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MAP #: 256L7

CARTOGRAPHER : LEROUGE, GEORGES L. [PUBLISHER]

DATE: 1756

SHORT TITLE : AMERIQUE SEPTENTRIONALE

REMAINING TITLE & ID : AVEC LES ROUTES, DISTANCES EN MILES, VILLAGES ET ETABLISSEMENTS FRANCOIS ET ANGLOIS. PAR LE DOCTEUR MITCHEL TRADUIT DE L'ANGLOIS A PARIS PAR LE ROUGE INGr GEOGRAPHE DU ROY RUE DES GRANDS AUGUSTINS 1756. NORTH AMERICA SO DOCTOR MICHEL ZU LONDON IM 1755: TEN JAHR AUSGEGEHEN JETZT ABER IN DAS FRANZOSISCHE UBERSETZET. ZU PARIS.DURCH H. LE ROUGE IN DER GROSEN AUGUSTINER STRASSE 1756. (CARTOUCHE, BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER). AN INDEX TO SHEETS (IN THE BOTTOM LEFT CORNER OF THE FRENCH TITLE). SCALES IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH MILES (BOTTOM RIGHT). 16 POINT COMPASS ROSE (ABOVE AND TO LEFT OF SCALES). NUMEROUS NOTES THROUGHOUT THE MAP. INSET ENTITLED "NOUVELLE CARTE DE LA BAYE D'HUDSON ET DE LABORADOR SELON LES DERNIERES CARTES LEVEES SUR LES LIEUX." (TOP LEFT CORNER. SCALE CA. 1-10,000,000). THE HEADDRESS OF THE INDIAN WOMAN CONTAINS ONLY 4 FEATHERS, ONE LESS THAN IN PREVIOUS IMPRESSIONS. LONGITUDE WEST FROM LONDON (TOP AND BOTTOM BORDERS). LATITUDE (RIGHT AND LEFT BORDERS).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : R1756(1755)
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : PARIS
PUBLISHER : GEORGES L. LEROUGE
LANGUAGE(S) : FRGE
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 136.0 X 195.0 CM. (APPROXIMATE)
SIZE - OTHER DATA : ? X ? CM. OM
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 2,000,000
SCALE - OTHER DATA : 32 MILES = 1 INCH
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : G3300 1756 .M52
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : MSA SC1399-32
# 2 : MSA SC1399-51 (1778 1ST ITALIAN ED.)
# 3 : MSA SC1399-54 (1778 1ST ITALIAN ED.)
# 4 : MSA SC1399-299(REPRO) (1775 STEUBEN- WEBSTER COPY OF 4TH ENGL. ED.)

HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : C018-TG2
# 2 : BB023-DLD (1778 1ST ITALIAN ED.)
# 3 : A025-HEG (1778 1ST ITALIAN ED.)
# 4 : - (1775 STEUBEN- WEBSTER COPY OF 4TH ENGL. ED.)
REGION CATEGORY : GENERAL AREA MAP OF INTEREST TO A MD/CHESAPEAKE COLLECTION (3)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) : JOHN MITCHELL & DERIVATIVES (22)
: FRY & JEFFERSON & DERIVATIVES (15)
# SHEETS TO MAP : 8
MAP ORIENTATION : N IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP.
RELIEF SHOWN ? : YES
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : NONE IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY.
CARTOUCHE : NATURALISTIC (20)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : LONDON (1)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : 255C5, 255C6, 255M5, 255T5, 256L5, 256L6, 275J5, 276L5, 277L8, 278Z5.
BEST INFO SOURCE : TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS OFA THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS BEST.
DESCRIPTION : THIS IS THE SECOND IMPRESSION OF THE SECOND FRENCH EDITION OF THE JOHN MITCHELL MAP OF 1755 (SEE MAP # 255M5). THIS MAP IN ITS VARIOUS EDITIONS AND STATES IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT IN AMERICAN HISTORY. IT SET DOWN THE KNOWN GEOGRAPHY OF THE COUNTRY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. IT SERVED AS A MODEL FOR SOME 40 YEARS, HAVING INCORPORATED THE BEST CURRENT DATA AVAILABLE. IT WAS CONSULTED BY GREAT BRITAIN AND THE U.S. IN 1782-3 IN NEGOTIATING THE TREATY OF PARIS THAT ENDED THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND WAS USED IN MANY BOUNDARY CONTROVERSIES.

