The Archivists' BULLDOG

Vol. 7, No. 1 January 11, 1993


MSA SC 3571: Rudolph and Alice Stevens Torovsky Collection 1920-1965. Photographs, albums and memorabilia of Annapolis

MSA SC 3572: Bohemia Parish Collection 1789-1882. Bohemia Parish, Archdiocese of Wilmington, Roman Catholic, New Castle and Kent Counties, Delaware and Cecil and Kent Counties, Maryland.

MSA SC 3573: Governor William Donald Schaefer Collection 1992. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

MSA SC 3574: Immaculate Conception Church Collection 1946-1983. Immaculate Conception, Archdiocese of Baltimore, Roman Catholic, Garrett County, Kitzmiller, Route 38 and Maple Street.

MSA SC 3586: Hilda Mae Snoops Collection n. d. "Look What's Happened to Baltimore"; autographed album cover, Bob Hope.

MSA SC 3587: Brown Collection n. d. Washington County Tombstone Records, microfilm [M 399 - M 402].

MSA SC 3588: Briscoe Collection 1845-1856. Dr. John Hanson Briscoe, Baltimore and Leonardtown. Microfilm [M 1480]

MSA SC 3589: Kenney Collection 1805-1835. Reverend Patrick Kenney, microfilm [M 3143]

MSA SC 3591: Mitchell Family Collection 1741-1861. Mitchell Family papers. Microfilm [M 2820]

MSA SC 3592: Doyle Collection 1990-1991. Articles relating to the survey of the boundary of the District of Columbia.

MSA SC 3593: Cade Collection 1983-1984. Materials relating to the 350th celebration of the founding of Maryland at the Isle of Wight.

MSA SC 3594: 1920 Census Collection U.S. Bureau of the Census: census schedules and soundex index. Microfilm [M 10,100 - M 10,126]

MSA SC 3651: n.d. Aerial photographs of Montgomery, Frederick, Carroll, and Washington counties.

MSA SC 3654: Poplar Hill Mansion Collection Papers relating to Poplar Hill Mansion, Salisbury, and the Waller family.

MSA SC 3663: Historic Annapolis Foundation Copy Graphics Collection n. d. Copy negatives, documents, drawings, artifacts

MSA SC 3801: Richards Collection var. dates. Index, surveys of Somerset County and adjacent area.

MSA SC 3802: McMahon Collection var. dates. Genealogy, Harry Busch and his wife, Shirley Jean Parks, Baltimore City.

MSA SC 3803: Captain John Ward Veazey Society, Children of the American Revolution Collection 1992. Captain John Ward Veazey

MSA SC 3805: Moore Collection var. dates. Genealogies, "Joshua and Joseph Hobbs, Sons of John Hobbs and Elizabeth"; "The Descendants of Philip Murphy of Montgomery Co., Maryland, Loudon Co., Virginia, and Nelson Co., Kentucky"; "McKay of St. Mary's Co., Maryland and Nelson Co., Kentucky."

MSA SC 3806: Anderson Collection n. d. Genealogy, "Anderson and Allied Families"

MSA SC 3823: Artistic Property Commission Artists File various dates. Examples of work submitted by various artists for the Artistic Property Commission

MSA SC 3829: Baltimore City Board of Police Commissioner Collection 1862. Broadside, "Greenbacks for Bonds."

MSA SC 3832: Harper's Monthly Magazine Collection 1850-1855. Graphics, from Harper's Monthly Magazine, of Maryland

MSA SC 3833: Gittings Collection 1886. Commission, John Gittings, Brigadier General and Paymaster General, 1886; Appointment, John S. Gittings, member, Board of State Charities.

MSA SC 3834: Richardson Collection 1986. Map, Office of Planning and Zoning, Anne Arundel, 1986 Land Use Plan.

MSA SC 3835: Baltimore Public Library Collection 1992. "Grave Site Identification Project of Piney Grove United Methodist Church, Boring, Maryland (Baltimore County)."

MSA SC 3836: Carolyn C. Williams Collection of Robert Riley Papers n. d. Biographical materials, Robert Riley, Queen Anne's County, former slave and USCT veteran.

MSA SC 3846: Gilli Collection 1723-1980. Angelo C. Gilli, Sr., "Public Education in Queen Anne's County 1723-1980"; Angelo C. Gilli, Sr., "History of Colored Schools in Maryland."

MSA SC 3850: Maryland State Archives Currency Collection 18th century. Currency, counterfeit bills used as exhibits in court case.

MSA SC 3851: Confederate Maryland Ball Collection 1991. Ribbons, Confederate Maryland Ball.

MSA SC 3852: Digo County Historical Society Collection n. d. Flyer, J. W. Dent & Sons, Drayden, MD, sale for ladies and children's clothing.

MSA SC 3853: Historic Annapolis Collection various dates. Card index, All Hallow's Parish, compiled by Carvel Earle; card index, ship registry of Maryland, organized by name of owner; card index, ship registry of Maryland, organized by ship name; card index, real estate transactions before 1692 earthquake, Port Royal, Jamaica.

MSA SC 3854: Department Assessment and Taxation Collection 1846-1914. Letter, account, bill.

MSA SC 3855: McWilliam Collection n. d. Genealogical chart, Thomas Thomas.

MSA SC 3856: Maryland State Law Library Collection 1846-1848. Letters, Frank Markoe to George W. Hughes, concerning the Mexican War.

MSA SC 3857: Keller Collection Typescript, diary, Private James R. Dorrance, Clear Spring, Washington County. Private Dorrance served in Co. A, 7th Regiment, Maryland Volunteers.

MSA SC 3858: Hines Collection 1850-1940s. Regulations of the Baltimore Cemetery with suggestions to Lot-Holders, and the Act of Incorporation 1850; Our Heroes of the Spanish-American War 1898

MSA SC 3859: Ball Collection 1986. A History of St. Jermone's Catholic Church, Hyattsville, Maryland.

MSA SC 3860: Oszakiewski Collection 1986. Newspaper, News American final issue May 27, 1986.

MSA SC 3861: Gregory Collection 1976. Clarence K. Gregory, "Education of Blacks in Maryland" Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1976. Microfilm [M 10603]

MSA SC 3863: Calvert Papers Collection 1621-1775. Calvert Papers. Microfilm [M 142]

MSA SC 3864: Spencer Collection 1919. Richard Henry Spencer, ed. Genealogical and Memorial Encyclopedia of the State of Maryland Microfilm [M 163]

MSA SC 3865: Mrs. H. A. Cantwell Collection 1813. Anonymous, Narrative Respecting the Conduct of the British. Microfilm [M 186]

MSA SC 3866: Trinity Church Collection n. d. Trinity Church: marriages index. Microfilm [M 257]

MSA SC 3867 n. d. Notes on St. Mary's Co. land records and rent rolls, Maryland Provincial S. J. Archives, Woodstock. Microfilm [M 305]

MSA SC 3868: Stuart Collection 1738-1831 [1932-1933]. Sarah Elizabeth Stuart, comp. Kent County Calendar of Wills vol 1. 1738-1776, vol. 2 1777-1831. Microfilm [M 362]

MSA SC 3869: Duvall Collection 1659-1841. Gabriel Duvall (1770-1830), comp."Genealogical Notes on the Duval Family 1659-1841." Microfilm [M 414]

MSA SC 3870: Edward S. Corcoran Collection 1622-1708. Captain Richard Whitbourne, A Discourse and Discovery of Newfoundland.; A Relation of Maryland 1635; Journals of the Council, 1708, Microfilm [M 424]

MSA SC 3871: Thomas Collection 1906. Lawrence Buckley Thomas, D.D., The Thomas Book Microfilm [M 438]

MSA SC 3872: Bourne Collection 1787. "Copy of an Act for Marking and Bounding Lands."

MSA SC 3873: William E. and Mary M. Murphy Collection of Robert Mills Journals and Papers var. dates. Correspondence and journals of Robert Mills (1781-1855). Includes journals of trip from the District of Columbia to New England and from Wilmington to Charleston.

MSA SC 3874: Zimmerman Collection 1904. Map, Burnt District, Baltimore City

MSA SC 3882: Chalfant Collection 1657-1687 [20th c.]. Photograph, Jane Baldwin Cotton, n.d.; indices, PREROGATIVE COURT (Testamentary Proceedings) 1657-1687

MSA SC 3884: Powell Collection var. dates [1992 ca.]. Lorenzo Q. Powell, George Bailey's Family.

MSA SC 3885: First Methodist Episcopal Church Collection 1838-1939. First Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Episcopal, Allegeny County, Frostburg. Microfilm [M 840 - M 842]

MSA SC 3886: Grace Methodist Church Collection 1898-1922. Grace Methodist Church-South, Methodist Episcopal, Allegeny County, Frostburg. Microfilm [M 842]

MSA SC 3887: Kingsley Methodist Church Collection 1871-1964. Kingsley Methodist Church, Methodist, Allegeny County, Cumberland. Microfilm [M 844 - M 845]

MSA SC 3888: Asbury Methodist Church Collection 1879-1968. Asbury Methodist Church, Methodist Episcopal, Baltimore Annual Conference, Southeast District, Anne Arundel County, Annapolis. Microfilm [M 1175]

MSA SC 3889: Calvary Methodist Church Collection var dates. Calvary Methodist Church, Methodist, Baltimore Annual Conference, Southeast District, Anne Arundel County, Annapolis.

MSA SC 3890: Magothy Methodist Episcopal Church Collection 1878-1929. Magothy Methodist Episcopal Church, Baltimore Annual Conference, Southeast District, Anne Arundel County, Annapolis.

MSA SC 3892: Jim Dawson Photograph Collection 1880 ca. - 1910 ca. Photographs

MSA SC 3893: Virginia Evans Collection 1910 ca. - 1950 ca. Photographs, Smith Island.

MSA SC 3897: Photo Sciences Inc. Collection 1955-1975. Aerial photographs, State of Maryland, as taken by Photo Sciences, Inc.

MSA SC 3898: Fowler Collection n. d. Desk belonging to Robert Scott Fowler and used by him 1862-1870 while State Treasurer

MSA SC 3899: Providence Plantation Collection var. dates. Papers relating to Providence Plantation, Kent County.

MSA SC 3900: Justin Mascari Collection 1910-1925. Photographs, Baltimore City and County.

MSA SC 3901: William L. Marcy Collection 1890 ca. -1896 ca. Scrapbook, newspaper clippings and cartoons about national politics.

MSA SC 3903: Minnetrista Cultural Center Collection var. dates. Postcards.


The Fall 1992 issue of NAGARA Clearinghouse contains a section with news from other states and territories. NAGARA stands for National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators. In this article I will abstract some of the more interesting news items.

During a special session to deal with the state budget, the Alabama legislature enacted a law giving the Department of Archives and History authority to deaccession historical materials outside of the state surplus property system, to collect fees for various services, and to create an Archives Services Fund to receive the service fees. The potential fees include out-of-state requests, special format reproduction, record center storage, and micrographic services.

In California Ross Perot submitted over 50 cubic feet of nominating petitions to the state elections division. Because of high reference use the records were transferred to the State Archives which established a special system for handling demand. Researchers may check out copies of the original petitions to make their own copies by placing a deposit of $1000.00 per box to ensure return of the records.

Renovation at the Delaware Hall of Records was completed in October at which time the research room returned to full service.

The Vermont State Archives, in conjunction with its work with the Government Information Study Group, is compiling a database of archival records, including those held by other executive departments.

The Friends of the Virginia State Archives purchased a $4000.00 photocopier for use in the Archives Reading Room.

Also appearing in the Clearinghouse are summaries of sessions held at NAGARA's annual meeting in July. Kris Lucas wrote these abstracts for the newsletter, but unfortunately did not receive attribution.

Vol. 7, No. 2 January 25, 1993


Following the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, Union burial details cleared the battlefield of the dead, first burying their Union comrades and then the Confederates. As many as four thousand soldiers on both sides had fallen during this single bloodiest day of the Civil War. The number of dead, and the rapid decomposition of the bodies because of the summer heat, required that most of the burials be in hastily dug, shallow trenches near where the soldiers had fallen. On those parts of the battlefield where the fighting had been fiercest, burial trenches were made large enough to serve as a common grave for dozens of soldiers.

The thousands of corpses requiring attention from the burial details meant that those bodies that could not readily be identified were simply listed as unknown, and the records of burials generally were skimpy and often inaccurate. Where identification of a body was possible and time permitted, the burial details erected a wooden headboard over the grave recording the deceased's name, rank, and unit. A particularly large percentage of the Confederate dead were unidentified at the time of their burial: the Union burial details had no interest in searching for identification on their badly bloated and stinking bodies, and souvenir hunters had spent the four days it took to bury the Union dead pillaging Confederate corpses, taking things like watches, photographs, and letters that might have identified the victims.

Less than two years after the Antietam battle, farmers had begun plowing and planting crops over burial trenches, often discarding what identifying headboards had been erected over graves. Many trenches were so shallow that the bones of corpses were exposed following every rain. Faced with the double threat of having the locations of some Antietam graves forever obliterated by plowing and planting and the contents of others exposed to the elements by erosion and digging animals, the Maryland General Assembly took action. A committee of the legislature selected a site near the Antietam battlefield and in March 1864 appropriated $5,000 for its purchase. The site designated for the new cemetery was to receive both Union and Confederate dead from the field burials at Antietam.

