
Levin T. Jones (Social Democrat)
George L. Wellington
Smith 128,409
Lowndes 116,286
Swann 5,275
Jones 432
Rugemer 420
Hill 367
Wellington 3
MSA S1122-3
Maryland Manual, 1899
(AOMOL vol. 111 p. 263)
November 3, 1903
Edwin Warfield (D) Stevenson A. Williams (R)
William Gisriel (Pr)
Silas M. Crabill (S)
Warfield 108,548
Williams 95,923
Gisriel 2,913
Crabill 1,302
MSA S1122-3
Maryland Manual, 1903
(AOMOL vol. 115, p. 284)
November 5, 1907
Austin L. Crothers (D) George R. Gaither (R)
James W. Frizzell (Pr)
Ira Culp (S)
Crothers 102,051
Gaither 94,300
Frizzell 3,776
Culp 1,310
Maryland Manual, 1907-08
(AOMOL vol. 119, p. 352)
November 7, 1911
Phillips Lee Goldsborough (R) Arthur Pue Gorman, Jr. (D) Goldsborough 106,394
Gorman 103,395
Baltimore Sun Almanac, 1912
MdHR L201098
November 2, 1915
Emerson C. Harrington (D) Ovington E. Weller (R)
George R. Gorsuch (Pr)
Charles E. Devlin (S)
Robert W. Stevens (L)
Harrington 119,317
Weller 116,136
Gorsuch 2,335
Devlin 2,082
Stevens 853
Maryland Manual, 1915-16
(AOMOL vol. 126, p. 249)
November 4, 1919
Albert C. Ritchie (D) Harry W. Nice (R)
Arthur L. Blessing (S)
Robert W. Stevens (L)
Ritchie 112,240
Nice 112,075
Blessing 2,799
Stevens 1,663
Maryland Manual, 1920
(AOMOL vol. 130, p. 281)
November 6, 1923
Albert C. Ritchie (D) Alexander Armstrong (R)
William H. Champlin (S)
Verne L. Reynolds (L)
Ritchie 177,871
Armstrong 137,471
Champlin 1,465
Reynolds 968
Maryland Manual, 1924
(AOMOL vol. 135, p. 188)
November 2, 1926
Albert C. Ritchie (D) Addison E. Mullikin (R)
P. Gustav Dill (S)
Ritchie 207,435
Mullikin 148,145
Dill 2,495
Maryland Manual, 1926
(AOMOL vol. 137, p. 251)
November 4, 1930
Albert C. Ritchie (D) William F. Broening (R)
Elisabeth Gilman (S)
Samuel Parker (C)
Robert W. Stevens (L)
Ritchie 283,639
Broening 216,864
Gilman 4,178
Stevens 1,358
Parker 855
Maryland Manual, 1930
(AOMOL vol. 147, p. 240)
November 6, 1934
Harry W. Nice (R) Albert C. Ritchie (D)**
Broadus Mitchell (S)
Bernard Ades (C)
Harry B. Galatian (L)
William A. Gillespie (I)
Nice 253,813
Ritchie 247,664
Mitchell 6,787
Gillespie 2,831
Ades 800
Galatian 719
Maryland Manual, 1934
(AOMOL vol. 151, p. 261)
November 8, 1938
Herbert R. O'Conor (D) Harry W. Nice (R)**
David W. Eyman (S)
Herbert Brune (I)
Robert Kadish (L)
Joshua C. Gwin (Union)
Samuel Gordon (C)
O'Conor 308,372
Nice 242,095
Brune 7,503
Gwin 4,249
Eyman 941
Kadish 759
Gordon 616
Maryland Manual, 1939
(AOMOL vol. 158, p. 320)
November 3, 1942
Herbert R. O'Conor (D) Theodore R. McKeldin (R) O'Conor 198,488
McKeldin 179,204
Maryland Manual, 1943-44
(AOMOL vol. 160, p. 198)
November 5, 1946
William Preston Lane, Jr. (D) Theodore R. McKeldin (R) Lane 268,084
McKeldin 221,752
Maryland Manual, 1948-49
(AOMOL vol. 162, p. 227)
November 7, 1950
Theodore R. McKeldin (R) William Preston Lane, Jr. (D)** McKeldin 369,807
Lane 275,824
Maryland Manual, 1951-52
(AOMOL vol. 164, p. 261)
November 2, 1954
Theodore R. McKeldin (R) Harry Clifton Byrd (D) McKeldin 381,451
Byrd 319,033
Maryland Manual, 1955-56
(AOMOL vol. 166, p. 275)
November 4, 1958
J. Millard Tawes (D) James P.S. Devereaux (R) Tawes 485,061
Devereaux 278,173
Maryland Manual, 1959-60
(AOMOL vol. 168, p. 360)
November 6, 1962
J. Millard Tawes (D) Frank Small, Jr. (R) Tawes 428,071
Small 341,271
Maryland Manual, 1963-64
(AOMOL vol. 171, p. 446)
November 8, 1966
Spiro T. Agnew (R) George P. Mahoney (D)
Hyman Pressman (I)
Agnew 455,318
Mahoney 373,543
Pressman 90,899
Maryland Manual, 1967-68
(AOMOL vol. 173, p. 503)
January 7, 1969*
election by General Assembly to fill Agnew's term
Marvin Mandel (D) 126 of 180 votes
November 3, 1970
Marvin Mandel (D) C. Stanley Blair (R)
Robert Woods Merkle, Sr. (A)
Mandel 639,579
Blair 314,336
Merkle 19,184
Maryland Manual, 1971-72
(AOMOL vol. 175, p. 515)
November 5, 1974
Marvin Mandel (D) Louise Gore (R) Mandel 602, 648
Gore 346,449
Maryland Manual, 1975-76
(AOMOL vol. 177, p. 243)
November 7, 1978
Harry R. Hughes (D) J. Glenn Beall, Jr. (R) Hughes 718,328
Beall 293,635
Mayrland Manual, 1979-80
(AOMOL vol. 179, p. 673)
November 2, 1982
Harry R. Hughes (D) Robert A. Pascal (R)
John Rothenhoefer (write-in)
Hughes 705,910
Pascal 432,826
Rothenhoefer 413
Maryland Manual, 1983-84
(AOMOL vol. 181, p. 687)
November 4, 1986
William Donald Schaefer (D) Thomas J. Mooney (R) Schaefer 907,301
Mooney 194,187
Maryland Manual, 1987-88
(AOMOL vol. 183, p. 675)
November 6, 1990
William Donald Schaefer (D) William S. Shepard (R) Schaefer 664,015
Shepard 446,980
Maryland Manual, 1991-92
(AOMOL vol. 185, p. 733)
November 8, 1994
Parris N. Glendening (D) Ellen R. Sauerbrey (R) Glendening 708,094
Sauerbrey 702,101
Allensworth 105
Maryland Manual, 1996-97
(AOMOL vol. 187, p. 897)
Maryland Manual On-Line
November 3, 1998
Parris N. Glendening (D) Ellen R. Sauerbrey (R)
Jacqueline Crabtree (D; write-in)
Glendening 846,972 
Sauerbrey 688,357
Crabtree 649
Maryland Manual On-Line
November 5, 2002
Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (R) Kathleen Kennedy Townsend (D)
Spear Lancaster (Lib)
Ralph Jaffe (D; write-in)
James T. Lynch, Jr. (D; write-in)
Ehrlich 879,592
Townsend 813,422
Lancaster 11,546
Jaffe 201
Lynch 61
Maryland Manual, 2006 (p. 563)
Maryland Manual On-Line
November 7, 2006
Martin O'Malley (D) Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (R)**
Ed Boyd (G)
Christopher A. Driscoll (Pop)
O'Malley 942,279
Ehrlich 825,464
Boyd 15,551
Driscoll 3,481
Maryland Manual On-Line
November 2, 2010
Martin O'Malley (D) Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. (R)
Susan J. Gaztanaga (Lib)
Maria Allwine (G)
Eric Delano Knowles (Con)
O'Malley 1,044,961
Ehrlich 776,319
Gaztanaga 14,137
Allwine 11,825
Knowles 8,612
Maryland Manual On-Line
November 4, 2014 Lawrence J. Hogan, Jr. (R) Anthony G. Brown (D)
Shawn Quinn (Lib)
Hogan 884,400
Brown 818,890
Quinn 25,382
Maryland State Board of Elections