THE MAP SHOWS THE DIVISION OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA BETWEEN THE BRITISH AND FRENCH AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BRITISH COLONIES. IT SHOWS CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, ROADS, THE POSITION OF THE MAIN INDIAN TRIBES AND HAS NOTES ON THE DATES OF SETTLEMENT, THE COUNTRY AND TOPOGRAPHIC ITEMS.

THE MAP BELONGS ONLY PERIPHERALLY IN A LISTING OF MARYLAND MAPS, SINCE THAT AREA IS SMALL IN THE MAP AND IS BASED ON FRY & JEFFERSON. HOWEVER, IT WAS CITED IN 1861 IN A REPORT ON THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND, AND WAS PUT IN EVIDENCE WHEN THE JOINT COMMISSION ON THE BOUNDARY MET IN 1873.

MITCHELL IS THOUGHT TO HAVE BEEN BORN IN 1711 IN VIRGINIA AND WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, WHERE HE GOT A MEDICAL EDUCATION. HE WAS AN ABLE SCIENTIST AND HAD WIDE RANGING SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS. HE MOVED TO LONDON FOR HEALTH REASONS. IN 1750 HE COMPLETED A MAP OF NORTH AMERICA IN AN ATTEMPT TO SHOW THE GROWING THREAT TO BRITISH CLAIMS IN THE AREA OF FRENCH EXPANSION. HOWEVER, THAT MAP SHOWED THE LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF BOUNDARIES, ROADS AND EXACT LOCATIONS. FROM 1750-55 HE WAS RETAINED BY THE BOARD OF TRADE TO IMPROVE HIS MAP AND STUDY REPORTS FROM THE COLONIES. HE HAD ACCESS TO ALL THE ARCHIVAL MATERIAL OF THE BOARD AND OF THE BRITISH ADMIRALTY PLUS THE MAJOR MAPS MADE ON THE CONTINENT. IN 1750 THE BOARD SENT LETTERS TO ALL THE GOVERNORS ORDERING THEM TO SUPPLY MAPS OF THEIR PROVINCES. THE FRY & JEFFERSON MAP WAS MADE IN RESPONSE. IT WAS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE FOR MITCHELL, AS WAS THE LEWIS EVANS MAP FOR PENNSYLVANIA AND THOSE BY JOHN BARNWELL IN 1721 AND MOSELEY IN 1753 FOR THE CAROLINAS. HE RELIED HEAVILY FOR NEW FRANCE ON BELLIN AND D'ANVILLE. HE MADE EXTENSIVE USE OF GIST'S AND WASHINGTON'S JOURNALS FOR THE OHIO RIVER BASIN.

TWO COPIES OF THE MAP USED IN THE NEGOTIATIONS AT THE TREATY OF PARIS ARE IN EXISTENCE. ONE IS THE 1ST IMPRESSION OF THE 3RD ENGLISH EDITION AT THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. THE OTHER IS THE KING GEORGE MAP IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM (4TH ENGLISH ED.) FORMERLY IN GEORGE III'S LIBRARY.

DATA IS FROM BERKELEY, RISTOW, STEPHENSON, CUMMING, FITE & FREEMAN, MARTIN, PAULLIN, SELLERS & VAN EE, AND VERNER.

EDITION & STATE INFO : ELEVEN EDITIONS IN 21 IMPRESSIONS WERE IDENTIFIED BY STEPHENSON.

1ST ENGLISH ED. - 1ST IMP.- (1755) - MILLAR & KATHARINE ARE MISSPELLED. HAS TWO LEICESTERS AND NO WORCESTER IN MASSACHUSETTS. SEE MAP # 255M5.

2ND IMP. - (1755) - "MILLAR" & "KATHARINE" HAVE BEEN CORRECTED IN THE LINE OF PRINT OUTSIDE THE NEAT LINE IN THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER.

3RD IMP. - (1755) - SECOND "LEICESTER" CORRECTED TO "WORCESTER" IN MASSACHUSETTS.

2ND ENGLISH ED. - (1757?) - TABLES OF TEXT ADDED IN OCEAN. THE NAME "MILLAR" RETAINED AS MAPSELLER.

3RD ENGLISH ED. - 1ST IMP. - (1773?) - "MILLAR" DELETED. "PRINTED FOR JEFFERYS AND FADEN GEOGRAPHERS TO THE KING AT THE CORNER OF St. MARTINS LANE CHARING CROSS LONDON", IS ADDED IN THE BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER INSIDE THE NEAT LINE. THE ENGRAVER'S STATEMENT IS SHORTENED TO READ "THO: KITCHIN SCULP".

