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MAP #: 396H5

CARTOGRAPHER : HERRMAN, AUGUSTINE [DERIVATIVE]

DATE: 1896

SHORT TITLE : VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND

REMAINING TITLE & ID : AS IT IS PLANTED AND INHABITED THIS PRESENT YEAR 1670 SURVEYED AND EXACTLY DRAWNE BY THE ONLY LABOUR & ENDEAVOUR OF AUGUSTIN HERRMAN BOHEMIENSIS (CARTOUCHE, BOTTOM LEFT. CARTOUCHE HAS A MALE AND FEMALE INDIAN STANDING ON LEFT AND RIGHT, RESPECTIVELY, ON A BASE HOLDING THE CARTOUCHE. THE BASE HAS AN EXPLANATION OF SOME OF THE LETTERS AND SYMBOLS ON THE MAP. ABOVE THE TITLE IS A CREST WITH FRUIT AND A LIONS HEAD AT THE TOP. THE CREST SHOWS A HEART WITH FLOWERS OUT THE TOP AND CROSSED ARROWS BENEATH. "PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF HIS MAties. ROYALL LICENCE AND PARTICULER PRIVILEDGE TO AUG. HERMAN AND THOMAS WITHIN-BROOK HIS ASSIGNEE FOR FOURTEEN YEARES FROM THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 1673" (BOTTOM LEFT CORNER). SCALE OF 8 ENGLISH LEAGUES ABOVE A SCALE OF 24 ENGLISH MILES (BOTH SURMOUNTED BY DIVIDERS, BOTTOM TO LEFT OF CENTER). OVAL PICTURE OF HERRMAN ON A BASE, ENTITLED "BOHEMIAN AUGUSTINE HERRMAN" (BOTTOM TO RIGHT OF CENTER). "W: FAITHORNE SCULPt." (TO RIGHT OF BASE OF HERRMAN PICTURE). NUMEROUS NOTES THROUGHOUT MAP. THE VERSO IS BLANK. LONGITUDE (NOT SHOWN). LATITUDE (BOTTOM BORDER).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : R1896? (1673)
LANGUAGE(S) : EN
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 79.0 X 93.6 CM. (4 SHEETS JOINED)
SIZE - OTHER DATA : ? X ? CM. OM
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 444,000 (BASED ON LATITUDE)
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : MSA SC1399-494
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : A016-TIG
REGION CATEGORY : MAP ON WHICH THE MD/CHESAPEAKE AREA IS ONE MAIN FOCUS. (1)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) : AUGUSTINE HERRMAN DERIVATIVE MAP (12)
# SHEETS TO MAP : 4
MAP ORIENTATION : W IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP
RELIEF SHOWN ? : YES
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SOUNDINGS ARE SHOWN, BUT THE UNITS ARE NOT SPECIFIED.
: SHOALS ARE SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES.
CARTOUCHE : MONUMENT (18)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL FOR LATITUDE (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : NONE
SEE ALSO MAP #s : 173H5, 470H5.
BEST INFO SOURCE : NONE WAS FOUND ON THIS REPRODUCTION.
DESCRIPTION : THE EXACT DATE AND PUBLISHER OF THIS REPRODUCTION OF THE FAMOUS 1673 MAP BY AUGUSTINE HERRMAN IS UNKNOWN. THE DEALER DATED IT 1896, BUT COULD OFFER LITTLE TO SUPPORT THAT DATE. THE ORIGINAL HERRMAN MAP IS THE MOST ACCURATE 17TH CENTURY MAP OF THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC COLONIES AND EMBODIES THE BEST SURVEYING IN THE COLONIES IN THAT CENTURY. IT SUCCEEDS SMITH'S MAP AS THE PROTOTYPE FOR SUBSEQUENT CHESAPEAKE CARTOGRAPHY AND REMAINS INFLUENTIAL UNTIL SUPERSEDED BY THE HOXTON CHART OF 1735 AND THE FRY & JEFFERSON MAP OF 1753. HERRMAN MADE NO ESSENTIAL CHANGES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE VIRGINIA AREA AS SMITH LAID IT DOWN IN 1612 AND MAY HAVE USED SMITH'S MAP AS A BASE MAP FROM WHICH TO WORK. THE DELAWARE BAY AND RIVER ARE ADDED, ENGLISH NAMES ARE SUBSTITUTED FOR OLD INDIAN ONES AND OLD DATA ARE CORRECTED AND VERIFIED.

