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MAP #: 135C5

CARTOGRAPHER : CECILL, T. [ENGRAVER]

DATE: 1635

SHORT TITLE : NOUA TERRAE-MARIAE TABULA

REMAINING TITLE & ID : (CARTOUCHE, UPPER CENTER). ROYAL COAT OF ARMS (TOP RIGHT). CALVERT COAT OF ARMS (BELOW ROYAL COAT OF ARMS). "THIS NORTHERNE PART OF VIRGINIA (THE LIMITTS WHEREOF EXTEND MANY DEGREES FURTHER SOUTHWARDS) IS HEERE INSERTED FOR THE BETTER DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTRANCE INTO THE BAY OF CHESAPEACK." (UPPER (LEFT CORNER). "T. CECILL SCULP:" (BOTTOM RIGHT). SCALE OF SEA LEAGUES LOWER LEFT). COMPASS ROSE (LOWER LEFT). THERE IS NOTHING ON THE REVERSE SIDE. LONGITUDE (POSSIBLY EAST FROM FERRO, RIGHT AND LEFT BORDERS). LATITUDE (TOP AND BOTTOM BORDERS).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : S1635
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : LONDON
PUBLISHER : WILLIAM PEASLEY
LANGUAGE(S) : LA
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 29.0 X 37.0 CM.
SIZE - OTHER DATA : 32 X 56 CM. OM (UNFOLDED IN BOOK)
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 1,470,000
SCALE - OTHER DATA : SEA LEAGUES
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : G1399-526 (ED.1)
# 2 : G1399-361 (ED.1 - REPRO)
# 3 : G1399-187 (ED.2)
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : S-B016-IGL2 (ED.1)
# 2 : BB023-UNN (ED.2)
REGION CATEGORY : GENERAL MAP WHERE MD/CHESAPEAKE IS ONE MAIN FOCUS (1)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) :
# SHEETS TO MAP : 1
MAP ORIENTATION : W IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP.
RELIEF SHOWN ? : YES
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SHOALS SHOWN IN SHADING.
CARTOUCHE : SIMPLE PLASTERWORK (14)
BORDER : GEOGRAPHICALLY FUNCTIONAL (8)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : MERIDIAN UNSPECIFIED, BUT PROBABLY FERRO (22)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : 171O5.
BEST INFO SOURCE : PHILLIPS, VIRGINIA CARTOGRAPHY, MATHEWS, PAPENFUSE AND VERNER ARE THE BEST FOUND.
DESCRIPTION : THIS MAP, USUALLY REFERRED TO AS "LORD BALTIMORE'S MAP", IS THE EARLIEST SEPARATE MAP OF MARYLAND. IT IS THE FIRST TO INDICATE THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN BOUNDARIES OF MARYLAND AS CLAIMED BY LORD BALTIMORE, THE FIRST TO NAME DELAWARE BAY, AND THE FIRST TO CONTAIN THE BALTIMORE COAT OF ARMS. IT IS THE FIRST PRINTED MAP TO SHOW THE JAMES AND RAPPAHANNOCK RIVERS CORRECTLY DESIGNATED WITH THESE NAMES. VERNER NOTES THAT THIS IS THE ONLY MAP TO NAME THE TWO POINTS AT THE MOUTH OF THE POTOMAC RIVER AS "ST GREGORIES POYNT" ON THE SOUTH AND "ST. MICHAELLS POYNT" ON THE NORTH. NEITHER OF THESE NAMES SURVIVED. ITS OUTLINE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY IS MORE CRUDE AND LESS DETAILED THAN SMITH'S, ALTHOUGH ITS REPRESENTATION OF THE POTOMAC RIVER IS BETTER. PAPENFUSE AND COALE INDICATE THAT THE MAP WAS PROBABLY DRAWN BY JEROME HAWLEY AND JOHN LEWGER, ADVENTURERS IN THE FIRST COLONIZING EXPEDITION. THE COMPILATION AND EDITION OF THE WORK IN WHICH THE MAP APPEARED IS ALSO ATTRIBUTED TO THESE SAME MEN. IT WAS A PROMOTIONAL TRACT ENTITLED A RELATION OF MARYLAND: TOGETER WITH A MAP OF THE COUNTREY, THE CONDITIONS OF PLANTATION, HIS MAJESTIES CHARTER TO THE LORD BALTEMORE, TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH. THESE BOOKS ARE TO BEE HAD, AT MASTER WILLIAM PEASLEY ESQ.; HIS HOUSE, ON THE BACK-SIDE OF DRURY LAND, NEERE THE COCK-PIT PLAYHOUSE; OR IN HIS ABSENCE AT MASTER JOHN MORGANS HOUSE IN HIGH HOLBOURNE, OVER AGAINST THE DOLPHIN, LONDON. SEPTEMBER THE 8, ANNO DOM. 1635. THE RELATION, SO CALLED BECAUSE IT RELATED THE EVENTS SURROUNDING THE FOUNDING OF THE COLONY IN 1634 AT ST. MARY'S CITY, ALSO CONTAINED THE FIRST PRINTED VERSION OF THE CHARTER, IT GAVE A DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRYSIDE, THE INDIANS, THE NATIVE PRODUCTS, ANIMALS, BIRDS AND FISHES THAT WERE HERE AT THE TIME. ESTIMATES OF PRODUCTS THAT COULD BE GROWN OR PRODUCED HERE WERE INCLUDED AS WERE INDUCEMENTS TO POTENTIAL COLONISTS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR WHAT TO BRING ON THE SEA VOYAGE AND TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES UNTIL A CROP COULD BE HARVESTED. A SAMPLE BILL OF LADING FOR SHIPMENT OF GOODS AND AN INDENTURE FORM FOR SERVANTS WERE PRINTED. ALL THIS WAS AN ATTEMPT TO INTEREST POTENTIAL COLONISTS AND INVESTORS IN COMING TO THE NEW COLONY OR TO HELP FINANCE ITS DEVELOPMENT.

