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MAP #: 315N5

CARTOGRAPHER : NORIE, JOHN WILLIAM

DATE: 1815

SHORT TITLE : A NEW CHART OF THE COAST OF AMERICA

REMAINING TITLE & ID : FROM PHILADELPHIA TO THE GULF OF FLORIDA BY Wm. HEATHER. 1815 (CARTOUCHE, 2ND SHEET FROM THE NORTH AT THE TOP CENTER). "A NEW EDITION; CORRECTED & IMPROVED BY J.W. NORIE, HYDROGRAPHER, &c. J. STEPHENSON, ENGRAVER." (BELOW CARTOUCHE). INSET ENTITLED "A CHART OF THE DELAWARE BAY AND RIVER BY W. HEATHER" (UPPER LEFT CORNER OF NORTHERN-MOST SHEET). "1815." (BELOW INSET CARTOUCHE). SCALE OF 40 MILES FOR INSET (ABOVE "1815."). VIEW OF CAPE HENRY (RIGHT OF DELAWARE INSET). "LONDON, PUBLISHED AS THE ACT DIRECTS, JULY 12th. 1815, BY J.W. NORIE AND Co. AT THE NAVIGATION WAREHOUSE, No. 157 LEADENHALL STREET." (BOTTOM MARGIN, 2ND SHEET FROM THE NORTH). INSET OF "THE HARBOR OF CHARLESTON BY W. HEATHER" (TOP RIGHT, 2ND SHEET FROM THE NORTH, WITH SCALE OF 6 MILES). TWO VIEWS OF THE ENTRANCE TO CHARLESTON HARBOR (BELOW CHARLESTON INSET). INSET OF "THE HARBOR OF PORT ROYAL BY W. HEATHER" (TOP LEFT, 2ND SHEET FROM THE NORTH, WITH SCALE OF 6 MILES). INSET ENTITLED "A SURVEY OF St. MARYS RIVER BY Mr. LE BLANC" (UPPER RIGHT, 3RD SHEET FROM THE NORTH, WITH SCALE OF 4 MILES). INSET OF "THE MOUTH OF NASSAU RIVER BY W. HEATHER." (TO LEFT OF ST. MARY'S INSET, WITH SCALE OF 2 MILES). INSET OF "THE HARBOR OF St. AUGUSTINE BY W. HEATHER." (TO LEFT OF NASSAU RIVER INSET, WITH SCALE OF 1 MILE). NOTES ARE SHOWN THROUGHOUT THE CHART. THERE IS NOTHING ON THE REVERSE SIDE. LONGITUDE WEST FROM LONDON (RIGHT BORDER, NORTH SHEET, LEFT BORDER THIRD SHEET FROM NORTH, LEFT BORDER SOUTH SHEET). LATITUDE (TOP AND BOTTOM BORDERS). SCALE OF 20 LEAGUES TO A DEGREE (DIAGONAL LINE FROM LOWER LEFT OF THIRD SHEET FROM NORTH TO CENTER OF SECOND SHEET FROM NORTH). CHART IS IN FOUR SHEETS, ORIENTED WITH WNW AT THE TOP.


DATE OF PUBLICATION : S1815
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : LONDON
PUBLISHER : J.W. NORIE & CO.
LANGUAGE(S) : EN
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 75.8 X 248.6 CM. (4 SHEETS JOINED)
SIZE - OTHER DATA : 79 X 254 CM. OM
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 780,000
SCALE - OTHER DATA : 1o LATITUDE = 14.3 CM.
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : G1399-457
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : A016-UEDH
REGION CATEGORY : PART OF A GENERAL MAP OF SOME SIGNIFICANCE TO A MD/CHESAPEAKE COLLECTION (3)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) : -
# SHEETS TO MAP : 4
MAP ORIENTATION : WNW IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP.
RELIEF SHOWN ? : NO
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SOUNDINGS ARE IN FEET & FATHOMS.
: SHOALS ARE SHOWN BY SHADING.
: BOTTOM CONDITIONS ARE INDICATED.
CARTOUCHE : NATURALISTIC (20)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : LONDON (1)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : -
BEST INFO SOURCE : NO REFERENCES TO THE SPECIFIC MAP WERE FOUND.
DESCRIPTION : NO REFERENCES HAVE BEEN FOUND TO THIS EIGHT FOOT LONG CHART IN FOUR SHEETS OF THE EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES FROM PHILADELPHIA TO FLORIDA. IT IS UNUSUAL IN THAT IT IS ORIENTED WITH WNW AT THE TOP IN ORDER TO DEPICT THE ENTIRE STRETCH OF THIS COASTLINE ON A RECTANGLE. SOUNDINGS ARE PRIMARILY IN FATHOMS, BUT WITH SOME SHOAL SOUNDINGS IN FEET. SHOALS ARE SHOWN SHADED BY DOTS. THE DIRECTION, SPEED AND APPROXIMATE OUTER LIMITS OF THE GULF STREAM ARE INDICATED. THE CONDITION OF THE BOTTOM IS ALSO GIVEN. THE CHESAPEAKE AREA (MEASURING SOME 12 X 17 INCHES) IS IN THE NORTHERN-MOST SHEET. THE CHART STILL HAS A NETWORK OF RHUMB LINES, WHICH ORIGINATED WITH PORTOLAN CHARTS. RHUMB LINES WERE ABANDONED IN THE ADMIRALTY-PRODUCED CHARTS WHEN THEY WERE FIRST OFFERED FOR SALE IN 1823 AND COMPASS ROSES WERE SUBSTITUTED.