IN 1659 HERRMAN WROTE TO CECIL CARVERT, 2ND LORD BALTIMORE, OFFERING TO MAKE AN ACCURATE MAP OF MARYLAND AND THE NEIGHBORING COLONIES IN EXCHANGE FOR A GRANT OF LAND. BOUNDARY DISPUTES WITH THE DUTCH,SWEDES AND VIRGINIANS MADE BALTIMORE AMENABLE TO THE PROPOSITION. HERRMAN CONSULTED WITH LOCAL SURVEYORS, LAND OFFICES, PLAT BOOKS AND SURVEYED THE SETTLED REGIONS HIMSELF TO CHECK THE ACCURACY OF THE SECOND HAND INFORMATION. AFTER SPENDING 10 YEARS HE PRODUCED AN AMAZINGLY ACCURATE MAP FOR ITS DAY AND RECEIVED 20,000 ACRES OF LAND IN EXCHANGE, WHICH HE CALLED BOHEMIA MANOR IN CECIL COUNTY. THE FIRST PRINTED VERSION APPEARED IN 1673. THE ENGRAVING WAS THE RESULT OF 3 YEARS OF WORK BY WILLIAM FAITHORNE (1616-1691). HERRMAN GOT THE 14 YEAR EQUIVALENT OF A COPYRIGHT ON THE PRINTED VERSION AND IT SEEMS LIKELY THAT THE MAP WAS PRINTED FOR ONLY LIMITED CIRCULATION. IT WAS TOO EXPENSIVE AND CUMBERSOME FOR THE AVERAGE MERCHANT OR TRAVELLER AND WAS ON FOUR LARGE SHEETS. A SMALL NUMBER OF THESE PRINTED MAPS WERE AVAILABLE BY 1674 AT ONE OF THE 3 LONDON SHOPS OF JOHN SELLER WHO ADVERTISED THEM IN THE LONDON GAZETTE.

DESPITE THE ROYALL LICENCE, HERRMAN'S MAP WAS PIRATED FREELY BY MANY ENGLISH AND EUROPEAN PUBLISHERS. CALVERT MADE FEW ATTEMPTS TO CURB THE PUBLICATION BECAUSE THE MAP STRETCHED THE MARYLAND BOUNDARIES TO INCLUDE TERRITORIES IN DELAWARE AND IN WHAT WAS TO BECOME PENNSYLVANIA.

DATA IS FROM VERNER, SANCHEZ-SAAVEDRA, FITE & FREEMAN, CUMMING AND PHILLIPS.

EDITION & STATE INFO : THERE WAS ONLY A SINGLE EDITION AND STATE OF THE ORIGINAL HERRMAN MAP OF 1673. A NUMBER OF REPRODUCTIONS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED OVER THE YEARS AND NO STUDY HAS BEEN MADE TO TRACE OUT THESE REPRODUCTIONS. THE ORIGINAL MAP WAS MADE IN MANUSCRIPT IN 1671, BUT THE ORIGINAL WAS LOST. IT WAS ADVERTISED FOR SALE BY JOHN SELLER IN LONDON IN THE LONDON GAZETTE IN 1674. HOWEVER, IT IS THOUGHT THAT FEW COPIES WERE MADE. ITS SIZE AND CONSTRUCTION IN 4 SHEETS MADE IT IMPRACTICAL FOR USE BY NAVIGATORS AND TRAVELLERS. FIVE COPIES ARE NOW KNOWN. ONE IS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, TWO ARE IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE IN PARIS, ONE IS IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WHICH WAS OBTAINED IN A TRADE WITH THE BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE, AND ONE IS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY. THE JCB COPY HAS A PRINTED SLIP PASTED BELOW THE HERRMAN PORTRAIT WITH THE IMPRINT OF JOHN SELLER, HYDROGRAPHER TO THE KING. THE JCB COPY WAS REPRODUCED IN 4 SHEETS AND PUBLISHED FROM 1941 TO 1967. THERE WAS A 4 SHEET REPRODUCTION WITH AN ESTIMATED DATE OF 1896, PUBLISHED IN ENGLAND, POSSIBLY BASED ON WORK OF A MARYLAND BOUNDARY COMMISSION AROUND THAT TIME. THIS IS THE MAP DESCRIBED HEREIN. THE 1970 REPRODUCTION WAS DONE ON A SINGLE SHEET BY EDWARD H. RICHARDSON ASSOCIATES, INC., BASED ON THE JCB AND THE BRITISH MUSEUM COPIES.

