Plan of the City of Baltimore
by Thos.. H. Poppleton, 1822 , MSA SC 1213-1-292
Maryland Institute for the Mechanic Arts (now
occupies its new building.
In London, George Peabody and Charles James
Eaton, president of
the Library Company of Baltimore, discuss
Peabody's desire to
make a gift to Baltimore.
Statewide convention of free African-Americans
Loyola College founded.
Johns Hopkins becomes a manager of the Maryland
for the Insane; Enoch Pratt will serve later
as a manager.
Moses Shepherd founds Shepherd Asylum and names
Benjamin F. Newcomer is a founder of the Maryland
for The Instruction of the Blind.
In London, George Peabody and Reverdy Johnson
Peabody's letter to William E. Mayhew stating
his desire to found a
cultural institution in Baltimore.
Mary Elizabeth Garrett is born. She will be
a founder of Bryn Mawr
School, provider of funds for opening the
Johns Hopkins School of
Medicine in 1893, and a benefactor of Bryn
The Library Company of Baltimore merges with
Historical Society, with the stipulation that
the library will be free
to the public for reference.
Home of the Friendless founded.
Maryland Historical Society proposes a public
library for Baltimore
John Pendleton Kennedy diary entry quotes George
during London visit with the philanthropist:
"Quite frankly, I
suppose you Baltimore people do not care to
have an institution
established among you as I have heard nothing
of the suggestion I
made through Mr. Mayhew years ago."
Hebrew Benevolent Society founded.
George Peabody visits Baltimore and accepts
plan presented by
Kennedy, Mayhew, and Eaton for the Peabody
gives $300,000 to fund the Institution.
Moses Sheppard dies. He bequeaths $570,000
to the Sheppard
Asylum (now Sheppard-Pratt Hospital).
Baltimore YMCA builds first YMCA building in
the United States.
Donors include John W. Garrett and Johns Hopkins.
Baltimore City names McDonogh School trustees.
George Peabody adds $200,000 to his 1857 gift
for the Peabody
Peter Cooper founds Cooper Union of New York
for instruction of
the industrial classes.
Children's Aid Society created to provide
guardianships and homes
The Civil War divides Baltimoreans. George
Hopkins, John W, Garrett, and Enoch Pratt
support the Union. William
Walters, a secessionist sympathizer, moves
to Europe. The
opening of Peabody Institute is delayed by
dissension between pro-
Union and pro-Confederacy trustees.
Population of Baltimore City and County: white,
black, 29, 911; slaves, 5,400.
Union Relief Association is formed. The Association
organized to provide aid, comfort, and meals
to Union soldiers stationed in
Baltimore or in transit through the city.
By 1865 it was estimated that the
group had served approximately one million
meals to US soldiers,
confederate P.O.W's, and refugees from the
Local female volunteers assist staff at the
seven major US military hospitals
located in Baltimore.
In the aftermath of the battle of Gettysburg,
Samuel Shoemaker, a Baltimore
businessman, sends his employees to assist
at the field hospitals in
Pennsylvania. Shoemaker also underwrites the
cost of several wagons of
Maryland Fair for US Soldier Relief is held
in Baltimore. Organized by
women, the ten-day event raised over $80,000
for sick and wounded
Slavery abolished in Maryland upon adoption
of constitution of 1864. New
constitution also provides for a uniform centralized
tax supported public
Baltimore Quakers form a "Freedman's Aid Society."
Dorsey and other women appeal to Baltimore's
Mayor for additional funding
to continue and expand their work of assisting
the often sick and poorly-
clothed ex-slaves that daily arrive in Baltimore.
German Protestant's Orphan Asylum founded.
Judge Hugh Lennox Bond leads in formation of
Association for the Moral and Educational
Improvement of the Colored
People, which in turn founds Baltimore Normal
Colored Teachers and Schools for Colored Children.
Normal School (now Towson University) is chartered
Douglass Institute for the Intellectual Advancement
of the Colored
Portion of the Community is founded. Stock
is sold at $10 per share and
African-American purchasers enthusiastically
support the effort. Scipio
Goldsborough, whose occupation in the 1860
city directory is listed as a
waiter, buys 50 shares.
The Pratt Free School founded in North Marlborough,
with funding by Enoch Pratt.
George Peabody gives $20,000 to establish
a publications fund at
the Maryland Historical Society.
The Southern Relief Fair, designed to raise
funds to assist the impoverished
people of the South, garners over $100,000
in donations. Maryland women,
mostly former secessionist sympathizers, play
the leadership role in this
The Female House of Refuge opens
The German Ladies Relief Association, to provide
assistance to German
immigrants, is formed.
Peabody Institute Library opens.
Discussion of giving by John W. Garrett, George
Peabody, and Johns
Hopkins leads to Hopkins naming two interlocking
trustees, which in turn secure legislative
acts incorporating the
Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins
African-Americans from throughout the state,
many former slaves,
contribute $19,000 to partially underwrite
the cost of teacher salaries, books,
and heating fuel for the colored schools.
