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MAP #: 112S5

CARTOGRAPHER : SMITH, JOHN

DATE: 1612

SHORT TITLE : VIRGINIA

REMAINING TITLE & ID : (UPPER CENTER, IN BANNER). "DISCOUVERED AND DISCRIBED BY CAPTAYN JOHN SMITH GRAVEN BY WILLIAM HOLE" (LOWER CENTER, INSIDE CARTOUCHE). PICTURE ENTITLED "POWHATAN HELD THIS STATE & FASHION WHEN CAPT. SMITH WAS DELIUERED TO HIM PRISONER 1607" (INSET IN UPPER LEFT CORNER). STANDING SUSQUEHANNA INDIAN (UPPER RIGHT). ROYAL COAT OF ARMS (UNDER CARTOUCHE). SCALE OF LEAGUES AND HALF LEAGUES (ABOVE CARTOUCHE, WITH DIVIDERS POINTING TO THE FIRST AND LAST MARK). LARGE COMPASS ROSE (LOWER LEFT). TABLE OF SYMBOLS (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). THERE IS NOTHING ON THE REVERSE SIDE. LONGITUDE (NOT SHOWN). LATITUDE (BOTTOM BORDER).


DATE OF PUBLICATION : S1612
PLACE OF PUBLICATION : OXFORD, ENGLAND
PUBLISHER : JOHN SMITH
LANGUAGE(S) : EN
SIZE (HEIGHT X WIDTH) : 32.2 X 40.6 CM.
SIZE - OTHER DATA : 33 X 45 CM. OM (UNFOLDED IN BOOK)
SCALE - (RF) 1: : 1,280,000
SCALE - OTHER DATA : 15 LEAGUES = 6.8 CM.
LIB. OF CONGRESS # : -
Md. HALL OF RECORDS # 1 : G1399-268 (ED.1 - ST.6)
# 2 : G1399-101 (ED.1 - ST.9)
# 3 : G1399-25 (ED.1 - ST.10)
# 4 : G1399-239 (ED.2)
HUNTINGFIELD ACQ. # 1 : S022-HN3Q* (ED.1 - ST.6)
# 2 : A018-UIG1 (ED.1 - ST.9)
# 3 : N022-G2 (ED.1 - ST.10)
# 4 : BB023-DFI (ED.2)
REGION CATEGORY : GENERAL MAP WHERE MD/CHESAPEAKE IS ONE MAIN FOCUS (1)
SPECIAL CATEGORY(IES) : JOHN SMITH MAP (11)
# SHEETS TO MAP : 1
MAP ORIENTATION : W IS AT THE TOP OF THE MAP.
RELIEF SHOWN ? : YES
HYDROGRAPHIC DATA : SHOALS SHOWN IN SHADING
CARTOUCHE : BANNER FRAME (5)
BORDER : SIMPLE SUB-DIVISIONAL FUNCTIONAL (6)
PRIME MERIDIAN(S) : NOT SPECIFIED, POSSIBLY FERRO IN 4TH & SUBSEQUENT STATES (22)
SEE ALSO MAP #s : 319S5.
BEST INFO SOURCE : VERNER'S MCS # 45 IS THE DEFINITIVE STUDY.
DESCRIPTION : THE SMITH MAP SERVED AS THE PROTOTYPE MAP FOR THE CHESAPEAKE AREA UNTIL THE HERRMAN MAP IN 1673. IT WAS THE FIRST PRINTED MAP OF THE AREA AND IS REMARKABLY CORRECT IN ITS TOPOGRAPHY AND PROVIDES ALMOST THE ONLY RECORD OF THE LOCATION OF THE INDIAN TRIBES OF THE AREA IN THE EARLY 17TH CENTURY. ITS DEPICTION OF THE COASTLINE, WATERWAYS AND LANDMARKS IS SUPERB IN VIEW OF THE TOOLS AND TIME AVAILABLE TO SMITH FOR SURVEYING. HE SURVEYED BY TAKING BEARINGS FROM HIS BARGE.