In 1865, the Maryland General Assembly passed an act creating the Antietam National Cemetery, which was to be governed by trustees appointed by Maryland and other interested states. These trustees were to oversee the removal of the dead from Antietam to the new cemetery, taking care that the remains of Confederate soldiers were buried in a section of the cemetery distinct from the area designated for Union reburials. Eventually eighteen other states joined Maryland in the Antietam National Cemetery corporation, contributing a total of more than $90,000 for its creation and operation.

The exhuming and reinterment of Union bodies began in October 1866. By November 22, the bodies of 1,200 Union dead had been reinterred at the new cemetery. In April 1867, the trustees of Antietam National Cemetery decided to expand their reinterment plans to include Union dead from the entire state. That summer, hundreds of bodies were exhumed from field burials resulting from the South Mount and Monocacy battles and from the engagements in the Cumberland area, sixty miles to the west. By the fall of 1867, the trustees of Antietam National Cemetery had reinterred all known Union dead from the battlefields of Maryland. The total came to 4,695 soldiers, 2,903 of whom were identified and 1,792 unknown. On September 17, 1867--the fifth anniversary of the Antietam battle--the cemetery was officially dedicated. By 1879 the cost of maintaining the cemetery had become too great for the Maryland-chartered corporation. The trustees transferred the cemetery to the United States War Department, thus making the federal government responsible for its perpetual maintenance.

Although the law creating the Antietam National Cemetery corporation designated the new cemetery for the reinterment of soldiers from both sides, no Confederate dead were ever buried there. The Antietam National Cemetery trustees resolutely refused to permit Confederate burials at the new cemetery, and only after receiving a letter of rebuke in December 1867 from Governor R. E. Fenton, the governor of New York, did the trustees resolve to "set apart for the burial of the Confederate dead who fell in the battle of Antietam . . . the southern portion of the grounds not occupied, and separate from the ground devoted to the Union dead." The next session of the Maryland General Assembly appropriated $5,000 to enable the trustees of the Antietam Cemetery to reinter the Confederate dead. In May 1868, the superintendent of Antietam Cemetery reported to the trustees that the section allotted was insufficient for the proposed reburials.

After its December 1868 meeting, the Antietam Cemetery trustees requested Governor Swann to take action to identify and protect the graves of Confederates who had died at Antietam until sufficient space could be found for their reinterment. Swann's successor as governor, Oden Bowie, asked Thomas A. Boult to prepare a list of the burial places of Confederate dead. Boult, along with two residents of Sharpsburg, toured the Antietam and South Mountain battlefields in the spring of 1869, publishing a list of Confederate burial sites in May of that year.

Even after the Confederate burial sites had been identified, the trustees of Antietam Cemetery refused to take action. Therefore, the Maryland General Assembly in 1870 repealed the act of 1868 that had appropriated the $5,000 for the reinterment of Confederates and instead chartered the Washington Confederate Cemetery as "the burial and final resting place of the remains of the Confederate dead, and all other of both armies in the late war." The charter required that the cemetery be located within one mile of Hagerstown.

By 1872 the trustees of the Washington Confederate Cemetery had arranged to purchase for $2,400 two and three-fourths acres of land at Rose HIll Cemetery in Hagerstown. The decisions to locate the Confederate Cemetery within an existing cemetery was based largely on economics. The trustees had at their disposal only the $5,000 reappropriated by the legislature. To purchase and fence in the ground for a new cemetery would exhaust all of the appropriated funds. By purchasing ground within an existing cemetery, the trustees preserved a little more than half of their appropriation for the actual work of reinterring Confederate dead.

The trustees of the Washington Confederate Cemetery contracted with Henry C. Mumma of Sharpsburg to reinter all known Confederate bodies in Antietam field graves. Mumma hired local laborers and in September 1772--ten years after the battle--began the job of reinterring the Confederate dead from Antietam. To save expense, unidentified soldiers were buried two to a grave. Those soldiers who could be identified were buried singly in a wooden box and reinterred in rows grouped by state. By the end of 1872, 1,721 bodies had been reinterred at the Washington Confederate Cemetery. The cemetery trustees had $413.34 remaining in its treasury; for the work done to date, Mumma had been paid about one dollar per Confederate reinterred.

The trustees estimated that an additional 500 Confederates remained to be reinterred, so it decided not to mark the graves of those already reinterred with "common headboards." Instead, the funds would be preserved until the work of reinterring bodies could begin again.

In 1874, the Maryland legislature appropriated another $5,000 for the Washington Confederate Cemetery and the states of Virginia and West Virginia contributed $500 each. In July 1874, Henry Mumma and his men recovered an additional 255 bodies from South Mountain and reinterred them in Washington Confederate Cemetery. This work was accomplished, according to the local newspaper, "at the remarkably small cost of $1.65 per head."

By August 1875, the work of moving the Confederate dead from the Antietam and South Mountain battlefields to Washington Confederate Cemetery was complete. A total of 2,240 bodies had been reinterred. Washington Confederate Cemetery was officially dedicated on June 15, 1777, with Major General Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee, as the principal speaker.

The trustees of Washington Confederate Cemetery never provided individual grave markers for the reinterred soldiers under their care. Initially, the trustees lacked funds to do so; later, when it became apparent that a large percentage of the bodies could not be identified, perhaps it seemed inappropriate to mark the few whose identities had been preserved. In any case, there is only one individual grave marker in the entire cemetery, and it marks the grave of a person who had nothing to do with either Antietam or South Mountain. The marker belongs to Col. Samuel Lumpkins, of Georgia. Badly wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, Lumpkins died of typhoid fever in Hagerstown and was buried at the local Presbyterian church cemetery. In 1913, when the church decided to expand, Lumpkins was reinterred in the Washington Confederate Cemetery. The next year, cemetery trustees purchased a new marker for his grave. Ironically, while Lumpkins has the distinction of having the only headstone in the cemetery, both his name ("Lumkins" instead of "Lumpkins") and his state ("Georgie" instead of "Georgia) are misspelled on it.

The principal memorial in Washington Confederate Cemetery is a statue of "Hope," erected by the trustees in February 1877 prior to the cemetery's dedication. The Maryland historian and former Confederate, J. Thomas Scharf, described the statue as "a marble figure more than five feet in height, representing Hope leaning upon her anchor, with flowing robes, and upon her brow is set a star (perhaps the single star of the Confederacy)." Frank Leslie's Illustrated newspaper gave the following description of the monument: "The monument is nineteen feet high. The pedestal is of gray Richmond granite. The plinth, of Scotch (Aberdeen) granite, light brown of various shades, dappled with black and gray, and very highly polished was prepared as it is in Scotland. The figure is of white marble (Italian)."


Steven R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead: The Story of Those Who Died at Antietam and South Mountain (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992).

Craig L. Symonds, A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War (Baltimore: Nautical and Aviation Publishing Co., 1983).

Vol. 7, No. 3 February 1, 1993


Carolyn Bracken has given the Archives a photograph of 19 N. Liberty St. in Baltimore, ca. 1890 [MSA SC3569].

Ken and Elaine Zimmerman have given the Archives three maps relating to the Baltimore fire of 1904, showing the area destroyed by fire and rebuilding efforts afterwards [MSA SC3874].

Bill Rigoli has given the Archives a copy of Percy G. Skirven, The First Parishes of the Province of Maryland (Baltimore: Norman, Remington Co., 1923), including the map showing ten counties and thirty parishes laid out in 1692-1694 [MSA SC3960].

Vol. 7, No. 4 February 8, 1993


A list of Annapolis mayors (1708-1887) can be found on pp. 12-13 of Elihu S. Riley, The Ancient City, 1649-1887. This history of Annapolis is full of interesting information; however, its index is woefully inadequate. A supplemental index has been prepared and is kept in a navy blue folder on the same shelf. Be sure to use the supplemental index for best results.

Vol. 7, No. 5 February 16, 1993


In BALTIMORE COUNTY COURT (Land Records) HWS IA, pp. 567-570 [MSA C352-18, MdHR 4898, 2/12/10/38] appears a Report of the Records in Baltimore County, dated April 20, 1741. It was prepared by Richard Caswell and John Risteau and listed the records to be turned over to Thomas Brerewood, Sr., the new court clerk. The list mentions each volume, its physical condition, type of binding, and existence of an index. All the land records are itemized by volume reference and described as "well bound with a good and sufficient alphabett". Two land commission books are similarly described. All these records have survived to the present as originals or transcripts transferred to the Archives.

The proceedings did not fare as well, then or later. Many of these records were preserved and sent to the Archives. Others did not withstand the ravages of time and inadequate storage conditions. The earliest proceedings, 1665-1708, are noted as "Regularly Entered but the Books Decayed and broke out of the Bindings." The later records are described as "whole and well Bound." By the time the proceedings come to the Archives several time periods are missing from the series, specifically 1665-1682, 1686-1691, 1696-1708, 1725-1728, 1732-1733, and 1734-1736.

Other records mentioned in the report were missing in 1741 and not found later or did not survive into the 20th century. "There are Severall Small Books in Bad Order Consisting of Deeds of gift, Bills of Sales, Servants Indentures, Marks, Brands, Births of Children and Marriages the Libers of them not plainly to be Discovered." Oh, to have these records today. Original papers (not further described) were nonexistent for 1665-1708, incomplete for 1708-1715, and complete for 1715-1741. They were filed in bundles, a practice followed well into the 20th century. Some of these early papers were transferred to the Baltimore City Archives where they were indexed as a WPA project in the late l930s. About 40 years later the papers and a copy of the index were transferred to the Archives. The papers are found in BALTIMORE COUNTY COURT (Miscellaneous Court Papers) [MSA C1], which date from 1729.

Vol. 7, No. 6 February 22, 1993


The Hall of Records Commission met in the Archives's Conference Room at noon on Thursday, February 11, for one of its four annual meetings. The Hall of Records Commission, established in 1935, is an advisory body that reviews and comments on Archives's programs, publications, and proposed budget submissions. The eleven-member body consists of the State Comptroller, State Treasurer, secretary of General Services, president of the Maryland Historical Society, the chancellor of the University of Maryland System, the presidents of The Johns Hopkins University, St. John's, and Morgan State University, a member of the Maryland Senate, a member of the House of Delegates, and the chief judge of the Court of Appeals, who serves as chairperson. At Thursday's meeting, special guests attending at the Commission's invitation were General Orwin Talbott, chair of the Archives Trust of Maryland (ATOM), Mr. and Mrs. Gerson Eisenberg, and Archives's staff members Lynne Browne and Rocky Rockefeller. Chairman Murphy began the meeting by introducing the new House member appointed to the Commission, Delegate Mary Conroy.

The Commission carries on its agenda under "old business" the old Hall of Records Buildings and the Baltimore City Archives, and both topics were reviewed at Thursday's meeting. Dr. Papenfuse noted that St. John's College is negotiating to buy the old Hall of Records building from the state.

Dr. Papenfuse reported to the Commission on his participation in the St. Mary's City Coffin Project, particularly on his work with Dr. Lois Green Carr on Philip Calvert, who may be buried in the largest of the three coffins discovered in excavations of the Great Brick Chapel at St. Mary's. He also commented on completion of the Carroll Papers Project, and on the two courses on Maryland History he is teaching this semester at Hopkins.

Dr. Papenfuse complimented Lynne Browne, Betsy Steele, and Chris Allan on the work they have done to get intellectual control over all of the Archives's indexes and finding aides. He presented Delegate Conroy with a copy of the Guide to Government Records as an example of some of the work that has been done recently. Dr. Papenfuse also noted the expert manner in which Special Collections were being managed by Nancy Bramucci.

The Commission next heard a report on budgetary matters including the increased pressures placed on the Archives by the downsizing of government. Budget cuts have prompted many agencies to contact us to take their records, and two bills are before the legislature to force us to take even more records in the future.

The tremendous assistance provided to the Archives by its volunteers was the next item on the agenda. It was pointed out to the Commission that during Calendar Year 1992, volunteers contributed 3,907 hours of work, the equivalent of 2.14 full-time staff members.

The Commission's attention was then turned to the various grant-supported projects at the Archives. The Commission unanimously expressed its approval of the newspaper preservation program and encouraged the Archivist to seek addtional funding for its support.

Dr. Papenfuse informed the Commission that funds to print the new edition of the Maryland Manual had been cut during the last round of budget reductions. The Commission suggested several ways to raise the funds necessary to print a new edition, and encouraged Dr. Papenfuse to continue negotiations to ensure that a new edition is issued in 1993. Dr. Papenfuse described the new edition of the Organization of Maryland Government, and presented Chairman Murphy with a copy.

Gerson Eisenberg was asked if he would like to say a few words. He explained how the Archives had gotten involved in helping him complete his study of Marylanders who held prominent positions in the federal government and thanked the Commission for its support. The Chairman of the Commission complemented Mr. Eisenberg on the completion of his monumental work.

Dr. Papenfuse then circulated a copy of another publication sponsored by the Archives, Dean Yates's book about the Maryland National Guard at the Baltimore Fire of 1904. He explained how Dean had become interested in the subject, and how the Archives had supported his efforts to write the book and to get it published. He noted that Dean had assigned all royalties earned on the book to the endowment fund of the Archives.

