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MAP #: 320D5

CARTOGRAPHER : DEMAYNE, ANTHONY

DATE: 1820

SHORT TITLE : A SURVEY OF THE CHESAPEAKE

REMAINING TITLE & ID : BY ANTHONY DE MAYNE RN 1814 (TOP RIGHT CORNER WITH ELABORATE CIRCULAR LINES FORMING A CARTOUCHE OF SORTS). "HYDROGRAPHICAL OFFICE PRICE TWO & SIX PENCE" (TO RIGHT OF CARTOUCHE). "PUBLISHED ACCORDING TO ACT OF PARLIAMENT BY CAPT. HURD R.N. HYDROGRAPHER TO THE ADMIRALTY AUGUST 19th. 1820" (CENTER BOTTOM MARGIN). "J. WALKER SCULP.t" (RIGHT BOTTOM MARGIN). AN INSET ENTITLED "ENTRANCE TO CHESAPEAKE BAY BY D.P. ADAMS U. STATES FROM BLUNT'S PILOT" (BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER, 14.1 X 16.1 CM., SAME SCALE AS MAIN MAP). "355" (BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER). TWO 16 POINT COMPASS ROSES (RIGHT SIDE ABOVE CENTER AND TO LEFT OF INSET). THREE PROFILE SHORELINE VIEWS (LEFT SIDE BELOW CENTER). LONGITUDE IS WEST FROM GREENWICH (TOP AND BOTTOM BORDER). LATITUDE (RIGHT AND LEFT BORDERS).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : S1820
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : LONDON
PUBLISHER : BRITISH ADMIRALTY
LANGUAGE(S) : EN
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 96.0 X 61.7 CM.
SIZE - OTHER DATA : ? X ? CM. OM
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 350,000
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : MSA SC1399-184 (REPRO) HFC ACQ. PRIORITY : 2
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : -
REGION CATEGORY : MAP ON WHICH THE MD/CHESAPEAKE AREA IS ONE MAIN FOCUS (1)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) :
# SHEETS TO MAP : 1
MAP ORIENTATION : N IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP
RELIEF SHOWN ? : YES
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SHOALS ARE SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES.
: SOUNDINGS ARE IN FEET AND FATHOMS.
: BOTTOM CONDITIONS ARE INDICATED.
: DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW IS SHOWN.
: TIME OF HIGH WATER IS SHOWN IN ROMAN NUMERALS.
CARTOUCHE : CURLED LINES (19)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : LONDON (1)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : -
BEST INFO SOURCE : PHILLIPS MAPS, MORRISON & HANSEN, AND HOWSE & SANDERSON ARE THE BEST FOUND.
DESCRIPTION : THIS CHART, PUBLISHED BY THE HYDROGRAPHICAL OFFICE OF THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY, IS AN EXTREMELY CAREFUL AND DETAILED ONE, WITH EXTENSIVE SOUNDINGS IN FEET AND FATHOMS, INCLUDING THOSE FOR TANGIER SOUND, THE JAMES RIVER AND PART OF THE POTOMAC. IT COVERS THE CHESAPEAKE BAY AND THE DELAWARE BAY AND RIVER AND THEIR TRIBUTARIES. A NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO IMPROVED NAVIGATION ARE REFLECTED IN THIS CHART. THE DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW IS SHOWN. ANCHORAGES ARE DEPICTED BY ANCHOR SYMBOLS. SHOALS ARE SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES. SOME BOTTOM CONDITIONS ARE INDICATED. VISUAL PROFILES ARE GIVEN OF CAPE HENRY, WINDMILL POINT AND SMITH'S LIGHTHOUSE. HIGH GROUND IS INDICATED WITH SIMPLE SYMBOLS. SOME 17 LIGHTS ARE IDENTIFIED IN THE BAY, MAKING THE CHART THE MOST COMPLETE IN THIS REGARD TO DATE. THE CHART LACKS DETAILS ON THE TRIBUTARIES. THE SURVEY WORK WAS DONE IN 1814 AND THE FINISHED CHART WAS PUBLISHED ON AUGUST 9, 1820 IN LONDON.

IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT THERE ARE SUBSTANTIAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SHOALS SHOWN ON THE MAIN CHART AND ON THE INSERT COVERING THE BAY ENTRANCE, THE LATTER TAKEN FROM BLUNT'S PILOT. PRESUMABLY THE NAVIGATOR COULD TAKE HIS CHOICE OR AT LEAST BE AWARE OF THE UNCERTAINTY. THE NOTE UNDER THE TITLE CREDITS "VARIOUS PRINTED CHARTS AND MAPS" WITH THE DATA FROM CAPE CHARLES TO LITTLE EGG HARBOUR, THE DELAWARE RIVER AND THE RIVERS AND ROADS OF THE INTERIOR. THE CHART WAS BASED ON A SURVEY BY ANTHONY DEMAYANE. IT WAS ENGRAVED BY J. WALKER UNDER THE DIRECTION OF CAPTAIN THOMAS HURT, HYDROGRAPHER TO THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY.

ANTHONY DEMAYNE BECAME MASTER IN THE ROYAL NAVY IN JULY, 1806 AND BEGAN HIS SURVEYOR DUTIES IN 1811 ON THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA. HE WAS NEXT ENGAGED ON THE NORTH AMERICAN STATION, WHERE HE SURVEYED THE CHESAPEAKE FROM WHICH THIS CHART WAS DERIVED. MUCH OF HIS SURVEYING CAREER WAS SPENT IN THE WEST INDIES.

THE FIRST PRINTED ADMIRALTY CHART WAS ISSUED EARLY IN THE 19th CENTURY. IN 1808, A NAVAL CAPTAIN, THOMAS HURD, WAS APPOINTED TO SPEED UP THE SUPPLY OF ADMIRALTY CHARTS TO THE FLEET. IN 1823, THESE CHARTS WERE FIRST MADE AVAILABLE TO MERCHANTMEN. THE 19th CENTURY CHARTS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE USE OF SUBDIVIDED LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE BORDERS, AN INCREASING DENSITY OF SOUNDINGS, DETAILS OF THE SEA BED, THE INSERTION OF PARALLELS OF LATITUDE AND MERIDIANS AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF RHUMB LINES EMANATING FROM COMPASS ROSES. SIMPLE TRUE AND MAGNETIC COMPASS ROSES BEGAN TO APPEAR SO A PARALLEL RULER COULD BE USED TO SET DOWN A COURSE. ADMIRALTY SURVEYING REACHED ITS PEAK IN THE EARLY 1850S.

DATA IS FROM OBSERVATION OF A PHOTOGRAPH IN THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION OF A COPY OF THIS CHART IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, FROM THE SEA CHART BY HOWSE AND SANDERSON, AND FROM DAWSON'S BOOK ON BRITISH NAVAL SURVEYING.

EDITION & STATE INFO : ONLY A SINGLE EDITION AND STATE ARE KNOWN TO THE WRITER.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION HAS A PHOTOCOPY OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPY REPRODUCED IN BLACK AND WHITE AT 80% OF THE ORIGINAL SIZE. IT HAS A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399- 184 (REPRO).

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : PHILLIPS, PHILIP LEE, A LIST OF MAPS OF AMERICA IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, NEW YORK: BURT FRANKLIN, UNDATED REPRINT OF A 1901 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PUBLICATION, 228; HOWSE, DEREK & MICHAEL SANDERSON, THE SEA CHART, NEW YORK: McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, 1973, 13; DAWSON, L.S., MEMOIRS OF HYDROGRAPHY INCLUDING BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS WHO HAVE SERVED IN H.M. NAVAL SURVEYING OFFICE BETWEEN THE YEARS 1750 AND 1885, LONDON: CORNMARKET PRESS, 1969, I, 50-51; MORRISON, RUSSELL & ROBERT HANSEN, CHARTING THE CHESAPEAKE, ANNAPOLIS: THE MARYLAND STATE ARCHIVES, 1990, 55- 56, FIG. 33.

August 2, 1991


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