THE PAMPHLET WAS THE SECOND RELATING TO MARYLAND. THE FIRST IN 1634 IS ENTITLED A RELATION OF THE SUCCESSFUL BEGINNINGS OF THE LORD BALTEMORE PLANTATION IN MARY-LAND, BEING AN EXTRACT OF CERTAINE LETTERS WRITTEN FROM THENCE BY SOME OF THE ADVENTURERS TO THEIR FRIENDS IN ENGLAND (LONDON) ANNO DOM. 1634. I P.L. 14 PP." THIS PAMPHLET HAD NO MAP. IN THIS EARLIER RELATION, BALTIMORE HAD OFFERED 3000 ACRES OF LAND TO ANYONE WHO WOULD GO TO THE COLONY OR SEND HIS DEPUTY WITH 10 "ABLE MEN FIT FOR LABOR BETWEEN THE AGES OF 20 AND 60." IN THE 1635 RELATION, BALTIMORE CUT THE GRANT TO 1000 ACRES. HE ALSO OFFERED 100 ACRES FOR EACH MAN OR WOMAN, AND 50 FOR EACH CHILD AND SERVANT. THE OFFER WAS MOST APPEALING TO YOUNGER SONS, WHO WOULD HAVE RECEIVED LITTLE OR NO INHERITANCE, SINCE IT WAS THE CUSTOM FOR THIS TO GO TO THE ELDEST SON.

THE SEEDS OF FUTURE BOUNDARY DISPUTES WERE PLANTED BY THE CHARTER, WHICH WAS VAGUE AND CONTRADICTORY IN ITS DELINEATION OF THE BOUNDS OF MARYLAND. THE DESCRIPTION OF THE BOUNDS IN THE FIRST ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE ORIGINAL LATIN CHARTER WAS PRECEDED BY THE RESERVATION THAT THE GRANT APPLIED TO "...PARTS OF AMERICA NOT YET CULTIVATED AND PLANTED..." THIS LED TO A DISPUTE ABOUT PRESENT DELAWARE, WHICH, IT WAS LATER SUCCESSFULLY CONTENDED, WAS PREVIOUSLY CULTIVATED AND PLANTED. THE GRANT WAS FOR THAT LAND "...WHICH LIETH UNDER THE FORTIETH DEGREE OF NORTHERLY LATITUDE" FROM THE DELAWARE BAY IN A STRAIGHT LINE "...UNTO THE TRUE MERIDIAN OF THE FIRST FOUNTAINE OF THE RIVER OF PATTOWMECK". THIS RAISED THE QUESTION OF WHETHER THE GRANT WAS TO THE FORTIETH PARALLEL OR TO THE 39TH, ON THE THEORY THAT THE 40TH WAS A BAND OF ONE DEGREE THAT BEGAN AT THE 39TH., THE LORD BALTIMORE MAP HURT BALTIMORE'S CASE IN THE DISPUTE WITH THE PENNS. IT LOCATED THE 40TH PARALLEL AT THE HEAD OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY RATHER THAN AT ITS ACTUAL LOCATION, WHICH WOULD HAVE TAKEN IT FURTHER NORTH, THROUGH PHILADELPHIA AND WEST THROUGH PRESENT YORK, PA.