The Commission next heard a report on the various education and outreach projects of the Archives, including the Archivist's participation in group studying the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem. Efforts to revise the application to the National Endowment to support a teachers' institute program for 1994 were discussed, and Dr. Papenfuse announced that the Eisenberg's had made a grant to help support this summer's internship program. The Archives's request to the National Endowment for the Humanities for funds to support a four-year project researching the lives of Maryland African Americans who served in the Union Army during the Civil War was then briefly outlined. This project, if funded, would be a collaboration of the Archives with the Unviersity of Maryland, Baltimore County, The Univesity of Maryland, College Park, and Morgan University. Finally, a proposal to support a teachers' institute this summer that would involve the Archives and several public and private schools in Baltimore was presented for the consideration and endorsement of the Commission, and was unanimously approved.

Dr. Papenfuse discussed the difficult budget situation faced by the Archives for the past two years. He commented on efforts to cover the large deficit in this year's budget and the deficit that next year's budget will pose as well. He noted, however, that due to the good work Chris Allan has done in seeking funds in the private sector, and in carefully managing the reduced appropriations, the Archives probably will not have a deficit this year and will be on the road to a reasonable baseline next year.

The Commission was then briefed on recent personnel changes at the Archives, and were told of the recent legislative audit. Dr. Papenfuse complemented Chris Allan on his hard work, which enabled the Archives to come through the audit with "flying colors."

Finally, the Commission reviewed the two pieces of legislation pending before the General Assembly that will affect the Archives: a bill expanding the Archives's authority to accept grants and donations, and the proposed revision of the land patent law. Both would have no major fiscal impact, but would contibute substantially to the Archives ability to raise private funds and to more efficiently administer the Land Office.

The Chairman and the Commission concluded the meeting by thanking Mrs. Bodziak, for arranging the meeting (it had to be cancelled and rescheduled twice), overseeing a delightful lunch, and particularly for providing a delicious potato salad.

Washington's Birthday
Remarks to the House of Delegates
February 22, 1993

Tonight we celebrate the 261st birthday of George Washington, a man whom we honor as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his country... ."

Today is the traditional day. Last Monday was one of those generic Federal holidays designed more to provide a long weekend than to pay homage to the day our first President was born.

George Washington would not have minded our celebrating on the wrong day. Even he had difficulty figuring out the right day. Indeed, according to his diary, if he celebrated his birthday at all, he did so on February 11. Oblivious to the fact that eleven days were added to the calendar in 1752 to correct a mistake made in Julius Caesar's time, it wasn't until 1790 that February 22 became the day for most of the nation to celebrate. On that day his friends in the New York Society of St. Tammany (later Tammany Hall) staged an 'elaborate' birthday party for the President which was so successful that from then until recently, when the Federal law was changed, most people assumed that February 22 was the right day. Most people, that is except the city council of Annapolis and the Maryland General Assembly. It took them somewhat longer.

As late as 1832 Annapolis and state government were still celebrating Washington's Birthday on February 11. On that day in 1832, the Corporation of Annapolis resolved that

Whereas arrangements have been made by the Legislature of Maryland (now in Session in this City) to celebrate the Centennial Anniversary of the birth of the illustrious George Washington,

the consummate general, statesman, and patriot,

one of the founders of the American Republic,

and one of the few who have been great, without being Criminal

be it therefore resolved, ... that it be recommended to the Citizens to unite in the festivities of the day ...

and that the day be set apart for public rejoicing and consecrated as a political sabbath,

that all business be suspended, that the stores, offices, shops, etc. be closed in commemoration of the great benefits, civil, religious & political achieved by the exertion and patriotism of a Washington.

The Annapolis City Council did not elaborate on who the many they thought were both great and criminal, but we do know that the good fathers of Annapolis had cause to exempt a man who knew their city well, a man who, on December 23, 1783 in a most moving and symbolic ceremony held in the old Senate Chamber down the hall, gave up the chance to be King.

In 1783, few people realized the importance of what Washington did here in Annapolis. Indeed the newspapers of the day barely mentioned the ceremony at all, absorbed as they were with the prospects of peace that would come with the signing of a Treaty ending the eight years of war against Great Britain. Some reprinted Washington's remarks without comment. One Baltimore paper buried the story under a dateline of December 30 in which it merely extracted a letter from Annapolis:

At twelve o'clock today [December 23, 1783], general Washington was admitted to a public audience, at which he made a very affecting address, and presented his commission to the United States in Congress assembled; there were present, the governor of this State, the council, and both houses of assembly together with sundry military officers of distinction, and many ladies.

The circumstances being extraordinary, and to the general made more honourable than any that is recorded in history, produced such effects as might have been expected; it drew tears from most of the spectators.

Yet Washington's words alone hinted at the magnitude of the responsibility he was surrendering to the representatives of the people on December 23, 1783:

As he stood there barely able to contain his emotions, he ended his brief remarks with this plea on behalf of the Congress:

I consider it as an indispensable duty to close this last act of my official life, by commending the interest of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and [to] those who have the superintendence of them, to his Holy Keeping.

In Washington's time, and even in our own, it was commonplace for newspapers to miss the point of the events they were reporting. Later as President, George Washington would fume in frustration about not only the lack of reporting, but also the misrepresentations that from time to time would appear about himself and his Presidency:

Perceiving, and probably, hearing, that no abuse in the Gazettes would induce me to take notice of anonymous publications, against me; those who were disposed to do me such friendly Offices, have embraced without restraint every opportunity to weaken the confidence of the People; and, by having the whole game in their hands, they have scrupled not to publish things that do not, as well as those which do exist; and to mutilate the latter, so as to make them subserve the purposes which they have in view."

Washington did not take criticism lightly. In the same letter in which he complained about the press, he also referred to the abuse by his critics as couched

in such exaggerated indecent terms as could scarcely be applied to a Nero; a notorious defaulter; or even to a common pickpocket."

Thomas Jefferson, somewhat unkindly, suggested that perhaps Washington's mind has been so long used to unlimited applause that it could not brook contradiction or even advice unasked, but we must remember that Jefferson did not like losing arguments with anyone, including his President.

To be fair to the press and to his contemporaries, George Washington's genius as a statesman was not readily apparent, especially after serving eight years as president and as a mediator between the warring factions led by Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. That he was a hero from at least the moment of victory at Yorktown in October of 1781 is without dispute. That he was popular and beloved as a symbol of all that was virtuous in the new American republic goes with out question, but it would be many years before we fully understood that when he stepped into the old Senate Chamber at 12 noon on Tuesday December 23, 1783, it was only one of many deliberate acts George Washington took that were designed to reinforce the fundamental principle that in this nation the Civil Authority, rooted in the will of the people, is and of right ought to be, supreme.

Although he assured those assembled that

Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action, and bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission and take leave of all the employments of public life,

his public life was far from over. He immersed himself in improving the agriculture on his plantation, advocating internal improvements and westward expansion over the Alleganies, even taking the time to return to the old Senate Chamber to persuade the Maryland Senate that they should invest in developing the resources not only of this state, but of the vast new territory to the Mississippi that Washington's military triumph had added to the new Nation.

When it became clear that the civil government Washington fought so hard to preserve needed strengthening, in 1787 he emerged from retirement to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. There too he served as moderator, giving only one speech and that designed to expand the principle of representative government.

When the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia got to Maryland in April 1788, it encountered some unexpected opposition because it failed to contain a Bill of Rights. In the old House Chamber where we have exhibits telling the story of Maryland's role in adopting the Constitution, former Governor William Paca presented over twenty amendments that he felt should be added. George Washington's good friend and the former first Governor of the State, Thomas Johnson, felt Paca and the others of the minority deserved to be heard, and convinced the Ratifying Convention that they should at least listen. At first Washington did not take kindly to what he was told had been his friend's role in permitting the consideration of amendments, especially after he had warned Johnson in a letter written on the eve of the Maryland ratifying convention that any delay by Maryland would be "tantamount to the rejection of the Constitution." Johnson took the matter in hand, and offered his opinion that some, if not all of Paca's amendments deserved consideration. In characteristic fashion, Washington heeded his friend's advice, later admitting to Thomas Jefferson that in the end it was all a matter of determining

with what dose of freedom men could be entrusted for their own good," and that he now was willing to support whatever the Congress thought appropriate in the way of Constitutional amendments. Indeed so highly did he think of Thomas Johnson's counsel that he appointed him to the Supreme Court.

As our first President, Washington had his hands full. His Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State formed two powerful political factions with supporters in every state. Steering a reasonable course between them was not easy. Speech-making was not Washington's great strength, but listening was. He had the remarkable talent of convincing the members of his cabinet that he agreed with each individually, and yet could make decisions that seemed not to fully agree with any one,but rather represented a consensus acceptable to all.

In 1742, when George Washington was only 10, he laboriously copied a book of "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour," rules by which he seemed to live the rest of his life. I commend the book to you, and will close with a small selection of the 110 rules he copied out so carefully by hand:

Sleep not when others speake, sit not when others stand, speak not when you should hold your peace, walk not on when others stop.

Shew not yourself glad at the misfortune of another though he were your enemy.

In visiting the Sick, do not ... play the Physician if you be not knowing therein

Strive not with your superiors in argument, but always submit your judgment to others with modesty

When a man does all he can though it succeeds not well, blame him not

Take all admonitions thankfully in what time or place soever given, but afterwards ... take a time & Place convenient to let him know [what you think]

Mock not nor Jest at anything of Importance, ...and if you Deliver anything witty and Pleasant abstain from Laughing there at yourself

Wherein you reprove another, be unblameable yourself;

Be not hasty to believe ... reports to the disparagement of any

If two contend together take not the part of either unconstrained; and be not obstinate in your own opinion, in things indifferent be of the Major[ity] side

Labour to keep alive in your Breast that little Spark of Celestial fire called Conscience.

and finally, perhaps most appropriate for tonight,

Be not Tedious in discourse or in reading unless you find the company pleased therewith

Vol. 7, No. 7 March 1, 1993

RESEARCH NOTES Richard Richardson

ST. MARY'S COUNTY (created 1637, probably by an order of the Governor) ca. 1639
St. Mary's [City]
St. Georges
St. Innagos
St. Michells
St. Clements
Source: LAND OFFICE (Rent Rolls) 0, p. 1 [MSA S 18, MdHR 17,609-1, 1-23-5-40]

St. Inegos
St. Marys
St. Clements
New Town
Poplar Hill
St. Michaells
St. Marys City
St. Georges
Source: Archives of Maryland, vol. 23, p. 23.

ca. 1705
St. Georges
St. Clements
St. Marys
St. Michaels
Poplar Hill
St. Inigos
Source: Regina C. Hammett, History of St. Mary's County, Maryland, p.44b Map, ca. 1705 [MdHR Library 1078.H2, 10-3-6]

Upper Resurrection (First District)
Chaptico (First District
Upper St. Clements (Second District)
Lower St. Clements (Second District)
Upper New Town (Third District
Lower Resurrection (Third District)
Lower New Town (Fourth District)
Harvey (Fourth District)
Poplar Hill (Fifth District)
St. Georges (Fifth District)
Upper St. Marys (Sixth District)
Lower St. Marys (Sixth District)
St. Inigoes (Seventh District)
St. Michaels (Seventh District)
Source: ST. MARYS COUNTY COMMISSIONER OF THE TAX (Assessment Record) 1793-1794 [MSA C 1526, MdHR 50,l90, 1-59-14-46].

ca. 1800
Upper Resurrection
Poplar Hill
Lower Resurrection
Upper St. Marys
Lower St. Marys
St. Clements
Upper New Town
St. Inigoes
Lower New Town
St. Michaels
St. Georges
Source: Regina C. Hammett, History of St. Mary's County, Maryland, p. 87b Map, ca. 1800 [Library MdHR 1078.H2, 10-3-6]


Paul Goddard, one of our volunteers, has been alphabetizing DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE, DIVISION OF VITAL RECORDS (Marriage Certificates, Counties) 1931-1940 [MSA T 318]. While doing this work, he has compiled a list of unusual and interesting occupations. They include drop forger, second helper, stone driller, button cutter, ringer, rodder, unloader, yard master, rough stores helper, card stripper, pickle feeder, monument dealer, joiner, godmother, farmers daughter, loftsman, bag maker, linotype, note teller, drop hemmer, thresherman, button maker, chainman, creeler, okum spinner, crushing, watcher, and mounter.


Gene Clements has published an article, "Land Records of Colonial Maryland," in the Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4, Fall 1992. Gene describes the various types of land records, including information about why and how they were created. He also lists the state and county records that are extant today at the Archives.

Doug Hayman has completed his book, Haymans of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, 1666-1800. He will soon have copies available for sale. Also the Archives will have a copy available for researchers.


Pat Melville

From the U.S. Circuit Court for Maryland the Archives has (Minutes) 1790-1911 [MSA SM 192] and (Criminal Papers) 1795-1860 [MSA SM 194] and from the U.S. District Court for Maryland (Bankruptcy Papers) 1800-1803 [MSA SM 193]. The following descriptions of the courts and their records are derived from pamphlets received with the films from the National Archives.

The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for a system of district and circuit courts in addition to the Supreme Court of the United States. The act divided the country into thirteen judicial districts, each with a district court and a district judge. The districts were grouped into three circuits - eastern, middle, and southern. Maryland was part of the middle circuit which also included Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia. At first the court in Maryland sat alternately at Annapolis and Easton. In 1797 the Easton site was replaced with Baltimore. An 1802 law provided for holding both the district and circuit court at Baltimore only.