The Shelter of Orphans of Colored Soldiers
and Friendless Colored Children
is founded. Operational funding comes largely
from the African-American
community. The Sharp Street, Orchard Street,
and Bethel Methodist
Episcopal churches donate Sunday offerings
and hold fund-raising fairs.
Maryland School for the Deaf and Dumb founded.
George Peabody dies in London. His funeral
train in America is the
longest in history to date. Before his death
he gives an additional
$900,000 for the Peabody Institute, bringing
the total of his gifts to
the institution to $1,400,000.
Enoch Pratt helps to fund the Working Man's
Institute and Library
in the Canton area of Baltimore.
Baltimore City Hospital Dispensary established.
Association for Improvement of the Condition
of the Poor is
founded to coordinate charities.
Enoch Pratt donates 700 acres in Prince Georges
County to found the House
of Reformation and Instruction for Colored
Children (Cheltenham). Before
this time African-American boys, some as young
as eight years old, who
committed crimes were routinely confined in
jails and the state penitentiary.
John H. B. Latrobe succeeds Brantz Mayer as
president of the
Maryland Historical Society.
William T. Walters opens his art collection
to the public to raise
money for the poor.
Henry Watson bequeaths $100,000 to the Children's
which is renamed Henry Watson Children's Aid
Baltimore City received $580,000 from the estate
McDonogh. Trustees appointed in 1858 use the
money to found the
McDonogh School for Poor Boys.
Hebrew Orphan Asylum opens and is run by the
Hebrew Ladies' Aid
Johns Hopkins dies, leaving $7,000,000, the
gift in America to date, to fund the Johns
Hopkins Hospital and
University. Hopkins had stated to the trustees
by letter his wish
that the hospital care for "the indigent sick"
and "the poor of the
city and state of all races who are stricken
down by any casualty."
Johns Hopkins bequest also underwrites the
founding of The Johns
Hopkins Colored Orphan Asylum.
Sisters of Mercy arrive in Baltimore to take
Baltimore City Hospital Dispensary, which
in 1919 will become
Thomas Wilson founds the Sanitarium for Children
The Johns Hopkins University opens. Daniel
Colt Gilman is the first
president of the university.
John Shaw Billings is selected to supervise
the construction of the
Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Thomas Wilson founds and funds the Fuel Saving
Society with a
Thomas Wilson dies, bequeathing $300,000 to
the Sanitarium for
Children of Baltimore City, founded by him
YMCA branch founded at the Johns Hopkins University.
The Women's Industrial Exchange founded.
Charity Organization Society founded, with
Daniel Colt Gilman as
The Shelter for the Aged and Infirm Colored
General German Aged People's Home opens.
Baltimore City accepts Enoch Pratt's gifts
of $230,000 for library
buildings and $333,333 for endowment of the
Enoch Pratt Free
The Industrial School for Colored Girls opens.
The Hospital For the Women of Maryland founded.
Baltimore YWCA founded.
Peabody Institute Museum opens with works
of art given by John
W. McCoy and John W. Garrett.
John W. Garrett's will provides $6,000 annually
to improve the
condition of the poor In Baltimore and $50,000
general benevolent purposes.
Home for Incurables founded to care for the
Women's College of Baltimore founded (now
Bryn Mawr School for Girls founded.
Enoch Pratt Free Library opens.
Samuel Ready Asylum of Female Orphans opens,
invested in buildings and a $506,000 endowment.
Maryland State Lunacy Commission founded. This
would spearhead the movement for the removal
mentally ill from county almshouses and jails
into state institutions.
John W. Glen becomes chairman of the Charity
Society's executive committee.
Asylum and Training School for Feeble-Minded
Mary Sloan Frick Garrett founds Mt. Airy Sanitarium
Baltimore Day Nursery, "to take charge of children
whose mothers are
obliged to work," opened.
Henrietta Szold opens School for Jewish immigrant
Johns Hopkins Hospital opens.
Robert Garrett Hospital for Children opens.
Morgan College formed from Centenary Biblical
Sheppard Asylum opens (now Sheppard-Pratt
Mary Elizabeth Garrett, daughter of John W.
$306,977 to bring to $500,000 the amount raised
groups for opening the Johns Hopkins Medical
School, with the
condition that women be admitted.
Review of Reviews article estimates
that the United States has 4,000
millionaires. Baltimore's millionaires are
rated the most
philanthropic in America.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine opens.
Edward A. Lawrence, Jr., founds Lawrence House,
Provident Hospital founded by three black
physicians, William T.
Carr, Marcus Cargill, and William H. Thompson.
Enoch Pratt dies, bequeathing $1,500,000 to
the Sheppard Asylum
(now Sheppard-Pratt Hospital).
College of Notre Dame opens, the first Roman
Catholic college for
women in the United States.
Maryland Public Health Association founded.
Baltimore banker and philanthropist Benjamin
F. Newcomer offers
$50,000 for a proposed public library in Hagerstown,
Arts Society organized by Theodore Marburg.
Dr. William Osler criticizes the general level
of care of Maryland's
mentally ill. His comments prompt the Maryland
Commission and the members of the Medical-Churigical
Maryland to press for reforms.
Colored Young Women's Christian Association
(CYWCA) is formed.
Playground Athletic League founded.