AN ATTEMPT TO CHANGE THE LOCATION OF THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY IS SEEN IN THE SECOND AND MORE COMMON EDITION OF THE LORD BALTIMORE MAP IN 1671 (SEE MAP 171O5). THIS EDITION ADDS TWO ROWS OF TREES TO THE MARYLAND SIDE OF THE BORDER.

VERNER CONCLUDES THAT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE 1635 LORD BALTIMORE MAP AND THE JOHN SMITH MAP ARE SUCH AS TO SUGGEST THAT SOME ORIGINAL SURVEY WORK HAD BEEN DONE, BUT IF SO, ITS CIRCUMSTANCES ARE NOT KNOWN. ITS GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCE WAS APPARENTLY MINOR ON SUBSEQUENT MAPS, EXCEPT THAT THE HERRMAN MAP OF 1673 SHOWED SOME OF ITS FEATURES. HE BELIEVES THAT THE MAP IS FAR MORE SIGNIFICANT GEOGRAPHICALLY THAN IT IS USUALLY CREDITED WITH BEING. IT IS THE FIRST PRINTED MAP SPECIFICALLY OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY THAT SHOWS A MORE NATURAL SHAPE FOR THE DELMARVA PENINSULA AND A MORE ACCURATE RELATIONSHIP WITH DELAWARE BAY.

TWELVE COMPLETE COPIES OF THE 1635 RELATION, WITH THE MAP, ARE LOCATED AT THE FOLLOWING LIBRARIES: THE BODLEIAN (2), THE BRITISH LIBRARY(2), THE JOHN CARTER BROWN, HARVARD, JOHNS HOPKINS, HUNTINGTON, WILLIAM CLEMENTS, NEWBERRY, THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, AND AT THE MARYLAND ARCHIVES (THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION). THE N.Y. STATE LIBRARY IS UNSURE OF THE AUTHENTICITY OF ITS MAP, BUT ITS COPY OF THE RELATION IS COMPLETE OTHERWISE. CORNELL HAS A COPY OF THE RELATION, WITH THE MAP, BUT WITH THE CHARTER MISSING. THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS HAS A COMPLETE COPY WITH THE MAP, BUT WITH LEAVES C2 AND C3 IN PEN FACSIMILE. ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THE RELATION, LACKING THE MAP, ARE AT THE JCB (SECOND COPY), JOHNS HOPKINS (SECOND COPY), THE N.Y. HISTORICAL SOCIETY, THE NYPL (SECOND COPY). AND AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY COPY LACKS THE MAP, HAS PAGES 53-56 IN 19TH CENTURY LETTERPRESS AND HAS IRREGULARITIES IN THE COLLATION.

A FACSIMILE OF THE MAP IS FOUND IN MAPS TO ACCOMPANY THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS ON THE BOUNDARY LINE BETWEEN VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND, 1873. A REPRINT OF THE RELATIONS WITH THE MAP WAS MADE BY FRANCIS L. HAWKS IN 1865.

DATA IS FROM PHILLIPS, VIRGINIA CARTOGRAPHY, MATHEWS, PAPENFUSE & COALE, VERNER'S UNPUBLISHED NOTES ON THE MAPS OF VIRGINIA AND FROM OBSERVATION OF THE HUNTINGFIELD CORPORATION COPY OF THE RELATION AND ITS MAP. DATA REGARDING THE LOCATION AND CONDITION OF COPIES OF THE RELATION OF MARYLAND ARE FROM A SPECIAL MAIL SURVEY BY THE WRITER WITH HELP FROM ED PAPENFUSE ON THE BRITISH AND FRENCH INSTITUTIONS.