The jurisdictions of the district and circuit courts varied over the years. The district courts had original civil and criminal jurisdiction. The circuit courts had both original and appellate jurisdiction. The district courts had exclusive jurisdiction over bankruptcy, admiralty, and some criminal cases, seizures of land, penalties and forfeitures incurred under federal laws, and suits against consuls and vice consuls.

The first national bankruptcy act was enacted in 1800 as emergency legislation following the depression of 1797 and was to continue for five years. As business conditions improved the act was repealed in 1803. The act of 1800 applied only to merchants or other persons residing in the United States who engaged in the wholesale or retail merchandise trade or dealt in exchange or as a banker, broker, factor, underwriter, or marine insurer. The act provided for compulsory or involuntary bankruptcy, but not voluntary bankruptcy.

Most of the case files from the Maryland district court are arranged chronologically by date of the creditors' petition. When this document is not extant, the arrangement is alphabetical by name of the alleged bankrupt person. Other documents within each file may include proofs of publication, bonds and affidavits of creditors, oaths of commissioners, proofs of debts, schedules of property and debts owed, depositions, discoveries, and transcripts.

The circuit courts had both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the district courts. Original jurisdiction in civil cases involved suits over $500 in which the United States, an alien, or citizens of different states were parties. The circuit courts also heard cases relating to the infringement of patents and copyrights, transportation of passengers in merchant vessels, controversies between trustees in bankruptcy and claimants to property held by the trustee, violations of civil rights and elective franchise, importation of alien contract labor, registration of trademarks, and unlawful restraints of trade and monopolies.

Until 1842 the criminal jurisdiction of the district courts was extremely limited, and almost all cases were tried before the circuits courts. The (Criminal Papers) of the court for Maryland relate to mutiny, piracy, assault and battery, theft, murder on the high seas, slave trade, counterfeiting and forgery, perjury, mail theft, sedition, smuggling, and conspiracy to invade nations at peace with the United States. There are also suits concerning unlawful arming of vessels, trading without a license, and false reporting by U.S. census takers. The case files are arranged chronologically by court session and then alphabetically by name of defendant. When there is more than one defendant, the case is filed by the name of the first person named. Documents in the case files may include bills of indictment, presentments, pleas, recognizances, depositions, affidavits, writs, court orders, petitions, warrants, bonds, and pardons.

(Minutes) of the circuit court for Maryland provide a daily record of activities in court. They are arranged chronologically by date of the session. The minutes show dates of sessions, names of presiding judges, and judgments and orders arising out of all cases before the court, original and appellate, civil and criminal. The minutes also contain naturalization proceedings, admission of attorneys to practice, names of grand and petit jurors, findings and verdicts of juries, settlement of cases by agreement, approval of accounts submitted by court officers, adoption of procedural rules and administrative regulations, and appointment of court officials.

The minutes relate to cases concerned with such matters as the maintenance of U.S. neutrality during foreign wars, disputes with France during the John Adams administration, embargo during the Thomas Jefferson administration, evasion of customs duties and trespass laws, salvage, privateering and prize law, mutinies and revolts, bankruptcy, slavery and slave trade, protection of patents, ejection of tenants and rent procedures, suspension of habeas corpus during the Civil War, and voting rights during Reconstruction. The minutes contain copies of some official correspondence including letters appointing justices, judges, and clerks. The writ of habeas corpus issued by Chief Justice Roger Taney on May 26, 1861, for the release of John Merryman and related correspondence were entered in the minutes. There are also some eulogies and newspaper articles concerning the deceased persons.

In 1891 the authority to handle appeals was removed from the circuit courts and given to the newly created circuit courts of appeal. In 1911 Congress abolished the circuit courts altogether.

Vol. 7, No. 8 March 8, 1993

ATOM NEWS Pat Melville

Several individuals and organizations have contributed to the Archives of Maryland Trust fund. The amounts include $450.00 from organizations, which is being applied to the cost of the refurbished film readers and the endowment fund. The organizations making contributions include the Genealogical Council of Maryland, Harford County Genealogical Society, Carroll County Genealogical Society, and Howard County Genealogical Society. Thanks to one and all for their support of the Archives.

Vol. 7, No. 9 March 15, 1993


CHARLES COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Equity Papers) Box 16, Case 986 [MSA T 2154, l/23/12/34] concerns a dispute in 1901 over the lease of land on the Potomac River for the digging and dredging of sand and gravel. The plaintiff, working as a sole proprietor, claims that the landowner reneged on the lease agreement they had in order to accept a more lucrative offer from a sand and gravel company. At one point the plaintiff tries to finalize the agreement by sending the landowner a $10.00 bill (see copy on last page). The landowner tries to return the bill by registered mail which the plaintiff refuses to accept. For reasons that only a legal mind can fathom (meaning I gave up trying to understand the lengthy handwritten opinion), the judge rules against the plaintiff.

Can anyone identify the people portrayed on the bill? The answer will appear in the next issue of the Bulldog.

CARROLL COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Court Papers) Box 3A [MSA T2120, 1/54/10/38] contains several newspapers, mostly the Carroll Record. They were probably filed because they contained legal notices. The July 26, 1912 issue (also found on microfilm, M8726) contains the following medical information. "Another cure from rheumatism, is to be struck by lightning, or rather, to have the lightning strike so close as to have the current pass through the body and bring unconsciousness. Being stung by bees will likely be more popular than this new treatment, which is said to have fully cured a New York woman, on Monday."

Thanks to Don and Kris for bringing these items to my attention.

Vol. 7, No. 10 March 22, 1993


Nancy Bramucci correctly identified the figures shown on the $10.00 bill depicted in the last newsletter. The figure on the left is Daniel Webster, U.S. Congressman and Senator, and Secretary of State in 1841 and from 1850-1852. The scene on the right shows Indian Princess Pocahontas being presented to England's royal court. The bills in this series of $10.00 notes were nicknamed the "Jackass" notes because the eagle on the bottom looks like the head of a jackass when the note is held upside down.

This information comes from Robert Friedberg, Paper Money of the United States: A Complete Illustrated Guide with Valuations (The Coin and Currency Institute, Inc., Tenth Edition).

Vol. 7, No. 11 March 29, 1993

INDEX OF THE WEEK Susan Cummings

In Index 45, Colonial Muster and Payroll Index, an asterisk next to a name indicates that the person is referred to on the muster roll, but is not being paid or "mustered". For example, Ninian Magruder is cited in Index 45, but the entry in the record [MSA S 962, MdHR 4645-6, 1/4/5/56] actually reads "James Magruder, son of Ninian."


Governor William Donald Schaefer issued the following proclamation:

WHEREAS,Records and information are vital and valuable resources that form the lifeblood of all financial, commercial, manufacturing, and government activities carried out in our modern society; and

WHEREAS,The Association of Records Managers and Administrators, International is the leading professional society in the field of records and information management, with over 12,000 members in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and a number of other countries; and

WHEREAS,The purpose of the Association of Records Managers and Administrators is to promote and advance all activities leading to improvement in the records and information management professions through study, education, and research; and

WHEREAS,The Greater Baltimore Maryland Chapter of the Association of Records Managers and Administrators, International is sponsoring a one-day seminar, during this week, entitled "APPLYING TECHNOLOGY: AUTOMATING THE RECORDS LIFE CYCLE", to be held at Fort Meade... and Maryland is pleased to join in welcoming these dedicated professionals as they seek to further their knowledge of emerging technologies.

NOW, THEREFORE,I, WILLIAM DONALD SCHAEFER, GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF MARYLAND, do hereby proclaim March 22-26, 1993 as RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AWARENESS WEEK in Maryland, and do commend this observance to all of our citizens.


Currently playing at the Colonial Players Theatre in downtown Annapolis, Peter Shaffer's comedy, Lettice and Lovage examines the relationship between a tour guide for the British Historical Trust at one of their old, but terribly uninteresting, historic houses, and her supervisor. The tour guide finds that the text provided by the Trust for tour guides--which is heavy on architectural detail and weak on information about the admittedly undistinguished and uninteresting people who lived in the house--leaves her tourists fidgety and bored. So she "improves" on the house's history, eventually concocting an elaborate and dramatic story that includes as a highlight the house's owner saving Queen Elizabeth's life as she toppled down the house's staircase. When her supervisor, disguised as an ordinary tourist, hears this fantastic recitation, she summons her to a meeting and fires her. The rest of the play centers on the former tour guide's argument that history can only be taught if it is entertaining. In her favor, she produces a large bundle of letters from people who have been on her tour complimenting her on bringing history alive for them. The tour guide claims that it was not her fault that she had to invent a lively history for the Trust's house, it was the house's fault--it was so dull and uninteresting that it had nothing to say to the tourists who came to visit it. She also insists that she never alters historical events that are already interesting, only those parts of history that are intrinsically boring or for which we know little. To make history accessible to the public today, the tour guide argues, "fantasy must fill the vacuum left by fact." Her motto, inherited from her actress mother, is "Enlarge, Enliven, Enlighten," i.e., when history fails us, we must "enlarge" on that history to liven it up so people can be enlightened by the past. By Act 3, the former supervisor has been seduced by her former employee's ability to bring history alive through "enlargement" to the extent that they are getting together every Friday night to act out "the great executions of the Western World." One evening, while acting out the execution of Charles I, the former tour guide accidentally whacks her former supervisor on the head with the executioner's sword, resulting in the tour guide's arrest for attempted murder. The seriousness of the charge requires both women to examine their motives, and the role of history in helping modern man make sense of an increasingly grey and mediocre world.

Lettice and Lovage is wonderfully funny, and despite its British setting it will strike a responsive chord in anyone who has worked here at the Archives or who has lived in a historic town like Annapolis. The play runs for the next two weeks, and although all shows are "sold out" the manager says up to 70 seats are actually available for any given show. You just have to show up 20 minutes early to get you name on the stand-by list.


Following is the original version of an article on the Calvert family motto published in the SUN on Maryland Day.

In the SUN of March 11, Delegates Tim Maloney and Sheila Hixson provide a clear and compelling argument that since Fatti Maschii Parole Femine was never adopted as the official state motto, it should be retained with any representation of the 1648 Great Seal of Maryland. To remove it would be to tamper with a historically accurate and important link to Maryland's colonial achievements, not the least of which were the Calvert efforts to provide a context for religious freedom far in advance of what England had to offer.

The controversy over the use of the Calvert family motto on official documents stems from what many believe is its meaning. In 1969 the Archivist of Maryland had the temerity to offer a translation, "Deeds are manly, words are womanly" that for a time was written into law. In the 1970s, then Delegate, now Treasurer, Lucille Maurer was the first to challenge the sexist implications of this translation by suggesting that it be replaced by another, but her bill did not pass. Instead, in 1975, the legislature returned to an older 'loose' translation, "manly deeds, womanly words."

Since then we have become much more sensitive to the meaning of language as it bears upon our relationships with one another. Sexual harassment, virtually unrecognized as a problem in the 1970s, today rightfully receives careful attention in and out of the work place, even though, as Tim Baker points out in the March 13 SUN, it is not always an easy matter to define.

Indeed getting scholars to agree on anything, let alone a translation of a tuscan motto is a tough assignment. Indicative of how difficult it is to reach consensus on a translation is a neatly typed file card, annotated in pencil, stuck into the frame of the 1793 seal of the college community of St. John's in Annapolis. The motto on the seal is "Est Nulla Via Invia Virtuti." The card translating the motto reads:

There is no easy way to virtue (after which someone has penciled 'nonsense')

There is no road inaccessible to courage or virtue (no pencil annotation)

There is no way impassible to courage or virtue (also no pencil notation)

There is no way but the way of virtue (again the pencil notation 'nonsense')

and finally in pencil at the bottom of the card:

There is no easy way to manly strength.

There is no doubt about the most prevalent meaning of Fatti Maschii Parole Femine in George Calvert's day, however. In 1622 when this Italian motto was added to the Calvert family coat of arms, its English translation was in common use, and was most generally expressed as "Deeds are Men, Words are Women." Scholars like Erasmus and poets like John Florio (according to Professor P. A. Parker of Stanford University) attempted to stem the tide of popular meaning that men act and women just talk too much. They argued eloquently in prose and poetry that words are precious, persuasive, and far more important than military or other aggressive acts, but their opinions remained in the minority. The saying as generally used and intended was without question sexist in its implications.

Yet does the popular meaning of a saying necessarily have to be the meaning intended when it was chosen as a family motto, a family motto that happened to find its way on to one of the most elegant and historically meaningful of State Seals? Does the popular meaning of the phrase in the 17th century have to be carried unalterably into the present as the best 'loose' translation? These are two very different questions to which I think the answer is no. I doubt George Calvert intended the saying to mean what was ordinarily meant, but even if he did, the whole history of Maryland to which the use of the Great Seal of 1648 pays tribute argues persuasively that the meaning of words can and should change while the words themselves remain the same.