2ND IMP. - (1773-4?) - AN ENGRAVED BOUNDARY LINE IS ADDED IN LAKE ONTARIO.

4TH ENGLISH ED. - (1775) - THE TITLE IS CHANGED TO READ "A MAP OF THE BRITISH COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA". IN TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, MILLER IDENTIFIES A VARIANT OF THIS 4TH ENGLISH EDITION, WHICH HE CALLS THE "STEUBEN-WEBSTER COPY", WITH THE TITLE ALTERED BY A PRINTED PASTED SLIP BEARING THE WORLD "UNITED STATES" PASTED OVER THE LINE OF THE TITLE READING "BRITISH COLONIES". THAT COPY WAS PURCHASED BY DANIEL WEBSTER AND IS FROM THE LIBRARY OF BARON F.W. VON STEUBEN. SEE MAP # 275J5.

1ST DUTCH ED. - (1755) - "... OF THE SETTLEMENTS, BY Dr.JNo.MITCHELL. AT AMSTERDAM PRINTED FOR I. COVENS AND C. MORTIER.". 8 SHEETS. A COPY IS IN THE CLEMENTS LIBRARY. SEE MAP # 255C5.

2ND DUTCH ED. - (1755?) - "...BY JNo MITCHELL D.F. WITH IMPROVEMENTS-AT AMSTERDAM PRINTED FOR I. COVENS AND C. MORTIER". 8 SHEETS. SEE MAP # 255C6.

1ST FRENCH ED. - (1756) - "AMERIQUE SEPTENTRIONALE AVEC LES ROUTES, DISTANCES EN MILES, LIMITES ET ETABLISSEMENTS FRANCOIS ET ANGLOIS. PAR LE DOCTEUR MITCHEL TRADUIT DE L'ANGLOIS A PARIS PAR LE ROUGE INGr. GEOGRAPHIE DU ROY RUE DES GANDS AUGUSTINS. 1756.". SEE MAP # 256L5.

2ND FRENCH ED. - 1ST IMP. - (1756) - "VILLAGES" REPLACES "LIMITES" IN THE TITLE IN THIS AND SUBSEQUENT FRENCH IMPESSIONS. THE TITLE IS IN GERMAN BELOW THE FRENCH TITLE. AN INDEX TO SHEETS IS IN THE BOTTOM LEFT OF THE FRENCH TITLE. THE INDIAN HEADDRESS ON THE RIGHT OF THE CARTOUCHE HAS 5 FEATHERS. IT APPEARED IN GEORGES LOUIS LE ROUGE'S ATLAS GENERAL CONTENANT LE DETAIL DES QUATRE PARTIES DU MONDE PRINCIPALEMENT CELUI DE EUROPE, PARIS, CHEZ LE Sr. LE ROUGE, NO. 143-150. SEE MAP # 256L6.

2ND IMP. - (1756) - THE INDIAN HEADDRESS HAS ONLY 4 FEATHERS. THIS IS THE MAP DESCRIBED HEREIN.

3RD FRENCH ED. - 1ST IMP. - (1776) - THE MAP RETAINS THE 1756 DATE. ADDED IN THE CARTOUCHE IS "CORIGEE EN 1776 PAR M. HAWKINS BRIGADIER DES ARMEES DU ROI." SEE MAP # 276L5.

2ND IMP. - (1776) - THE MAP RETAINS THE DATE 1756. TICONDEROGA IS MISSPELLED "TICONDERAGO". THE CONVENTIONAL SIGN FOR THE FORT AT TICONDEROGA IS ADDED. A NEW LAKE IS ADDED CONNECTING AN UNNAMED LAKE TO "LAC GEORGE".

3RD IMP. - (1776) - THE MAP RETAINS THE 1756 DATE AND CONTAINS THE STATEMENT "CORIGEE EN 1776 PAR M. HAWKINS BRIGADIER DES ARMEES DU ROI.""LAC GEORGE" IS CHANGED TO "FOt GEORGE"."L. GEORGE" ADDED.

4TH IMP. - (1777) - THE DATE 1756 IN THE CARTOUCHE IS CHANGED TO 1777. A COPY IS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY. SEE MAP # 277L8.

5TH IMP. - (1777) - THE DATE "1777" REMAINS UNCHANGED IN THE CARTOUCHE. "A. GERMAN-TOWN, CARRE. M. 28" IS ADDED SOUTH OF LONG ISLAND.

