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MAP #: 332L5

CARTOGRAPHER : LUCAS, FIELDING JR.

DATE: 1832

SHORT TITLE : A CHART OF THE CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE BAYS

REMAINING TITLE & ID : COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY FIELDING LUCAS JUNr. BALTIMORE 1832. ENGRAVED BY JOHN AND WILLIAM W. WARR PHILADELPHIA (UPPER LEFT CORNER, WITH ELABORATE CIRCULAR LINES FORMING A CARTOUCHE OF SORTS). "DRAWN BY F. LUCAS Jr." (LEFT BOTTOM MARGIN). "ENTERED ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR 1832 BY FIELDING LUCAS JR. IN THE CLERKS OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND." (CENTER BOTTOM MARGIN). "TIDE TABLE" (BOTTOM LEFT AND TOP RIGHT CORNERS). SCALES IN MILES FOR 3 DIFFERENT LATITUDES ARE GIVEN IN THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER. VIEWS OF CAPE HENRY, SMITHS POINT LIGHTHOUSE, WINDMILL POINT AND INDIAN RIVER TO CAPE HENLOPEN ARE SHOWN. EXPLANATORY NOTES ARE GIVEN ON LIGHTS AND LIGHTHOUSES. "G.49 CHART OF CHESAPEAKE & DELAWARE BAYS COMPILED BY FIELDING LUCAS JR. 1832" IS WRITTEN IN SCRIPT BY PEN ON THE REVERSE SIDE. LONGITUDE WEST FROM GREENWICH (TOP AND BOTTOM BORDERS). LATITUDE (RIGHT AND LEFT BORDERS).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : S1832
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : BALTIMORE
PUBLISHER : FIELDING LUCAS JR.
LANGUAGE(S) : EN
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 103.0 X 71.0 CM.
SIZE - OTHER DATA : 107 X 74 CM. OM
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 360,000
SCALE - OTHER DATA : 2.5 CM. = 1 MILE
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : MSA SC1399-295
# 2 : MSA SC1399-182 (REPRO)
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : LC017-DUP?
REGION CATEGORY : GENERAL MAP ON WHICH THE MD/CHESAPEAKE AREA IS ONE MAIN FOCUS (1)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) : -
# SHEETS TO MAP : 1
MAP ORIENTATION : N IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP.
RELIEF SHOWN ? : NO
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SOUNDINGS ARE SHOWN IN FEET AND FATHOMS.
: SHOALS ARE SHOWN BY SHADING.
: BOTTOM CONDITIONS ARE INDICATED.
CARTOUCHE : CURLED LINES (19)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : GREENWICH (1)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : -
BEST INFO SOURCE : FOSTER'S ARTICLE IS EXCELLENT.
DESCRIPTION : THIS LARGE SCALE CHART COVERS FROM CAPE MAY TO FREDERICKSBURG AND FROM PHILADELPHIA TO SOUTH OF CAPE HENRY. LUCAS' PRIMARY INNOVATION IN THIS CHART WAS THE USE OF COLOR, NOT ADOPTED BY THE SUCCESSOR AGENCIES OF THE U.S. COAST SURVEY UNTIL THE 20TH CENTURY. IT CONCENTRATES ON THE WATER AREAS AND HAS LITTLE TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATION. GREENWICH LONGITUDE IS GIVEN AND THREE SCALES IN MILES ACCOMODATE DIFFERENT LATITUDES, RECOGNIZING THAT THE EARTH IS NOT A PERFECT SPHERE, BUT IS EXPANDED BY THE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AT THE EQUATOR RELATIVE TO ITS POLAR CIRCUMFERENCE. PREVIOUSLY NAVIGATORS USING BAY CHARTS ON THE MERCATOR PROJECTION HAD TO MEASURE DISTANCES ON THEIR CHARTS ON THE SAME LATITUDE BORDER WHERE THEY WERE LOCATED TO ACCOUNT FOR THE DECREASE IN LATITUDE SCALES AS THEY MOVED AWAY FROM THE EQUATOR. THIS WAS ONE OF THE FIRST CHARTS TO DEPICT THE CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL, COMPLETED IN 1829. SOME OF THE SOUNDINGS ARE IN FATHOMS AND SOME ARE IN FEET. CONSIDERABLE INFORMATION IS GIVEN IN NOTES ABOUT LIGHTS AND LIGHTHOUSES. THE THREE VIEWS ON THE WESTERN SHORE OF THE CHESAPEAKE APPEAR TO BE TAKEN FROM THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY CHART OF 1820 (SEE MAP # 320D5). THE CONFIGURATION OF THE SHOALS IS MUCH MORE DETAILED THAN IN MANY CHARTS OF THE PERIOD. SHIP CHANNEL DEPTHS ARE SHOWN IN THE CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE BAYS. THIS CHART CONTINUED IN PUBLICATION THROUGH A FINAL EDITION IN 1859 AND IS USUALLY FOUND BACKED BY LINEN.

FIELDING LUCAS HIMSELF DREW, ENGRAVED, AS WELL AS PUBLISHED THIS FINE CHART. FOSTER NOTES THAT A REVISED EDITION WAS PUBLISHED AS LATE AS 1859, ALTHOUGH A COPY OF THIS EDITION HAS NOT BEEN EXAMINED.

LUCAS LIVED FROM 1781 TO 1854. HE WAS THE ONLY PRODUCER OF ATLASES LIVING IN BALTIMORE AT THE TIME. IN ALL, HE PUBLISHED SEVEN ATLASES AND CONTRIBUTED 20 ORIGINAL MAPS FOR AN ATLAS BY CAREY. HE PREPARED MORE THAN 50 MAPS WHICH HE SOLD SINGLY OR WHICH WERE INCLUDED AS FOLDING PLATES IN OTHER BOOKS. THIS CHART WAS SOLD SINGLY. AFTER 1830, LUCAS CEASED ISSUING ATLASES AND CONFINED HIMSELF TO LOCAL MAPS.

DATA IS FROM JAMES FOSTER'S ARTICLE ON LUCAS, MORRISON & HANSEN, AND FROM OBSERVATION OF THE COPY IN THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION.

EDITION & STATE INFO : A REVISED EDITION OF THIS CHART WAS ISSUED AS LATE AS 1859. THIS EDITION HAS NOT BEEN EXAMINED, HENCE THE PLATE CHANGES ARE NOT KNOWN TO THE WRITER AT THIS TIME.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION HAS A COLORED COPY IN GOOD CONDITION OF THIS MAP, EXCEPT THAT IT IS CUT INTO TWO SHEETS HORIZONTALLY AT THE CENTERFOLD. THE COLLECTION ALSO HAS A BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOCOPY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPY, REPRODUCED AT 80% OF THE ORIGINAL SIZE.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : FOSTER, JAMES W., "FIELDING LUCAS, JR., EARLY 19TH CENTURY PUBLISHER OF FINE BOOKS AND MAPS", PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, VOL. 65, PART 2, WORCESTER, MASS: AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, 1956, 160-212 (SEE ESP. 192); MORRISON, RUSSELL AND ROBERT HANSEN, CHARTING THE CHESAPEAKE, ANNAPOLIS: MARYLAND STATE ARCHIVES, 1990, 46 (FIG. 27, DETAIL), 59, 60 (FIG. 36, DETAIL); MORRISON, RUSSELL ETAL, ON THE MAP, CHESTERTOWN, MD: HUNTINGFIELD CORPORATION, 1983, 93, 94 (FIG. 57).

February 28, 1993


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