We can never know for certain what was in the mind of George Calvert in 1622 when he chose the Italian motto Fatti Maschii Parole Femine. How many of us have difficulty even comprehending what is in the mind of our parents, or in the minds our children today? We can, however, speculate on the basis of the surviving evidence that George Calvert may have been influenced by the scholarly minority that was striving to change the popular meaning of the phrase. George Calvert was a much maligned but thoroughly dedicated diplomat in the service of King James I who prided himself on the use of words to calm the stormy world of court politics and international intrigue on behalf of his sovereign. He seems to have first chosen the saying Fatti Maschii Parole Femine in 1622 when it is first found penned into the margin of the document granting him the right to use such heraldic symbols as the familiar black and gold shield. It next appears closely linked to Calvert's colonial ventures in Newfoundland and Maryland.

The saying, as Professor Parker makes clear, was widely known in 17th century England, both in its Italian and English form. George Herbert, a contemporary of Calvert's translates it in his Jacula Prudentum (from which, by the way, Benjamin Franklin drew a number of his familiar 'Poor Richard" maxims) as "words are women; deeds are men." Did Calvert mean it as Herbert did to imply that he was a man of action while others sat behind in England like women only talking about what they might do? Or did he mean it to imply something quite different, aligning himself with a poet like John Florio? George Calvert often found himself in the minority and his son Cecil (with the help of his brothers Leonard and Philip) forged a whole colony around the principle of trying to protect a diversity of opinions. In his personal life, George Calvert proved compassionate and supportive of his many daughters, providing them with education and ample legacies. He is known to have braved the plague to care for the maid in his household who had charge of his youngest son, Philip. Indeed, in February 1625, when he was granted a coat of arms on his elevation to an Irish peerage, he chose to incorporate elements of his wife's family shield into his own, quietly reinforcing the idea that women in the Calvert household played more than a passive role in shaping the destiny of the family, and, for that matter, the colony of Maryland. None of this, of course, proves that George Calvert chose a family motto in defiance of its popular meaning, but as a Jesuit friend of mine suggests, perhaps we owe him the benefit of the doubt. Perhaps we should change the present 'loose' translation embedded in Maryland law to a more modern translation that may well reflect George Calvert's intent, but which also forcefully states what is intended every time a document is stamped with the great seal of Maryland. My friend offers: "Strong in Deeds; Gentle in Words." Such a translation would be in keeping with what the poet John Florio advocates in his preface to A Worlde of Wordes (1598) and, in the spirit of what may have been George Calvert's reasons for choosing Fatti Maschii Parole Femine as his family motto. Florio believed that the meaning of words should change. Perhaps it is time at last for us to join with him and interpret the Calvert family motto without reference to any gender specific meaning:

Some perhaps will except against the sex [Florio writes], and not allow it. ... As our Italians say, Le parole sono femine, & i fatti sono maschii, words they are women, and deeds they are men. But let such know that detti and fattii, words and deeds with me are all of one gender, and though they were commonly feminine, why might not I, by strong imagination (which physicians give so much power unto), alter their sex?

Vol. 7, No. 12 April 5, 1993

Susan Cummings

On Saturday, March 20th, Phebe Jacobsen and I attended the 28th Annual Spring Symposium on Archeology sponsored by the Archeological Society of Maryland and the Office of Archeology of the Maryland Historical Trust. There were four primary speakers during the day. The first was Hettie L. Ballweber speaking on "Prehistoric Lithic Utilization Patterns in the Maryland Blue Ridge." Ms. Ballweber discussed the remarkable number of known sites for stone tool manufacturing in the South Mountain area of Frederick and Washington counties.

The highlight of the day had to be Henry Miller's dramatic account of the discovery, excavation and continuing studies of the three 17th century lead coffins found in St. Mary's City. What I found most impressive was the great planning and cooperation among disparate groups such as the Army and Navy, NASA, the Smithsonian, NIH, private engineering and computer firms, and many academic institutions including the Maryland State Archives. One person asked who paid for all this high technology and Dr. Miller was able to say that the state's outlay had been very minimal, mostly in the planning stage. Most of the other organizations donated their time, equipment and enthusiasm.

The afternoon started with Dr. Julia King (a frequent search room visitor) reporting on "His Lordship's Manor: The Search for Lord Baltimore's Dwelling and 17th Century Powder Magazine." Dr. King used historical maps and references in the Archives of Maryland to help pinpoint Mattaponey, the compound of Charles Calvert, Third Lord Baltimore. They were also very pleased to find the powder magazine. Indeed they were very lucky since the topography of this area was dramatically changed in the building of the Patuxent Naval Base.

The final presentation was by R. Christopher Goodwin who supervised the survey and excavations done in preparation for building the Camden Yards Stadium Complex. This group again used historical maps and with the help of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was able to anticipate critical areas to excavate. They did have some surprises, however, such as an unknown brick kiln. The audience was most interested in the discovery of the Ruth Saloon, the boyhood home of the Babe. Everyone listened with great interest as Goodwin described the excavation of the Ruth family privy.

Most presenters stressed the importance of doing preliminary research by studying the historical records, all mentioning the Archives in particular.

Vol. 7, No. 13 April 19, 1993


The following titles have recently been added to the inventory of books for sale in the Archives's lobby and by mail:

The Maryland Line. By John D. Kilbourne

An outstanding pamphlet history of the famed Maryland Line during the War for Independence by a noted historian and former director of the Museum and Library of the Society of Cincinnati. #899, paper, illus., 77 pp. $4.50.

The Very Quiet Baltimoreans: A Guide to the Historic Cemeteries and Burial Sites of Baltimore. By Jane B. Wilson.

A fascinating look at the history and development of Baltimore through its cemeteries. Locates and describes the graves of many prominent citizens of the city and state, and provides a history of church-affiliated and other cemeteries in the city with detailed site maps of the more important burial places. A fascinating, profusely illustrated, oversized book. #902, casebound, illus., 130 pp., $29.95.

Before Antietam: The Battle for South Mountain. By John Michael Priest.

The first comprehensive history of the Battle of South Mountain, based on contemporary accounts, provides a lively and detailed account from the soldiers' perspective of the first major battle in Lee's Maryland Campaign of 1862. #903, casebound, illus., 432 pp., $34.95.

Antietam: The Soldiers' Battle. By John Michael Priest.

The definitive study of the greatest battle of the 1862 Confederate invasion of the North from the soldiers' point of view. Based on newly discovered anecdotes and vignettes, which take the reader back to September 16 - 18, 1862, providing an hour-by-hour account of the bloodiest day in American history. #904, casebound, illus., 437 pp., $34.95.

Fighting for Time. Glenn H. Worthington.

The story of the Battle of the Monocacy, July 9, 1864, in which 7,500 Union soldiers fought nearly twice that number of Jubal Early's Confederate attackers. Gen. Lew Wallace's valiant delaying action in that battle may have saved Washington, D.C. An eyewitness to the battle, Glenn Worthington wrote this only full-length account of the Battle of the Monocacy in 1932. #905, casebound, illus., 306 pp., $19.95.

The First Ninety Years. By Jane Wilson McWilliams

This history of the first ninety years of Anne Arundel Medical Center is a splendid model of how enlightening and entertaining a good, solidly researched institutional history can be. This will come as no surprise to those who know Bay Ridge on the Chesapeake, co-authored by Jane McWilliams, which set a new standard for local histories. This is much more than a history of the local hospital - it is a study of the Annapolis community and how it has responded to the changing needs of society during the twentieth century. #906, paper, illus., 157 pp., $15.00.


Two volunteers have completed publications recently. Doug Hayman's work is entitled Haymans of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, 1666-1800. The Hayman genealogy is based on his own research and that of another member of the family. Agnes Callum's book is entitled Slave Statistics of St. Mary's County, Maryland, 1864. Agnes abstracted information about slaves and their owners from a record at the Archives - ST. MARY'S COUNTY COMMISSIONER OF SLAVE STATISTICS (Slave Statistics) [MSA C 1698]. Each author donated a copy of his/her book to the Archives' library, for which we are most grateful.

The Archives welcomes ten new volunteers, all of whom went through the training sessions. Nine of them will help provide reference services in the search room. They include Elsie Carlile, Darlene Dail, Sherry Gunther, Patricia Harrison, Louise Henry, Bill Miller, Ann Morgan, John Russell, and Jack Trudell. Sherry is also keyboarding names from Civil War muster rolls of U.S. Colored Troops found in COMPTROLLER OF THE TREASURY (Muster Rolls) [MSA S 343]. Lester Jackson will be processing records, specifically FREDERICK COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Equity Papers) [MSA T 158] which date from 1798. Many of the 19th century files need attention from the standpoint of both arrangement and preservation.

June Larkin has completed keyboarding DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, DIVISION OF VITAL RECORDS (Death Record, Counties) 1970-1972 [MSA S 1488] and DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE, DIVISION OF VITAL RECORDS (Death Record, Counties) 1972 [MSA S 1489]. Thanks to June and the other volunteers from Community Rehabilitation Services of Annapolis who worked on these death record projects.

Vol. 7, No. 14 April 26 1993


Ann Mack has finished keyboarding the index to Baltimore City death records for 1877, and has begun working on the index for 1878.

Paul Goddard was one of seven nominees for the Service Above Self Award given by the Rotary Club of Severna Park. He was being commended for his work at the State Archives and the State Law Library. All nominees were honored at a Rotary Club dinner on April 22.

Vol. 7, No. 15 May 3, 1993


Charles County, Maryland: A History. By Jack D. Brown et al.

A county history written by nine authorities published for the nation's bicentennial in 1976. Includes chapters on agriculture, transportation, religion, Black history, education, legend and folklore, and towns and villages. Of particular interest is the extensive chapter on genealogical research in Charles County records, which includes a "Guide to Deciphering Old Documents," a list of Charles County public records, church records, and published sources. Prints the 1850 Federal Census for Charles County and Charles County marriages taken from ministers' returns. #907, casebound, illus., 464 pp., $20.00.

The History of Charles County, Maryland. By Margaret Brown Klapthor and Paul Dennis Brown

The notable Tercentenary History, published in 1958, principally written by Margaret Klapthor, the well-known Charles County historian. This is not a reprint--we have available copies of the original 1958 edition. A wonderful history, that will also be of interest to collectors of Marylandia. As an added bonus, the entire Charles County federal census of 1790 is printed as an appendix. #908, casebound, illus., 204 pp., $20.00.

Abstracts from the Port Tobacco Times and Charles County Advertiser, Vol. I: 1844 - 1854. By Roberta J. Wearmouth

Names, facts, events, and places mentioned in Charles County newspapers - a boon for the local historian and genealogist. #909, paper, foldout map of La Plata, 214 pp., $22.00.

Abstracts from the Port Tobacco Times and Charles County Advertiser, Vol. Two: 1855 - 1869. By Roberta J. Wearmouth

A continuation of abstracts from Charles County newspapers, full of valuable information for the local historian and genealogist. #910, paper, foldout map of La Plata, 221 pp., $22.00.

Charles County Helps Shape the Nation. By John M. Wearmouth

Biographical profiles of Charles Countians who served in Congress from 1774 through the 68th Congress, including John Hanson, Thomas Stone, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Benjamin Stoddert, John Hoskins Stone, and others. #912, paper, 57 pp., $7.00.

The Gleam of Bayonets. By James V. Murfin

A classic and perceptive history of the pivotal Battle of Antietam, focusing on the events and personalities that combined to produce the outcome of the first and most important Confederate invasion of the North. #914, paper, illus., 446 pp., $12.00.

La Plata, Maryland: 1888 - 1899, 100 Years The Heart of Charles County. By John M. Wearmouth

Profusely illustrated history of La Plata. #911, paper, illus., 78pp., $15.00.


SECRETARY OF STATE (Trademark File) 1880-1970 [MSA S101] contains registrations of labels, trademarks, stamps, and forms of advertisements. Each certificate of registration includes an assigned trademark record number and sample of the trademark. For 1880-1954 the files are arranged chronologically. Then the format changes to individual company files which contain correspondence involving amended and renewed trademark registrations. Trademarks are recorded in (Trademark Record) 1892-1959 [MSA S102] and indexed in (Trademarks, Company Index) 1892-1954 [MSA S103] and (Trademarks, Index) 1892-1953 [MSA S96] and 1961-1971 [MSA SM127]. An example of an early trademark appears at the end of the Bulldog. It is the union label of the Boot and Shoemakers of America, filed on April 5, 1892. The file also contains the rules governing use of the label.

Vol. 7, No. 16 May 10, 1993


Featured this week at the end of the Bulldog is another trademark found in SECRETARY OF STATE (Trademark File) 1880-1970 [MSA S101]. It was filed in 1897 by the owner of The Long View Poultry Yards. The application includes the following remarks. "The class of merchandise to which this trade-mark is appropriated is chickens, which have been hatched at my poultry yards, principally, though not wholly, by process of incubation and afterwards fed in an especial manner calculated to furnish the market with a supply of fowls of a very superior quality. It is my practice to apply my trade-mark by attaching either to the leg or neck of the chicken a tag, card or label, upon which it is printed in colors as described above. It is also my practice to affix this tag, card or label to the boxes or crated in which are shipped strictly fresh eggs which have been laid at my poultry yards, by fowls, hatched and fed as above stated."

The example of the trademark filed with the application is in black and white, not color.


Talbot County: A History. By Dickson J. Preston

A fine, eminently readable history of one of Maryland's premiere counties. #916, casebound, illus., 386 pp., $24.95.