**Signifies loss by incumbent

Party Afflications:
(A) - American
(C) - Communist
(Con) - Constitution
(D) - Democrat
(G) - Green
(I) - Independent
(L) - Labor
(Lib) - Libertarian
(P) - People's Party
(Pop) - Populist
(Pr) - Prohibition
(R) - Republican
(S) - Socialist
(U) - Unionist
(W) - Whig

1. Section 20 of 1826 Laws of Maryland chapter 197 defined the three districts as Eastern (Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Talbot, Dorchester, Somerset and Worcester counties), Southern (Saint Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery counties, as well as Baltimore City), and Northwestern (Baltimore, Harford, Carroll, Frederick, Washington and Allegany counties). Article II section 5 of the Constitution of 1851 numbered the districts, First (St. Mary's, Charles, Calvert, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Montgomery and Howard counties, and Baltimore City), Second (the eight counties of the Eastern Shore), and Third (Baltimore, Harford, Frederick, Washington, Allegany and Carroll counties)


Additional resources:

Friedman, Dan. The Maryland State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Rohr, Charles James. "The Governor of Maryland: A Constitutional Study," Johns Hopkins University Studies in History 50 No. 30, 1932.

White, Frank F., Jr. The Governors of Maryland, 1777-1970. Annapolis, MD: The Hall of Records Commission, 1970.


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