J. STEPHENSON ENGRAVED THE PLATES. WILLIAM HEATHER IS CREDITED WITH THE WORK IN THE INITIAL EDITION. THE SURVEY FOR THE ST. MARY'S INSET WAS DONE BY Mr. LE BLANC.

IN THE LATTER PART OF THE 18TH CENTURY AND EARLY IN THE 19TH CENTURY, THERE WERE A NUMBER OF PUBLISHERS AND CHART SELLERS WHO PROVIDED CHARTS PRIMARILY TO THE MERCHANT TRADE. JOHN WILLIAM NORIE, HYDROGRAPHER, PUBLISHER AND TEACHER OF NAVIGATION, BOUGHT OUT THE BUSINESS OF ONE SUCH CHART SELLER, WILLIAM HEATHER, IN 1812, ON HEATHER'S DEATH. HIS BUSINESS HAD ORIGINALLY BEEN FOUNDED IN 1765 AT 157 LEADENHALL ST. AND NORIE HAD TAUGHT AT THIS LOCATION AND DREW CHARTS FOR HEATHER PRIOR TO THE PURCHASE. NORIE CONTINUED HEATHER'S BUSINESS OF SELLING CHARTS, PILOT GUIDES AND NAUTICAL INSTRUMENTS. HE WAS PROBABLY BEST KNOWN FOR HIS EPITOME OF PRACTICAL NAVIGATION, PUBLISHED IN 1805, WHICH REMAINED A STANDARD WORK FOR MANY YEARS. NORIE'S BUSINESS PASSED IN 1839 TO J. WILSON, WHEN IT BECAME KNOWN AS NORIE AND WILSON.

HEATHER AND NORIE, LIKE SAYER AND THE OTHER CHART SELLERS, RELIED FOR NEW SURVEYS ON THE IRREGULARLY AVAILABLE WORK OF SEA CAPTAINS, SINCE THEY DID NOT HAVE SUCH A SERVICE OF THEIR OWN. PRIVATE CHARTS COULD BE BOUGHT EITHER IN ATLAS OR SHEET FORM. BECAUSE OF THE GREATER WEAR IN SHEET FORM, THEY WERE OFTEN MOUNTED ON CANVAS OR LINEN OR HEAVY PAPER, WITH THE OUTER SHEET USUALLY BLUE. FROM THIS, PRIVATE CHARTS GOT THE NAME "BLUEBACK CHARTS". BY THE TIME NORIE ASSUMED THE PROPRIETORSHIP OF THE BUSINESS, THE ROLLED BLUEBACK CHARTS CAME MORE IN USE AND WERE, AS WAS TRUE OF THIS CHART, OFTEN AS LARGE AS 6 FEET OR MORE. THIS CHART ALSO ILLUSTRATES THE TREND IN PRIVATE CHARTS TO INCLUDE A LARGE NUMBER OF HARBOR INSETS. THESE TRENDS ALL CUT DOWN ON THE NUMBER OF CHARTS REQUIRED BY EACH SHIP. LATER, AS HYDROGRAPHIC DATA WAS COLLECTED BY THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY, SUCH DATA FOR PRIVATE CHARTS WAS OBTAINED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES AND THE PRIVATE CHART TRAFFIC GRADUALLY DECLINED.

DATA IS FROM HOWSE & SANDERSON, TOOLEY AND RITCHIE. THIS CHART IS NOT IN PHILLIPS.

EDITION & STATE INFO : NO RESEARCH HAS YET BEEN DONE ON THE EDITION AND STATE INFORMATION ON THIS MAP. BASED ON THE TITLE DATA, THERE MUST HAVE BEEN ONE OR MORE EARLIER EDITIONS. SINCE WILLIAM HEATHER DIED IN 1812, THE EDITION ATTRIBUTED TO HIM MUST HAVE BEEN EARLIER. THE GENERAL LAYOUT AND ORIENTATION OF THE CHART IS SIMILAR TO ONE IN 1799, DRAWN BY NORIE FOR HEATHER (SEE MAP # 299N5), ALTHOUGH IT COVERED AN AREA FROM BOSTON TO SAVANNAH RATHER THAN FROM PHILADELPHIA TO FLORIDA.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : HFC HAS A COLORED COPY OF THIS 4 SHEET MAP WITH NUMEROUS TEARS, REINFORCEMENTS AND OCCASIONAL MISSING SECTIONS IN THE BORDER AREA. THE HFC COPY WAS APPARENTLY USED IN NAVIGATION BECAUSE A NUMBER OF POSITION POINTS ARE MARKED IN PENCIL, AND DIVIDER POINT HOLES HAVE BEEN MADE THROUGH THOSE POINTS.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : TOOLEY, R.V., TOOLEY'S DICTIONARY OF MAPMAKERS, MAP COLLECTOR PUBLICATIONS LTD., TRING, HERTFORDSHIRE, 1979, PP. 290, 468; HOWSE, D. & SANDERSON, M., THE SEA CHART, MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, NEW YORK, 1973, PP. 123, 127; RITCHIE, G.S., THE ADMIRALTY CHART, HOLLIS & CARTER, LONDON, 1967, P. 22.

March 24, 1988


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