EDITION & STATE INFO : TWO EDITIONS OF THE MAP ARE KNOWN. THE FIRST WAS THE ORIGINAL THAT ACCOMPANIED THE PAMPHLET A RELATION OF MARYLAND... IN 1635. THE SECOND EDITION, IN 1671 WAS IN JOHN OGILBY'S AMERICA. VERNER CASTS SOME DOUBT AS TO WHETHER EDITION TWO IS ACTUALLY A SECOND STATE OF THE FIRST EDITION. IN HIS UNPUBLISHED NOTES ON THE MAPS OF VIRGINIA HE SAYS, "THIS MAP WAS COPIED BY JOHN OGILBY FOR HIS EDITION OF AMERICA... IN 1671. IN THE PROCESS, HE INTRODUCED SOME NEW INFOR- MATION AND MADE NUMEROUS CHANGES, NEVER-THE-LESS, THE COPY IS SO EXACT AS TO SUGGEST THAT THE SAME PLATE WAS USED." OTHER AUTHORITIES, HOWEVER, BELIEVE IT WAS A SECOND PLATE AND IT IS SO TREATED HERE.

1ST ED. - (1635) - THE COUNTIES IN MARYLAND ARE NOT NAMED. THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF MARYLAND IS SHOWN AT THE HEAD OF THE BAY, WHICH IS INDICATED AS THE 40TH DEGREE OF LATITUDE. THIS IS THE MAP DESCRIBED HEREIN.

2ND ED. - (1671) - THE TEN COUNTIES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY ARE NAMED IN THEIR APPROXIMATE LOCATIONS. THERE IS A CLEARER DELINEATION OF THE SMALL ISLANDS OF THE BAY. THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF MARYLAND HAS BEEN MOVED FURTHER NORTH AND TWO ADDITIONAL ROWS OF TREES HAVE BEEN ADDED. ALTHOUGH OGILBY'S AMERICA WAS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE SAME PUBLICATION BY ARNOLDUS MONTANUS, THIS MAP DID NOT APPEAR IN MONTANUS. SEE MAP #171O5.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : HFC HAS AN EXCELLENT COPY OF THE 1635 RELATION, WITH THE MAP. IT IS A COMPLETE COPY AND IS THE ONLY ONE KNOWN IN ITS ORIGINAL COVER. THE RELATION AND THE MAP ARE PHYSICALLY LOCATED AT THE MARYLAND ARCHIVES BUILDING. HFC HAS A PHOTOREPRODUCTION OF A LITHOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION BY WEED, PARSONS & CO. OF ALBANY, N.Y., WHICH WAS FOUND IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. IT HAS A MdHR # OF G1399-361(REPRO). HFC ALSO HAS A BEAUTIFUL COPY OF THE SECOND EDITION (1671) IN OUTLINE COLORING. IT HAS AN HFC ACQ. # OF BB023-UNN AND A MdHR # OF G1399-187. THIS EDITION IS ON CURRENT LOAN TO THE MARYLAND ARCHIVES AND IS ON EXHIBIT IN THE MARYLAND STATE HOUSE. SEE MAP # 171O5.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY ANNUAL REPORTS, VOL. 3; PHILLIPS, MAPS, P. 227, 391; PHILLIPS, VIRGINIA CARTOGRAPHY, PP. 41-42; MATHEWS, E.B., THE MAPS AND MAP-MAKERS OF MARYLAND, PP. 360-363; MATHEWS, E.B., BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CARTOGRAPHY OF MARYLAND, P. 334 (INCORRECTLY ATTRIBUTES MAP TO AUGUSTINE HERRMAN); SABIN # 45314 (ED. 1), 50089 (ED. 2);WINDSOR,J.,III,PP. 525,553; PAPENFUSE AND COALE, ATLAS OF HISTORICAL MAPS OF MARYLAND 1608-1908, FIG. 4, PP. 5-7; BAER, ELIZABETH, SEVENTEENTH CENTURY MARYLAND, NO. 22, PP. 23-24; SCHWARTZ AND EHRENBERG, THE MAPPING OF AMERICA, PL. 60; STREETER, VOL. II, PP. 676,680; SWEM 34; CHURCH 432; THE WORLD ENCOMPASSED, # 242; VERNER, COOLIE, UNPUBLISHED NOTES ON THE MAPS OF VIRGINIA.

April 14, 1988


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