Marriages and Deaths from the Maryland Gazette, 1727 - 1839. By Robert Barnes

First published in 1973, this classic lists the 3,000 marriages and deaths that appear in Maryland's first newspaper. #917, paper, 234 pp., $19.00.

Slave Statistics of Saint Mary's County Maryland, 1864. By Agnes Kane Callum

Transcription and index to names of 4,230 slaves and slaveowners in St. Mary's County at the time Maryland abolished slavery in 1864. Surnames of freed slaves are shown, making this an essential source for tracing African American lineage back to slavery. #918, paper, 183 pp., $20.00.

Personal Memoirs of Jonathan Thomas Scharf of the First Maryland Artillery. Ed. by Tom Kelley

Extraordinary firsthand account by a Maryland Confederate, J. Thomas Scharf, arguably Maryland's best historian. Discovered in 1991 in the New York State Archives, this hitherto unpublished and richly detailed narrative is an important contribution to the body of information about the role played by Maryland Confederates during the Civil War. #919, casebound, 81 pp., indexed, $20.00.

Old Buildings, Gardens, and Furniture in Tidewater Maryland. By H. Chandlee Forman

Famous study of notable Maryland houses and gardens and the lifestyles of the people who built them. Illus. with over 600 photos and drawings. #920, casebound, 326 pp., $17.95.

Recollections of a Maryland Confederate Soldier and Staff Officer Under Johnston, Jackson and Lee. By McHenry Howard

The best Confederate memoir by a Marylander, written by a true Baltimore "blue-blood." A grandson of both John Eager Howard and Francis Scott Key, McHenry Howard's history is lively, detailed, look at the war from the perspective of a Confederate staff officer. #933, casebound, 483 pp., indexed, $30.00.

Medical Doctors of Maryland in the CSA. By Daniel Hartzler

Biographies of every Maryland doctor known to have served in the Confederate military; profusely illus. with vintage photos. #944, paper, 98 pp., indexed, $15.00.

Archaeological Investigations at Susquehanna. Julia A. King.

Report of archaeological findings at Susquehanna, a 19th-century homesite in St. Mary's County. The original home was removed to the Henry Ford Museum at Greenfield Village in 1942. #945, paper, 137 pp., $15.00.

Vol. 7, No. 17 May 17, 1993


DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (General File), 1944-1954, [MSA S79] contains materials pertaining to the committee on surplus federal property, advocating its use in schools. The files include correspondence, financial statements, and notes. Based on these statements, written by Kris for the state agency history and series description project, you may be wondering why this series deems special mention. Anyone working with records for any length of time knows that even the most mundane sounding materials can contain exciting and interesting items.

The last page of the Bulldog shows a page from one of three comic books found in one of the folders. In 1954 the Department of Education received a letter from the Department of Public Instruction, Division of Surplus Property, Madison, Wisconsin:

I am enclosing three (3) samples of comic books which are available in large quantities from the Armed Forces Institute in Madison. There are about 50,000 copies of each. These Books are packed 500 per carton with each carton weighing 500 lbs. I am sure that there is at least one hour of enjoyable reading for each Surplus Property Director but if you feel that any of the kids in your states would enjoy them we will be glad to ship them to you without cost except for transportation.

The three titles include Steve Canyon's "Secret Mission," "Strong for the People," and Joe Palooka in "It's All in the Family." The Canyon comic book concerns a military operation. The second title involves a newly elected congressman named Strong who successfully gets one of his bills enacted and thus illustrates the legislative process. The featured graphic comes from the Palooka comic book. The story centers around the father's birthday and celebrates the happy, well-adjusted, and successful family. During the birthday party the family takes time to help a neighbor by driving the pregnant wife to the hospital where she gives birth to a healthy child, repairing the husband's car, and looking after the couple's twin boys.

MARAC Kevin Swanson


On May 6-8, 1993 the Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference held its annual spring confab in the Ocean Place Hilton Resort and Spa in historic Long Branch, New Jersey. The Hilton provided a magnificent setting for the many useful workshops and sessions offered. I concentrated my efforts on sessions and workshops dealing with the preservation and appraisal of electronic records.

I attended a very informative session concerning preservation of electronic records presented by Richard A. Noble of the Center for Electronic Records of the National Archives and Records Administration. In his talk Mr. Noble emphasized the care of magnetic tape (open reel and cartridge), but he also dealt with diskettes, optical digital disks, and CD-ROM. He also provided some practical tips concerning proper environmental conditions for storing electronic media, proper storage and maintenance procedures, as well as problems to be encountered when dealing with older, now obsolete formats.

I also attended a half-day workshop on appraising electronic records run by Ms. Dian Palmer of the Center for Electronic Records of the National Archives and Records Administration. Ms. Palmer's presentation was aimed at archivists with limited experience in the appraisal of electronic records. She dealt with some of the special terminology associated with electronic records, the theory of electronic records appraisal, appraisal issues unique to electronic records, and a review of an actual appraisal report covering a federal agency database.

I planned to attend a session concerning the archivist's need to balance the public's right to know and the individual's right to privacy. One of the presenters in this ever-topical session was our own MSA alumnus Arian Ravanbakhsh, now of the Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins University. I was unable to attend due to a case of Montezuma's Revenge brought on by the previous evening's visit to a local Mexican restaurant that will remain nameless.

As usual, NARA staff dominated the roster of presenters and instructors. But it was encouraging, and sometimes a little surprising, to see how many MSA alumni have gone on to make good. All in all, the 1993 Spring Conference was a productive educational, professional, and social event.

MORE MARAC Doug McElrath

Archivists "Sur La Mer"

MARAC Meeting - Long Branch, NJ May 6-8, 1993

Once the summer play ground of the wealthy, including seven U.S. Presidents from Grant to Wilson, Long Branch is now a sad shadow of its former self. Storms, fires, and economic decline have robbed what has been called "America's foremost Victorian watering place" of most of its attractions, but that did not deter a determined bunch of archivists from gathering to pursue professional enrichment. In addition to Kevin and Doug, former Archives employees and interns in attendance included Diana Shenk (Penn State), Ben Primer (Princeton), Arian Ravanbakhsh (Chesney Archives), Betsy Parkin Pittman (Virginia Commonwealth), Sara Heron Turner (Architect of the Capital), Catherine Wilson (Rutgers), Cindy Swanson (Gen. Fed. of Women's Clubs), Susan McElrath (Bethune Archives), and a brief appearance by Rick Blondo (National Archives).

The theme of the spring meeting was "Celebrating Archival Diversity" - a convenient tag for holding sessions on the broadest variety of topics! I focused my attention on four areas: resource development, preservation, local records programs, and education. The half-day workshop entitled, "What They See is What You Get: Finding Resource Allocators and Marketing Our Archives" was an instructive source of information led by Heidi Ziemer of the Western New York Library Resources Council. She concentrated on areas of resources development beyond the traditional grant proposal route, emphasizing themes of program evaluation; funding sources; relationships with boards, volunteers, consultants, and interns; development of donations in areas of money, goods, and services; internal money management; earned income; individual solicitation; and endowments. All this information will be useful as we enter the brave new world (for us) of fund raising and resource development.

The preservation-related sessions I attended included an update on issues regarding photographic preservation led by Peter Mustardo (Better Image), a session devoted to a discussion of the relevancy of mass deacidification technologies to archives led by Maria Holden (N.Y. State Archives) and Robert Milevski (Princeton), and a preservation film festival featuring new videos that may be appropriate in an outreach setting. Perhaps one of the more surprising facts I learned was the estimate that mass deacidification currently costs less per unit than preservation microfilming, making it an option archivists should not categorically rule out.

The session on local records programs presented some of the successes and failures of the New York program which currently has more money budgeted to it than the entire grant budget of NHPRC! Finally a session on archival internships compared the experiences of students who had been interns in a variety of institutions.

The meeting of the Maryland Caucus led by Jan Blodgett (St. Mary's County Archives) had a good turn-out. Jan encouraged members to continue the good work of sending her material for the Caucus newsletter as well as the Mid-Atlantic Archivist.

The next MARAC meeting will be in Gettysburg this fall when that town will witness a event not seen since Pickett's Charge - 300 archivists descending on the Hospitality Suite!

Vol. 7, No. 18 May 24, 1993


Ghosts & Haunted Houses of Maryland. By Trish Gallagher

Twenty-five stories of the supernatural gathered from all over Maryland - haunted houses, disturbed graves, strange noises in the night, and much more! #921, paper, 95 pp., illus., $6.95.

Tench Tilghman: The Life and Times of Washington's Aide-de-Camp. By L.G. Shreve

An excellent biography of General Washington's closest companion during the War for Independence. #922, casebound, 260 pp., illus., $15.95.

Steam Packets on the Chesapeake: A History of the Old Bay Line Since 1840. By Alexander Crosby Brown

Story of the nation's oldest steamboat line, full of anecdotes and vintage photos that bring alive this exciting chapter of Chesapeake Bay history. #923, casebound, illus., 192 pp., $12.95.

Maryland Folklore. By George G. Carey

Fascinating survey of Maryland folktales, tall tales, legends, folk heroes, speech patterns, riddles, and material culture by the former Maryland State Folklorist. #924, paper, illus., 163 pp., $12.95.

Chesapeake Bay Schooners. By Quentin Snediker and Ann Jensen

The first complete history of the commercial schooner, illustrated with vintage photos and measured drawings. #925, casebound, illus., 252 pp., $44.95.

Homes of the Cavaliers. By Katherine Scarborough

History and full descriptions of the architecture, grounds, and room-by-room details of 51 of Maryland's finest colonial homes, illustrated with 100 photos. 1969 reprint of the original ed. of 1930. #926, casebound, illus., 392 pp., $7.50.


On May 20 Ed, on behalf of the Archives, presented a Community Service Award to Samuel Thomas Voss for his volunteer work as collection processing intern in the summer of 1992. Sam, a student at Boys Latin in Baltimore, processed the Voss Family Collection, c.1780-c.1930, [MSA 2727]. He developed a finding aid to the collection and transcribed several of the Civil War letters. For this work the Archives presented Sam with a copy of The Personal Memoirs of Jonathan Thomas Scharf of the First Maryland Artillery, edited by Tom Kelley. To hold the book he also received a box crafted by Ruth Simpson.

The collection contains family correspondence, land records, court records, business accounts, plats, photographs, and newspaper clippings relating to the Voss family of Baltimore and the Knox family of Culpepper, Va. It includes the letters of Frank Voss to his family, c. 1860-1863, relating his experiences as a student at the University of Virginia and as a Confederate soldier during the Civil War; letters of Samuel Sullivan to the Voss family concerning Frank's death during the war, giving a description of his uniform; several early 19th century letters written by women in the family concerning family life; administration papers from the estates of W.H. and C.K. Neilson; and letters concerning land transactions. Use of and right to transcribe and edit the Civil War letters is restricted.

Vol. 7, No. 19 June 7, 1993


BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Petitions) 1791-1950 [MSA T 621] contains petitions, answers, and exhibits filed with the Baltimore County Orphans Court, 1791-1851, and Baltimore City Orphans Court, 1851-1950. Usually files also contain the decision of the court. The petitions concern matters associated with the administration of estates, guardianship of minors, and indentures of minors. A researcher has gone through this series looking for cases involving slaves and free blacks. Those of interest were flattened and placed in folders. This week I am featuring a file located in Box 184.

On October 30, 1861 James A. Chaney, a free black of Baltimore City, filed a petition concerning his two indentured sons, Isaac and James. [The first page of the indenture is reproduced on the last page of the Bulldog.]

Chaney stated that in 1857 William Dorbacker, a tavern keeper in Baltimore, brought the two boys before justices of the peace, described them as destitute orphans, and asked to bind them as apprentices. Dorbacker obtained the indentures in which the boys were identified as Isaac T. and James A. Wilson. Chaney charged Dorbacker with treating the boys with neglect and cruelty and with placing them in the custody of other persons after his business failed. Chaney knew about this situation for some time, but did nothing until he himself was mistreated. Chaney stated that while he was asleep the two boys sneaked into his house. The next morning Chaney was arrested at the instigation of Dorbacker and taken to Southern Police Station. There Chaney said he was "most cruelly beaten and unhumanly lacerated." Chaney was petitioning to have the indentures annulled because he as parent had not given permission.

On November 30, 1861 William Dorbacker filed his answer in which he claimed that the boys' mother "who passed as a single woman, by the name of Wilson" consented to their apprenticeships and in fact demanded and accepted money for their services. He denied mistreating Isaac and James and letting them work for other people. Dorbacker dismissed the arrest and beating of James Chaney as irrelevant to the question of the validity of the indentures.

The indentures themselves, recorded in BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Indentures) 21, pp. 372-373 [MSA C 192], mentioned nothing concerning the consent of the mother of Isaac and James or their status as destitute orphans. The record did list the age of Isaac as twelve and James as eleven.

On December 3, 1861 the court issued its decision in the case. The judges annulled the indentures and ordered James A. Chaney to appear before the court "to shew cause why the said apprentices should not be bound to the said Dorbacker under their real names of Isaac T. and James A. Chaney.". According to BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Indentures) 23 [MSA C 192] these indentures did not take place.