ON JUNE 2, 1608, SMITH AND 14 OTHERS SURVEYED AND SOUGHT FOR A PASSAGE TO THE WEST IN ACCORDANCE WITH INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE MERCHANT COMPANY SPONSORING THE JAMESTOWN COLONY. HE RETURNED TO JAMESTOWN ON JULY 21ST, DURING WHICH TIME HE HAD EXPLORED THE EASTERN SHORE AND THE PATOMAC TO THE FALL LINE. FROM JULY 24TH TO SEPT. 7TH, SMITH AND 12 OTHERS WENT TO THE NORTHERN CHESAPEAKE BAY, INCLUDING EXPLORATION OF THE SUSQUEHANNA, PATUXENT, RAPPAHANNOCK AND PIANKATANT RIVERS. DESPITE HARDSHIPS AND HOSTILE INDIANS, SMITH COMPLETED HIS WORK AND SENT A DRAFT OF 2 MS. MAPS TO THE COUNCIL IN LONDON IN NOV., 1608 WITH HIS REPORTS OF THE AREA ENTITLED ANNEXED RELATION OF THE COUNTRIES AND NATIONS THAT INHABIT THEM. THE TRUE RELATION WAS PRINTED IN 1609, WITHOUT THE MAPS, WHICH WERE LOST TO HISTORY. HOWEVER, IN 1612, SMITH HAD A MAP BASED ON THE MS. AND ON INFORMATION GAINED SUBSEQUENTLY ENGRAVED ON A COPPERPLATE BY WM. HOLE PUBLISHED SEPARATELY, THEN IN A PUBLICATION ENTITLED A MAP OF VIRGINIA...1612 PRINTED ON A PRESS AT OXFORD BY JOSEPH BARNES. THE PAMPHLET IS A SMALL QUARTO PUBLICATION INTENDED TO SUPPLEMENT AND EXPLAIN THE MAP AND ITS COUNTRY. THE TRACT WAS LATER REPUBLISHED IN SMITH'S GENERALL HISTORIE OF VIRGINIA... FROM 1624 TO 1632 AND ALSO IN PURCHAS HIS PILGRIMES (IV. PP. 1691 TO 1733) IN 1625.

SMITH INDICATES BY MALTESE CROSSES WHERE HIS DIRECT OBSERVATIONS ENDED AND WHERE HERESAY BEGAN. THE MAP, THUS, WAS A RELATIVELY SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENT FOR THE TIME. THE STATES OF THE MAP REFER TO ALTERATIONS FOUND ON VARIOUS COPIES OF THE MAP ON THE ORIGINAL COPPERPLATE BETWEEN 1612 AND 1632. THE PLATE WAS NEVER USED AFTER 1632.

THE FEATURES MOST DISTINCTIVE TO SMITH'S MAP ARE: 1) THE TURN TO THE EAST OF THE BAY AT ITS HEAD; 2) THE WIDE DEPICTION OF THE DELMARVA PENINSULA; 3) THE PENINSULA BETWEEN THE JAMES AND YORK RIVERS IS SHOWN WIDER NORTH-SOUTH AT ITS END THAT IT ACTUALLY IS; AND 4) THE "Z" SHAPED PATTERN OF THE PATOMAC RIVER. MANY DERIVATIVE MAPS INCORPORATED THESE FEATURES IN LATER YEARS.

DATA FROM VERNER (MCS # 45), PHILLIPS, MCCARY, SANCHEZ-SAAEDRA, THE WORLD ENCOMPASSED RISTOW, AND FITE & FREEMAN.

EDITION & STATE INFO : TWO EDITIONS ARE KNOWN. ONE IN 1612 IS IDENTIFIED IN 12 STATES AND WAS REPRINTED THRU 1632 USING THE SAME PLATE, A SECOND IN 1819 FROM A NEW ENGRAVED PLATE (SEE MAP # 319S5).

1ST EDITION - (1612-1632) -

1ST STATE - THIS IS THE MAP DESCRIBED HEREIN. THE DATE "1606" IS MISSING IN THE SCALE CARTOUCHE. THE DATE "1607" IS MISSING IN THE 3RD LINE OF THE LEGEND BENEATH THE POWHATAN PICTURE. THERE ARE NO LONGITUDE FIGURES. THE SMITH ARMS ARE MISSING IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER. COPIES ARE IN THE CLEMENTS, NY PUBLIC LIBRARY, HARVARD, NEWBERRY, PRINCETON, AND IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

2ND STATE - THE TWO MISSING DATES OF THE 1ST STATE HAVE BEEN INSERTED. THE PLATE WAS ACCIDENTALLY SCRATCHED IN THE CURVE FORMED BY THE ELABORATE ENGRAVED ENDING TO THE LETTER S IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER. COPIES ARE IN THE HUNTINGTON, THE EVERGREEN HOUSE OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, AND IN HARVARD.

3RD STATE - SMITH'S ARMS, WITHOUT THE MOTTO, ARE ADDED IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER. IN ADDING THE ARMS, SOME OF THE STIPPLING AND ONE TREE WAS REMOVED. AFTER CUTTING THE ARMS, THE STIPPLING WAS REPLACED IN A COARSER GRAIN. COPIES ARE IN HUNTINGTON, BRITISH MUSEUM, PRINCETON, THE NY PUBLIC LIBRARY AND THE MORGAN LIBRARY.