6TH IMP. - (1783?) - THE DATE "1777" REMAINS UNCHANGED IN THE CARTOUCHE. US-CANADIAN BOUNDRY IS MARKED BY A DASHED LINE. EAST OF NEW HAMPSHIRE IS "EN MARS 1783 ON A TRACE SUR CETTE CARTE LES LIMITES DES ETATS UNIS ET DES AUTRES PUISSANCES SELON LE DERNIER TRAITE DE PAIX."

1ST ITALIAN ED. - (1778) - THE TITLE IS "LE COLONIE UNITE DELL' AMERICA SETTENTRle DI NOUVA PROJEZIONE A ss.ee LI SIGNORI REFORMATORI DELLO STUDIO DI PADOVA. VENEZIA, 1778. PRESSO ANTONIO ZATTA CON PRIVLEGIO DELL' ECCELLENTISSIMO SENATO". 12 SHEETS. THE MAP APPEARED IN GUILLAUME THOMAS FRANCOIS RAYNAL'S STORIA DELL'AMERICA SETTENTRIONALE DEL SIGNOR ABATE RAYNAL, VENEZIA, ANTONIO ZATTA, 1778, AND IN ANTONIO ZATTA'S ATLANTE NOVISSIMO, VENEZIA, ANTONIO ZATTA, 1779-85, VOL. 1, NO. 56-57. SEE MAP # 278Z5.

2ND ITALIAN ED. - (1791) - THE 1778 DATE IS CHANGED TO "1791". "CON PRIVILEGIO DELL ECCELLENTISSIMO SENATO" IS DELETED. THE MAP APPEARED IN ANTONIO ZATTA'S ATLANTE NOVISSIMO, VENEZIA, ANTONIO ZATTA, 1779-85, VOL. 4, NO. 27-38.