Vol. 7, No. 20 June 14, 1993


Many volunteers attended and worked at the National Genealogical Society Conference in Baltimore on June 2-5. To avoid excluding anyone I will not attempt to name all who participated. One of the speakers at the conference was Donna Valley Russell who talked about land records, "By Their Deeds Ye Shall Know Them: How to Use Land Records to Solve Problems in Maryland." Also speaking were two members of the Search Room Advisory Committee. Bob Barnes gave a talk on "Tracing English Origins of Maryland Families." Pat Anderson spoke about "Genealogical Resources of Maryland's Ethnic Organizations."

Because the special opening of the research room on June 7 for genealogists attending the conference was so successful, we want to publicly acknowledge and thank Betty deKeyser for making this suggestion.

Vol. 7, No. 21 June 21, 1993


Pat Melville

Being featured again is BALTIMORE CITY REGISTER OF WILLS (Petitions) 1791-1950 [MSA T621]. In Box 180 is a petition, dated 1812, from Nancy M. Hanna and William Warner, executors of the will of Andrew Hanna. They want to sell part of Hanna's personal property in order to pay debts; a court order to that effect was granted. Excluded from the sale were household furniture, three female slaves, and items from the printing office at Hanna's residence. The inventory of the contents of the printing office is reproduced at the end of the Bulldog.


Statistics for state and local records reference were not reported for several months because of changes and updates in the management and tracking systems. The figures for this article will cover March and April of 1993 and compare them to the same months in 1992.

In March state and local records handled a total of 1244 reference requests, compared to 1287 in 1992, for a slight decrease of 3.3 percent. Requests for court records and other modern files declined 3.9 percent, 834 compared to 868. Vital record requests decreased 2.1 percent, 410 compared to 419. The income from this reference operation, on the other hand, climbed substantially by 16.9 percent, $3447.75 compared to $2948.75.

In April total reference requests declined 3.5 percent, 1108 compared to 1148, due to a 16.7 percent fall in the vital records category, 353 compared to 424. All other requests rose 4.3 percent, 755 compared to 724. Income shot up 52.2 percent, $3782.05 compared to $2485.45.

Vol. 7, No. 22 June 28, 1993


Baltimore County Land Records, 1665 - 1687. By Louis Dow Scisco (1992)

Abstracts of the earliest land records of Baltimore County, originally published in the Maryland Historical Magazine. Fully indexed.

#965, paper, 113 pp., $18.00

Index to Marriages and Deaths in the (Baltimore) Sun, 1837 - 1850. By Thomas L. Hollowak (1978)

Massive index to 60,000 marriages and deaths reported in the Baltimore Sun.

#966, casebound, 787 pp., $37.50

Index to Marriages in the (Baltimore) Sun, 1851 - 1860. By Thomas L. Hollowak (1978)

References to more than 12,000 marriages reported in the Sun.

#967, casebound, 292 pp., $21.50

This Was the Life: Excerpts from the Judgment Records of Frederick County, 1748 - 1765. By Millard Milburn Rice (1984)

Rich details of life of early settlers in Frederick Co.; fully indexed, great genealogical source.

#968, casebound, 308 pp., $25.00

History of Montgomery County, from its Earliest Settlement in 1650 to 1879. By W.H.S. Boyd (1879; reprinted 1972)

Valuable early history of the county, with much info on prominent residents, towns and villages, businesses, etc.

#969, casebound, 187 pp., $20.00

Land Office and Prerogative Court Records of Colonial Maryland. By Elisabeth Hartsook and Gust Skordas (1946; reprinted 1989)

Invaluable guide to these important record series.

#970, casebound, 124 pp., $16.00

Names in Stone. 75,000 Cemetery Inscriptions from Frederick County. 2 Vols. By Jacob Mehrling Holdcraft (1966; reprinted 1985)

Inscriptions from over 300 cemeteries; reprinted with the author's More Names in Stone, which adds several thousand additional names.

971#, casebound, 2 vols., 1,303 + 68 pp., $75.00

Maryland Original Research Society Bulletins 1 - 3. Ed. by Albert L. Richardson (1906 - 1913; reprinted 1979)

Compilation of the only three bulletins issued by this group founded to collect, preserve, and publish material relating to Maryland history and genealogy. Includes much genealogical info, including histories of Lloyd, Key, Bordley, and Winder families, plus Dorchester and Kent marriage licenses, Bible records, Oaths of Fidelity, Revolutionary militia, and tombstone inscriptions.

#972, casebound, 300+ pp., $21.50

Index to the 1820 Census of Maryland and Washington, D.C.. By Gary W. Parks (1986)

Alphabetical list of all households in MD and DC at time of the 4th U.S. census.

#973, casebound, 274 pp., $25.00

Vol. 7, No. 23 July 12, 1993


By Greg Stiverson

The nation just celebrated the 217th anniversary of independence. Every Maryland school child learns that Maryland had four signers of the Declaration of Independence - Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Samuel Chase, William Paca, and Thomas Stone. Yet only two of these men, Paca and Stone, actually voted for independence. There is a third Marylander who, along with Paca and Stone, voted for independence but who never had the opportunity to sign the engrossed copy of the document. That man is John Rogers, and he is Maryland's "forgotten signer" of the Declaration of Independence.

The facts surrounding the decision to declare independence from Britain are surprisingly confused for such a well-known event in American history. In the first place, our annual celebration on July 4th commemorating the decision to separate from Britain is held on the wrong date. Congress actually voted to declare independence on July 2, 1776. Two days later, a formal proclamation to the world explaining why the decision to declare independence had been made was adopted by Congress. That proclamation - the Declaration of Independence principally written by Thomas Jefferson - was little more than an elegantly crafted press release. Its purpose was to inform the world - and especially counties like France and Spain that had often gone to war with Britain in the past - of the terrible things the British king and Parliament had done that had forced the colonies - on July 2 - to declare themselves independent states.

Second, determining who actually voted for independence is not as easy as it might seem. You cannot assume, for example, that the names shown on a reproduction of the Declaration of Independence are the men who actually risked their "lives, fortunes, and sacred honor" in voting for independence. Maryland's "signers" Charles Carroll of Carrollton and Samuel Chase were not even in Philadelphia in early July 1776 - they were at home in Maryland.

The problem of determining who actually voted for independence is due to the way representation was handled in the Continental Congress. Each state was allowed only one vote on any issue, and that vote was cast by a state delegation consisting of at least three, and as many as eight, delegates. It was not important, according to the rules of Congress, to know which specific individuals comprised a state's delegation, as long as the state had at least three delegates present at any given time to cast that state's single vote. When votes were tallied, it was by state, not by the names of the individuals comprising the state delegations. As a result, it is often impossible to tell which delegates from a state were in Congress on any given day.

There is in the collections at the State Archives a small piece of paper that is believed to be the only positive evidence of who cast Maryland's vote for independence. The document is a receipt, written in William Paca's hand, signed by Paca, Stone, and Maryland's "forgotten signer," John Rogers (see reproduction of MARYLAND STATE PAPERS (Red Books), 1775 - 1827, 4, item 31 [MSA S989 - 5] on back page).

And, of course, there is the problem of whether the declaration adopted on July 4, 1776, was actually signed or not. Thomas Jefferson said that it was, but other evidence suggests no signing occurred. The copy of the Declaration of Independence that Congress approved on July 4, 1776, has never been found, so we may never know whether a signing took place of not.

And that is another misconception about the Declaration of Independence. Many people think that the Declaration of Independence on display at the National Archives, which is frequently reproduced on "pseudo-aged" parchment, is the document that Congress voted for on July 4. It is not. After approving the Declaration, Congress ordered its clerk to prepare a fine copy on parchment. This copy of the Declaration, which is called the "engrossed" copy, was completed by August 2. On that day, the delegates in Congress signed their names to it. Some delegates who were not present in Congress on August 2 signed the engrossed copy of the Declaration weeks or months later, and at least one delegate's name was in fact written in by another delegate!

In all, some fifteen of the men whose names appear on the engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence - including Maryland's Carroll and Chase - were not actually present in Congress to vote for independence on July 2 or to approve the Declaration on July 4. But only one man voted both for independence and the Declaration and did not have a chance to sign the engrossed copy and that man was Maryland's John Rogers.

Whether or not the Declaration adopted by Congress on July 4, 1776, was signed is of little importance to most states, but it does matter to Maryland because of John Rogers. Rogers, a Prince George's County lawyer and a leader of the independence movement in Maryland, was a member of the Maryland delegation to Congress from late 1775 through early July 1776. When new elections for delegates to Congress were held in July, Rogers was not reelected and he soon returned home to Maryland. Therefore, Rogers was not in Congress when the engrossed copy of the Declaration was ready for signing on August 2.

As a result, if the July 4 copy of the Declaration adopted by Congress when Rogers was part of the Maryland delegation was signed, it is correct to call Rogers Maryland's "forgotten signer." If the July 4 Declaration was merely adopted by Congress, and only the August 2 engrossed copy signed, then Rogers should be properly called Maryland "forgotten voter" for the Declaration. In either case, Rogers deserves a larger place in Maryland history than he now enjoys, because unlike those two Marylanders - Carroll and Chase - whom we remember as "signers", Rogers directly contributed to the discussion and vote in Congress that led to independence from Britain.

Vol. 7, No. 24 July 26, 1993


By Greg Stiverson

After six long and difficult years, the War for American Independence effectively ended with the capitulation of the British troops under Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19, 1781. This stunning victory was the single most important piece of information that Washington would report to Congress in his entire career as commander-in-chief. To deliver the good news to Congress, Washington turned to his trusted aide, Col. Tench Tilghman, scion of an old and distinguished family from Queen Anne's County on Maryland's Eastern Shore.

Few stories are better known, at least in Maryland, than how Tench Tilghman carried his commander-in-chief's message to Congress, then sitting in Philadelphia. Tilghman reached the outskirts of Philadelphia at 3:00 A.M. on October 24, and, according to one account, "in a minute the whole city was wild. Lights flashed in every window; men, women and even children poured into the streets. The State House bell rang out its peal.... " Before noon, Tilghman appeared before Congress and read his dispatch from Washington detailing the Yorktown victory. Congress celebrated by ordering a day of Thanksgiving for the country, and calling for a grand illumination that night. It rewarded the colonel with a dollar from every delegate, a new horse, and a splendid sword. Maryland's Tench Tilghman was the hero of the hour, an instant celebrity.

There is, of course, a problem with the wonderful story of Tilghman's heroic ride to Congress following the Yorktown victory in October 1781. Why did everyone - men, women, and children - pour into the streets, and why did the bells of the city begin to ring, when Colonel Tilghman arrived in Philadelphia at 3 in the morning? Such celebration would certainly have been appropriate later in the day after he had read Washington's announcement of the Yorktown victory to Congress, but occurring as it did just as he arrived in town seems incongruous. Despite its reputation as the city of brotherly love, surely Philadelphians did not feel obliged to jump out of bed in the middle of the night and begin celebrating just because someone had arrived in town!

The answer is that Congress and all of Philadelphia already knew about the Yorktown victory, and how they found out tells us something important about society at the time of the American Revolution. The day after the Yorktown capitulation, Maryland's governor Thomas Sim Lee received a letter from the French admiral de Grasse, who commanded the fleet that had prevented the British navy from reaching Yorktown to rescue Cornwallis. Governor Lee did not read French, so he had to summon a translator. As the translator wrote out de Grasse's words in English, Governor Lee, who undoubtedly was expecting yet another urgent requisition on the state's strained resources, must have been stunned. The letter began: "Dear Sir. I have just desired Gen. Washington to send me back my troops, of which probably he will no longer stand in need, as Ld. Cornwallis has surrendered, which perhaps you will not have heard before this reaches you." (see reproduction of MARYLAND STATE PAPERS (Brown Books), 1778 - 1782, item 76 [MSA S991 - 7, 1/6/5/9] on back page).

Governor Lee knew this was important intelligence that had to be gotten to Congress as quickly as possible. Much as Washington had done at Yorktown, Thomas Sim Lee turned to a trusted aide to carry the message to Congress. That trusted aide was Jonathan Parker, the State House janitor and jack-of-all-trades. Parker was a poor man, who owned neither land nor house. He supported his family by doing odd jobs around the State House - sweeping floor, making fires, fetching wood and water, and the like. He was a good horseman, who was often sent around the state to deliver messages or to summon tardy delegates to attend sessions of the General Assembly. Governor Lee wrote out a hasty letter to Congress and sent Jonathan Parker on his way.

Parker left immediately on the 140-mile trip. Stopping only to change horses, he arrived in Philadelphia early in the morning on October 22. A night watchman directed him to the president of Congress's house, where Parker delivered Governor's Lee's letter, probably to a servant. There is no indication that Parker was offered any hospitality by Congress or the city. Instead, he returned immediately to Annapolis, where he submitted a bill for his time spent on the trip to Philadelphia, and then went back to his work around the State House.

Back to Col. Tench Tilghman. Was he surprised when his late-night arrival in Philadelphia prompted people to pour into the streets and church bells to ring? We don't know for sure, but since he was born and bred a Tilghman, one of the oldest and finest families on Maryland's Eastern Shore, he probably thought it was only fitting and proper!

In any case, one of the ironies in the history of the War for Independence is that Jonathan Parker, the man who actually delivered the news of Cornwallis's capitulation, died four years later poor and unrecognized for his small but important contribution to the war effort, while Col. Tench Tilghman lives on in history, remembered for something he did not do.