DATA IS FROM VERNER, SANCHEZ-SAAVEDRA, FITE & FREEMAN, CUMMING, & PHILLIPS.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION HAS A GOOD BLACK AND WHITE COPY OF THIS REPRODUCTION OF THE HERRMAN MAP ON THIN PAPER. IT HAS AN ACQ. # OF A016-TIG AND A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399-494. THE COLLECTION HAS TWO OTHER REPRODUCTIONS OF THIS MAP. THE FIRST IS ON 1 SHEET IN BLACK AND WHITE, DATED 1970, WITH AN ACQ. # OF PLW012-GIFT AND A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399-679. ANOTHER ONE IS THE JCB FACSIMILE DATED 1967. IT WAS ORIGINALLY PRINTED IN 1941, THEN IN 1948 WAS PRINTED FROM A NEW PLATE, WHICH WAS REPRODUCED IN 1958 AND 1967. FINALLY, THE COLLECTION HAS A PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION ON A REDUCED SCALE OF THE COPY IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, OBTAINED FROM ED PAPENFUSE.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : ARCHER, THE DISMEMBERMENT OF MARYLAND, BALTIMORE: 1890; BAER, ELIZABETH, SEVENTEENTH CENTURY MARYLAND. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, BALTIMORE: JOHN WORK GARRETT LIBRARY, 1949, 75-6, # 74; BLACK, JEANETTE D., THE BLATHWAYT ATLAS, II, PROVIDENCE: BROWN UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1975, 109-118; CAPEK,T. AUGUSTINE HERRMAN OF BOHEMIA MANOR, PRAGUE: 1930; CUMMING, WILLIAM P., THE SOUTHEAST IN EARLY MAPS, CHAPEL HILL, N.C: UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS, 1962, 152-153, # 72; CUMMING, WILLIAM P., "EARLY MAPS OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY", IN EARLY MARYLAND IN A WIDER WORLD, D.B. QUINN, ed., DETROIT: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1982, 289-293; HECK, E.L.W., AUGUSTINE HERRMAN..., ENGLEWOOD, OHIO: 1941; JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY ANNUAL REPORTS 1929-1930, 10-15; KUETH, J.L., MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, VOL. XXX, #4, DEC., 1935, 310-325; MALLERY, C.P., "FAMILIES OF BOHEMIA MANOR", IN DELAWARE HISTORICAL SOCIETY PAPERS # 7, WILMINGTON: DELAWARE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1888; MATHEWS, EDWARD B., "MAPS AND MAP-MAKERS OF MARYLAND", IN MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY SPECIAL PUBLICATION VOL. II, PART IIIb, BALTIMORE: JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS, 1898; PAPENFUSE, EDWARD C. & JOSEPH M. COALE III, ATLAS OF HISTORICAL MAPS OF MARYLAND 1608-1908, BALTIMORE: JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1982, 11-19; PHILLIPS, PHILIP LEE, THE RARE MAP OF VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND BY AUGUSTINE HERRMAN, WASHINGTON: LOUDERMILK & CO., 1911; RISTOW, WALTER W., LIBRARY OF CONGRESS INFORMATION BULLETIN VOL. 19, WASHINGTON: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, # 19, MAY 9, 1960, 223-224; SANCHEZ-SAAVEDRA, E. M., A DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY. VIRGINIA'S CARTOGRAPHERS AND THEIR MAPS 1607-1881, RICHMOND: VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY, 1975, 15-24; SCHWARTZ, SEYMOUR I. & RALPH E. EHRENBERG, THE MAPPING OF AMERICA, NEW YORK: HARRY N. ABRAMS, INC., 1980, 118-119, PL. 67; SCISCO, L.D., "NOTES ON AUGUSTINE HERRMAN'S MAP", IN MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, VOL. XXXIII, NO. 4, DEC., 1938, 343-351; TANSILL, C.C., THE PENNSYLVANIA-MARYLAND BOUNDARY CONTROVERSY, WASHINGTON: 1915; VALLANDINGHAM, E.N., THE LORD OF BOHEMIA MANOR, OR IN NEW YORK SUN OF OCTOBER 23, 1892; VERNER, COOLIE, UNPUBLISHED NOTES ON THE MAPS OF VIRGINIA.

March 27, 1992


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