4TH STATE - THE MOTTO BENEATH SMITH'S ARMS WAS ADDED WITHOUT REMOVING THE STIPPLING. LONGITUDE WAS ADDED OUTSIDE THE FINAL LINE OF THE BORDER. ON THE SOUTH, THE FIGURES ARE FROM 310 TO 307. ON THE NORTH, THEY READ FROM 311 TO 307. LATITUDE SEGMENTS AND FIGURES WERE ADDED OUTSIDE THE FINAL LINE ON THE TOP BORDER. THE FIGURE FOR 40 DEGREES WAS REVERSED. COPIES ARE IN CHAPIN LIBRARY OF WILLIAMS COLLEGE AND IN THE MORGAN LIBRARY.

5TH STATE - "GUNTERS HARBOUR", "TAVERNERS ROADE", "WINSTONE ILES", & "BROOKES FOREST" WERE ADDED. COPIES ARE IN THE HUNTINGTON, PRINCETON AND NY PUBLIC LIBRARIES.

6TH STATE - "SPARKES CONTENT", "DEMOCRITES TREE" AND "BURTONS MOUNT" WERE ADDED. COPIES ARE IN THE HUNTINGTON, PRINCETON, HARVARD, CLEMENTS, AND IN THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION.

7TH STATE - PURCHAS PAGE NOS. 1692 AND 1693 WERE ADDED IN THE UPPER LEFT & RIGHT RESPECTIVELY. COPIES ARE IN PRINCETON, HARVARD, DARTMOUTH, AND IN THE LIBRARY COMPANY OF PHILADELPHIA.

8TH STATE - "FEATHERSTONES BAYE", "BOLLERS BUSH", "SPARKES POYNT" AND "PAGE 41 SMITH" WERE ADDED. "SPARKES CONTENT" WAS ALTERED TO "SPARKES VAYLLEY". THE MOUNTAINS, TREES AND SCALE CARTOUCHE WERE REINGRAVED IN SPOTS. COPIES ARE IN THE HUNTINGTON, NEWBERRY, VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND IN HARVARD.

9TH STATE - "WASHEBORNE C", BLANDS C:" AND "DOWNES DALE" WERE ADDED. "BOLLERS BUSH" WAS ALTERED TO "BOOLERS BUSH". NUMEROUS MOUNTAINS AND TREES WERE REENGRAVED IN THE TOP CENTER TO THE LEFT OF THE ROYAL COAT OF ARMS. COPIES ARE IN THE HUNTINGTON, PRINCETON, NY PUBLIC LIBRARY, JOHN CARTER BROWN, MORGAN, WILLIAMS, CLEMENTS, HARVARD AND IN THE HUNTINGFIELD COLLECTION.

10TH STATE- PURCHASE PAGE NOS. WERE CHANGED TO 1690 AND 1691 ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT RESPECTIVELY. THIS IS THE MOST NUMEROUS STATE. THE HUNT- INGFIELD COLLECTION AND MOST OF THE MAJOR LIBRARIES HAVE COPIES.

11TH STATE- THE HAIR OF THE INDIAN IS CROSS HATCHED AND TRESSES EXTENDED SLIGHTLY WHEN IT WAS REENGRAVED. COPIES ARE IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM AND IN WILLIAMS COLLEGE.

12TH STATE- A CONSPICUOUS CRACK DEVELOPED IN THE PLATE FROM LATITUDE 38 TO THE RUDDER OF THE SHIP, DUE WEST BETWEEN E AND CONTINUATION MARKS IN CHE TO THE O IN POWHATAN TO THE R IN ORAPAKS TO MYCHTOCK PASSU DEVELOPS. A COPY IS IN FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY.

VERNER HYPOTHESIZES THAT STATES 1-6 ARE THE EQUIVALENT OF PROOF COPIES AND BELONG WITH A MAP OF VIRGINIA. STATE 7 BELONGS ONLY TO THE EARLIEST GATHERED COPIES OF PURCHASE HIS PILGRIMES. STATES 8 TO 10 BELONG BOTH TO PURCHAS AND TO SMITH'S GENERALL HISTORIE OF VIRGINIA... STATES 11 AND 12 BELONG TO THE LATEST GATHERED COPIES OF PURCHAS.

2ND EDITION - (1819) - A REPRODUCTION OF THE MAP WAS PUBLISHED IN RICHMOND, VIRGINIA IN 1819 TO ACCOMPANY AN EDITION OF SMITH'S HISTORY. IT WAS TAKEN FROM STATE 10 OF THE 1ST EDITION AND PRINTED FROM AN ENGRAVED PLATE. THE MAP IS 40.7 cm.(NS) AND 31.7 cm. (EW). THE NAME OF WILLIAM HOLE WAS OMITTED FROM THE SCALE CARTOUCHE. THE MAP WAS PRODUCED BY FRANCIS WALLER GILMER AND JOHN HOLT RICE, MEMBERS OF THE WILLIAM WIRT LITERARY CIRCLE IN RICHMOND. IT WAS LATER REPRODUCED IN THE 1873 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS ON THE BOUNDARY. (SEE MAP # 319S5).