DATA FROM STEPHENSON. SOME DATES ARE FROM SELLERS & VAN EE AND FROM STEVENS & TREE. ALL IMPRESSIONS OTHER THAN THOSE MARKED WITH ANOTHER LOCATION ARE IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION HAS A GOOD COPY OF THIS 2ND FRENCH EDITION, SECOND IMPRESSION, WITH AN ACQ. # OF C018-TG2 AND A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399-32. THE MAP IS IN ORIGINAL OUTLINE COLOR ON 8 SHEETS, EACH DIVIDED INTO 12 SMALLER ONES AND MOUNTED ON LINEN. THE MAP IS ON DISPLAY IN THE TREATY OF PARIS ROOM OF THE MARYLAND STATE HOUSE IN ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND. THE COLLECTION ALSO HAS TWO COPIES OF THE FIRST ITALIAN EDITION OF 1778. ONE HAS AN ACQ. # OF BB023-DLD AND A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399- 51. THE OTHER HAS AN ACQ. # OF A025-HEG AND A MDHR # OF MSA SC1399-54. BOTH ARE IN OUTLINE COLOR.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : BERKELEY, EDMUND & DOROTHY SMITH BERKELEY, DR. MITCHELL THE MAN WHO MADE THE MAP OF NORTH AMERICA, CHAPEL HILL: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS, 1974; CARRIER, L., "DR. MITCHELL, NATURALIST, CARTOGRAPHER AND HISTORIAN", IN ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION, I, 1918, 199-219; BROWN, LLOYD A., STORY OF MAPS, BOSTON: LITTLE BROWN AND CO., 1949, 9; CUMMING, WILLIAM P., THE SOUTHEAST IN EARLY MAPS, CHAPEL HILL: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS, 1962, 47-9, 82 (MAP 177), 223-4 (MAP 293); FITE, EMERSON & ARCHIBALD FREEMAN, A BOOK OF OLD MAPS DELINEATING AMERICAN HISTORY FROM THE EARLIEST DAYS DOWN TO THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CAMBRIDGE: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1926, 181-4, 292-3; HEIDENREICH, CONRAD & EDWARD H. DAHL, "THE FRENCH MAPPING OF NORTH AMERICA 1700-1760", IN THE MAP COLLECTOR # 19, TRING, HERTFORDSHIRE: MAP COLLECTOR PUBLICATIONS, LTD., 1982, 6-7; HORNBERGER, T.,"THE SCIENTIFIC IDEAS OF JOHN MITCHELL", IN HUNTINGTON LIBRARY QUARTERLY # 10, NO. 3, 1947; LADD, RICHARD S., MAPS SHOWING EXPLORER'S ROUTES, TRAILS & EARLY ROADS IN THE UNITED STATES AN ANNOTATED LIST, WASHINGTON: THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1962, 56 (MAP 144); LUNNY, ROBERT M., EARLY MAPS OF NORTH AMERICA, NEWARK, N.J.: THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1961; TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, DAVID HUNTER MILLER, ED., VOL. 3, DOCUMENTS 41-79, WASHINGTON: GPO, 1933, 328-351 (DOCUMENT 58); MARTIN, LAWRENCE, "JOHN MITCHELL'S MAP", IN LIBRARY OF CONGRESS QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF CURRENT ACQUISITIONS, APRIL-JUNE 1944 ISSUE, WASHINGTON: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 36-38; MATHEWS, EDWARD B., "BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CARTOGRAPHY OF MARYLAND", IN MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY SPECIAL PUBLICATION VOL. 1, PART IV, BALTIMORE: THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS, 1897, 348; McLAUGHLIN, PATRICK D., PRE-FEDERAL MAPS IN THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES: AN ANNOTATED LIST, WASHINGTON: THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS SERVICE, 1971, 15 (MAPS 18 - 25); PAULLIN, C.O., THE ATLAS OF HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES, 1932, 13-14, 52-55, 89-90; PHILLIPS, PHILIP LEE, A LIST OF GEOGRAPHICAL ATLASES IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, AMSTERDAM: THEATRVM ORBIS TERRARVM, LTD., 1971 REPRINT OF A LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PUBLICATION ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1909, # 641 (2ND FR. ED.- 1ST IMP), # 1212 (3RD FR. ED.- 3RD IMP), # 3448 (2ND DUTCH ED.), # 5975 (2ND FR. ED. - 1ST IMP); PHILLIPS, PHILIP LEE, A LIST OF MAPS OF AMERICA IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, NEW YORK: BURT FRANKLIN, UNDATED REPRINT OF A LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PUBLICATION ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN 1901, 573-4; RISTOW, WALTER W.,"JOHN MITCHELL'S MAP OF THE BRITISH AND FRENCH DOMINIONS IN NORTH AMERICA", IN A LA CARTE SELECTED PAPERS ON MAPS AND ATLASES, WASHINGTON: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1972, 103-13 (INCLUDING A LISTING OF EDITIONS AND IMPRESSIONS COMPILED BY R. STEPHENSON); SELLERS, JOHN R. & PATRICIA MOLEN VAN EE, MAPS AND CHARTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES 1750-1789, WASHINGTON: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1981, 11-14, 16, 26-7, 36-7, 40, 296; SNYDER,JOHN P., THE MAPPING OF NEW JERSEY, NEW BRUNSWICK: RUTGERS UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1973, 51-53, 57; STEVENS, HENRY & ROLAND TREE, "COMPARATIVE CARTOGRAPHY", IN MAP COLLECTOR'S SERIES # 39, LONDON: MAP COLLECTOR'S CIRCLE, 1967, 342-3; SWEM, EARL G.,"MAPS RELATING TO VIRGINIA IN THE VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY", IN BULLETIN OF THE VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY, VOL. 7, RICHMOND: VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY, 1914, 230; THOMSON, D.W., MEN AND MERIDIANS, THE HISTORY OF SURVEYING AND MAPPING IN CANADA; TOOLEY, R.V., TOOLEY'S DICTIONARY OF MAPMAKERS, TRING, HERTFORDSHIRE: MAP COLLECTOR PUBLICATIONS, LTD., 1979, 441; VERNER, COOLIE, "THE FRY & JEFFERSON MAP", IN IMAGO MUNDI # 21, LONDON: IMAGO MUNDI, LTD., 1967, 70-94 (SEE ESPECIALLY PAGE 83); WALTERS ART GALLERY, THE WORLD ENCOMPASSED, AN EXHIBITION CATALOG, BALTIMORE: THE WALTERS ART GALLERY, 1952, MAP # 256; WINDSOR, JUSTIN, NARRATIVE & CRITICAL HISTORY OF AMERICA, VOL. 5, CAMBRIDGE: HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY, 1877, 83; PARKE BERNET GALLERIES, INC., THE THOMAS WINTHROP STREETER COLLECTION OF AMERICANA, VOL. 1, AN AUCTION CATALOG, NEW YORK: PARKE BERNET GALLERIES, INC., 1966, 53, 55.

March 12, 1991


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