DATA IS DIRECTLY FROM VERNER, MCS # 45.

HFC OWNERSHIP DATA : HFC HAS THREE COPIES OF EDITION 1. STATE 6 IS IN A 1627 EDITION OF SMITH'S GENERALL HISTORIE OF VIRGINIA. THE TOP EDGE IS SLIGHTLY CROPPED. THE MAP HAS AN HFC ACQ. # OF S022-HN3Q*. A SECOND IS STATE 9 FROM A 1625 EDITION OF PURCHAS. IT HAS SMALL MARGINS, BUT ALL THE ENGRAVING IS PRESENT. THE HFC ACQ. # IS A018-UIG1 AND THE MDHR # IS G1399-101. THE THIRD IS STATE 10, WHICH IS SHORT CROPPED IN THE LOWER MARGIN WITH ABOUT 1/4TH INCH OF MAP MISSING. THE HFC ACQ. # IS N022-G2 AND THE MDHR # IS G1399-12. IN ADDITION, HFC ALSO HAS A GOOD COPY OF EDITION 2 IN OUTLINE COLORING (SEE MAP # 319S5). THE HFC ACQ. # IS BB023-DFI AND THE MDHR # IS G1399-239.

BIBLIGRAPHICAL REFS. : ARBER, EDW., ED, ENGLISH SCHOLARS LIBRARY # 16, BIRMINGHAM, 1884, BAER,E. #1,PP.3-4,#7,PP.10-11,#8,PP.11-12,#9,P.12,#11,P.14,#13,P.15,#17,P .19,#19, P.20;BROWN,ALEXANDER, THE FIRST REPUBLIC IN AMERICA, BOSTON & NY, 1898; BROWN, ALEXANDER, THE GENESIS OF THE UNITED STATES, BOSTON & NY, 1890; BUSHNELL, DAVID, SMITHSONIAN MISC. COLLECTION, VOL. 94, NO. 8, DC, 1935; IDEM, VOL. 82 NO. 12, DC, 1930; IDEM, VOL. 96 NO. 4, DC, 1937; CHURCH 359; DECOSTA, B.F., MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY, NY, 1878; EAMES, W., A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF JOHN SMITH, REPRINTED FROM SABINS DICTIONARY OF BOOKS TO AMERICA. NY, 1927; FITE & FREEMAN, HARVARD, 1926; FORD, W.C., THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, JULY, 1924; GRAHAM, WILLIAM J. THE INDIANS OF PORT TOBACCO RIVER, MARYLAND AND THEIR BURIAL PLACES, DC, PRIVATELY PRINTED, 1935; HEND, ARTHUR M., ENGRAVING IN ENGLAND IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, CAMBRIDGE, 1952; JOHN CARTER BROWN ANNUAL REPORTS, VOL II, PT. 1, P. 88; LORANT, STEFAN, THE NEW WORLD. THE FIRST PICTURES OF AMERICA..., NY, 1946; MATHEWS, E.B., MD. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY II (1898) PP. 347-360; MCCARY. BEN C., JOHN SMITH'S MAP OF VIRGINIA...; PHILLIPS, P. L., "SOME EARLY MAPS OF VIRGINIA AND MAKERS INCLUDING PLATES RELATING TO THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN", VIRGINIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, VOL. 15, PP.71-81; RISTOW,W.W. "CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH'S MAP OF VIRGINIA", A LA CARTE, DC, 1972; SABIN 82832; SANCHEZ-SAAVEDRA, E.M., A DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY, VIRGINIA'S CARTOGRAPHERS AND THEIR MAPS 1607-1881, VA. STATE LIB., RICHMOND, 1975; STC 22791; SWEM, E.G., VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY BULLETIN VII, NOS. 2-3, RICHMOND, 1914; TOOLEY, R.V., MAPS AND MAP-MAKERS, NY, 1952; VERNER, COOLIE, VIRGINIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY & BIOGRAPHY, VOL. 58, NO. 1, JAN., 1950, PP. 3-15; VERNER, COOLIE, MCS # 45; WINDSOR, JUSTIN, VOL. III, PP. 156-157, 167-168; SCHWARTZ & EHRENBERG, THE MAPPING OF AMERICA NEW YORK, HARRY N. ABRAMS,1980, PP. 92-93; PAPENFUSE & COALE, ATLAS OF HISTORICAL MAPS OF MARYLAND 1608-1908, BALTIMORE, THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1982, PP. 1-2;STREETER, VOL. II, PP. 818, 821; THE WORLD ENCOMPASSED, PLATE LIII; VERNER, COOLIE, UNPUBLISHED NOTES ON THE MAPS OF VIRGINIA.

April 13, 1988


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