Vol. 7, No. 25 August 9, 1993


[The following are notes compiled by Ken, reference volunteer, from the National Genealogical Society Conference.]

Research material should be supported with source citations. Standardization for source citations affects the ability to share research with each other and validate research. Beyond citing the birth, marriage, and death data and places, we need to support them with proper source documentation. One should cite a source or several sources for every single event. With the source citation one can easily retrieve the documents by knowing where the records were located.

All events need proof to show where the evidence was obtained. It is frustrating to have a date, event, or place presented with no reference to a document or sources. By implementing minimum source citation requirements future genealogists and researchers will not be forced to retrace unnecessary steps. Source documentation should apply to all forms of documents, such as birth certificates, death certificates, marriage certificates, census records, wills, probate records, land records, and published and unpublished material.

Minimum standard source citation requirements should include the following:

l. author or creator of the record;
2. date record was created;
3. title or description;
4. page number or equivalent;
5. publisher and year of publication, if published;
6. repository address and identification number, film number, etc.); and
7. type of source, identified by either the type of event (birth, death, census, taxation, etc.) or by other document types including biography, genealogy, oral history, family bible, family record, newspaper, obituary, estate file, journal, correspondence, interview, personal knowledge, or tradition.

The above citation requirements are quoted from the "GEDCOM Note No. 1 Source Citations, June 2, 1993." GEDCOM is an acronym from GENealogy Data COMmunications. The purpose of GEDCOM is to insure the transfer of information from one genealogical database to another. GEDCOM has become a universal standard of genealogical work that is followed by most genealogical program developers.

Standard-setting genealogical organizations worldwide have been invited to review the above minimum standard source citation requirements and to submit suggested improvements by October 1, 1993 to Correspondence GEDCOM Coordinator 3t, 50 E. North Temple, Salt Lake City, Ut 84150. Eventually these guidelines will be part of the standards for computerized genealogies.


Personal Discipline and Material Culture: An Archaeology of Annapolis, Maryland, 1695 - 1870. By Paul A. Shackel (1993)

A unique study of the role material good have played in shaping our culture. Tells what it means when forks, toothbrushes, tea tables, wigs, clocks, and similar items are found in estate inventories and archaeological digs. Informative and provocative!

#980, casebound, 225 pp., $27.95

Powder and Propellants: Energetic Materials at Indian Head, Maryland, 1890 - 1990. By Rodney Carlisle (1990)

History of the Naval Ordnance Station at Indian Head, on the Potomac. Great story of how the Navy developed the critical components of modern sea warfare in Maryland.

#1000, casebound, 293 pp., $25.00

Praising the Bridge That Brought Me Over: One Hundred Years at Indian Head. Ed. by Andrea Hammer (1990)

Story of the people who worked at the Naval Ordinance Station at Indian Head, told through vintage photos and extensive oral interviews.

#1001, paper, 104 pp., $15.00

Patapsco Guards. By Daniel Carroll Toomey (1993)

First history of this Union volunteer infantry company raised in Ellicott's Mills area. Full roster of officers and men and never before published photos.

#1002, paper, 30 pp., $4.00

History of Calvert County. Charles F. Stein (1976)

The best history of one of Maryland's oldest counties; much family history information and coats-of-arms of leading county families.

#981, casebound, 484 pp., $20.00

Courier for Lee & Jackson, 1861 - 1865. Ed. by Walbrook D. Swank (1993)

Memoirs of John Gill of Baltimore, who served in the First Maryland Regiment CSA and as a courier for Stonewall Jackson and Fitzhugh Lee.

#979, paper, 78 pp., $12.00

Gettysburg: A Battlefield Atlas. By Craig L. Symonds (1992)

A narrative history and cartographic display of the crucial Civil War battle that occurred just north of Maryland's border. 24 full-page maps in color.

#806, casebound, 103 pp., $22.95.

Atlas of Howard County. G.M. Hopkins (1878; reprinted 1975)

Facsimile of the famous Hopkins Atlas of 1878, with the addition of an invaluable index to property owners shown on the maps in the atlas.

#1007, paper, 55 pp., $15.00

Prince George's County Land Records, 1696 - 1702. Ed. by Shirley L. Wilcox (1976)

Abstracts from the first volume of PG land records; full name index.

#1006, casebound, 98 pp., $10.00

Bibliography of Published Genealogical Source Records, Prince George's County. Prince George's Co. Genealogical Society (1986)

List of sources for PG cemetery, church, census, tax list, and probate records, as well as family genealogies.

#1005, paper, 28 pp., $2.00

1850 Census, Prince George's County. Ed. by Shirley L. Wilcox (1978)

Transcription of census scheduled with full name index.

#1004, casebound, 160 pp., $9.00

Stones and Bones: Cemetery Records of Prince George's County. Ed. by Jean A. Sargent (1988)

Tombstone inscriptions from over 80 cemeteries, with maps showing cemetery locations and a separate listing of Revolutionary War soldiers and patriots.

#1003, casebound, 690 pp., $28.00

1828 Tax List, Prince George's County. Ed. by Shirley L. Wilcox (1985)

Owners of personal and real property extracted from 1828 tax list; indexed by proper name and tract name, with map of the hundreds in the county.

#1008, casebound, 130pp., $14.00

Pocket Guide to Genealogical Resource Centers of the Mid-Atlantic. By Lauren Wright (1993)

Addresses, phone numbers, hours of operation, and description of services offered by the major public and private archives and LDS History Centers in NY, PA, NJ, MD, DE, VA, and Washington, DC.

#1009, paper, 30 pp., $3.50

Harford County Marriage Licenses, 1777 - 1865. By Jon Harlan Livezey and Helene Maynard Davis (1993)

An outstanding genealogical source, since marriage licenses often provide the only clue to maiden surnames.

#1010, paper, 281 pp., $20.00


New research topics in June encompassed less variety than usual. They included African American experiences in Talbot County and African Americans in Baltimore City, 1790-1860. Other groups being studied were the Acadians in Maryland and the poor in the Carroll County almshouse.

Local topics included Mechanicsville and Mt. Airy. Biographical information was being sought about George Alfred Townsend and Thurgood Marshall. Other subjects included power plant development, Supreme Court cases from Maryland, USS Maryland, SPCA of Anne Arundel County, bicentennial calendar for 1795, inheritance patterns, and Convention of 1776.

Vol. 7, No. 26 August 16, 1993


by Jim Hefelfinger

You are out in the open bay with the sun beating down, the waves rocking the boat, and you are trying to remain in one place and hold your camera equipment. Four boats are sailing toward you in the final race of the day, and you have only a few moments to capture the critical action before the boats are gone. This situation is not unique to boating, but is typical of action photography. When shooting on an ocean, bay, or lake, being on the water makes for a hazardous location. One difficulty lies in the focal length of the lenses. Oceans and bays are large bodies of water typically flat. To fill the viewing frame you need a zoom lens, 80mm to 200mm. 400mm to 600mm are normal for close action shooting.

When shooting boat races, keep a reasonable distance. Otherwise you may disrupt the competition. Reserve shorter focal lengths for on-board action. If you are lucky enough to get aboard a boat during the race, stay out of the way and shoot from a hatch on deck. For a 35mm camera a 105mm lens is good for action aboard the boat. A 35mm to 70mm zoom lens is also good, when space is scarce.

Conditions on the water vary widely from bright to cloudy and overcast. No matter what the conditions remember everything at sea is reflective. Boat, sails, and water can greatly affect meter readings. You must compensate for reflection. I use slow film of ASA 100, Kodachrome 64, on cloudy days. I use EPZ 100 which has a red tint that warms up the gray skies and water. Because of the reflection, film has to be overexposed by 1/3 stop. Since there is a great deal of motion on the water, you must use a faster shutter speed, 1/500th to insure sharpness. If you have problems, move up to a faster film. But remember the faster the film, the more grain on the photograph.

Experiment with your camera and film in order to get better boating pictures. Good luck, have fun when shooting.

SERIES OF THE WEEK by Pat Melville

Featured this week is the bottom half of p. 624 of the September 27, 1862 issue of Harpers Weekly, found in SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Harpers Weekly Illustrations Collection) [MSA SC 1579]. Many of the ads appearing in this illustration pertain to the military including Beadle's Dime Military Hand-Book, Complete Dictionary of Military Terms, agents to solicit applications for pensions and bounties, war maps, military clothing, night compasses, stationery packages, and French flannel army shirts.

Note the pictorial ad for "The American Parlor or Floor Skate, Hard Rubber Rollers, Anti-friction Axles." One might assume this is the predecessor of the modern rollerblade or in-line skate.

Vol. 7, No. 27 August 23, 1993


by R. J. Rockefeller

Through the Anne Arundel County Public Schools Gifted and Talented Program, four high school students volunteered at the Archives to assist in the research on the United States Colored Troops veterans of the Civil War. Ellie Stewart, Rachel Penn, Felicia Hall and Lori Bishop joined the college interns for two weeks; the first two students in July, the last two in August. They received school credit, while the Archives benefitted from their assistance with the biographical research program.

Ellie and Rachel helped to strip the indices to death and marriage records for the Baltimore City veterans. Working with the college interns, the students recorded references, collected data for the documents, and made entries into the computer biographical files. They also helped expand the database derived from the Adjutant General's Muster Rolls. Felicia and Lori helped fill in missing facts as the interns pieced together the stories of the veterans' lives. They chased through vital records, Baltimore City Directories, and census materials, using hints contained in the veterans' applications for federal pensions.

All the high school interns learned more about large scale biographical research, as well as how to use the resources at the Hall of Records.

We hope to renew our ties with the school system next summer, and throughout the school year. The grant proposal to the National Endowment for the Humanities to fund further biographical research on the USCT includes plans to have students and their teachers involved in the research. This summer's project was a feasibility study that proved quite successful and helped to shape our future plans for volunteer involvement in research activities here at the Archives.

Vol. 7, No. 28 August 30, 1993

TEST BOOKS by Pat Melville

Test books contain oaths of office by government officials and prior to 1898 oaths of attorneys admitted to practice before a court. In the counties these oaths were taken before the clerk of the court. A test book from Caroline County, 1809-1828, includes the usual assortment of oaths for the following offices: justice of the peace, constable, coroner, judge, justice of the levy court, deputy sheriff, sheriff, attorney, deputy clerk, clerk, deputy register of wills, register of wills, justice of the orphans court, deputy attorney general, crier, deputy surveyor, tax collector, and auditor.

On the last page of the record appears a list of "Writers in Clerks office since 1816" [reproduced below]. These men writing by hand recorded documents in record books, such as deeds, mortgages, bills of sale, court proceedings, and marriage licenses, and provided copies of records.

Vol. 7, No. 29 September 13, 1993


Research topics being pursued in August varied considerably, ranging from scholarly to esoteric. Institutional studies included the Rosewood Center and Court of Special Appeals. One researcher was seeking information about old school houses in Maryland. Another wanted material about the Henry Hotel in Ocean City, which provided accommodations for African Americans during segregation.

A biographical study pertained to Billie Holiday. Annapolis related topics included race relations, 1920-1950, and events during the week of June 1, 1943. The latter seemed to be connected with a reunion of some sort. Revolutionary era subjects included the Annapolis Convention and the war itself. One patron was looking for people who moved to Maryland from Charles Parish, York County, Virginia. Another was researching the Great Depression.

Some of the more unusual topics included the location of the oldest dump in Baltimore and old recipes used by the Thomas Johnson Brewery in Calvert County.

This column usually mentions the non-routine requests for information handled during a month. Sometimes we need to remind ourselves that the majority of research activity, be it genealogical or court related, is equally as important and interesting. In August one of the library assistants handled a request for a search of equity dockets from a woman who was trying to locate her father whom she had never met. We located cases involving this individual, and with the information found there the patron was able to find her father and arrange a meeting. Usually we do not know the end result of the reference assistance we provide, but in this case the woman called to express her gratitude.

An article written by Carson Gibb, "Origin of the Lakes of Dorchester County" appears in the Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin, Winter 1993, Vol. 34, No. 1.


Index of the St. Mary's Beacon 1852-1865

The Maryland Newspaper Project has preserved on microfilm thousands of pages of brittle newspapers that would have disappeared entirely had no steps been taken to save these vital sources of information. Genealogists and local historians find a veritable gold mine in the coverage of local events, politics, personal milestones (births, marriages, deaths), business and organizational announcements and advertisements. One of the lesser-known adjuncts to the statewide effort to locate, catalog and preserve Maryland's general circulation newspapers has been the growth of newspaper indexing projects. Users of the Archives' Library will find quite a few published newspaper abstracts in the catalog which record genealogical information culled from local rags. In addition, a few ambitious projects are attempting to create indexes to news items as well as the personal information of genealogical interest. Among the most notable of these projects is the continuing series of indexes to Hagerstown newspapers published by the Washington County Free Library. These indexes begin with 1790 and are now up to the 1830s.

The newest entry into the field of newspaper indexing is St. Mary's County. The public library has just published the first volume in a series of indexes to the St. Mary's Beacon. This 425 page tome covers the years 1852 to 1865, a pivotal period in the county's history when it witnessed the events and experienced the vicissitudes of the Civil War era. The "Aftermath of Glory" project at the Archives will be interested in inspecting the lists of enlisted slaves published in the paper, and the local historian should find interesting material in the editorial stance of a publication from a county that was under virtual military occupation. Of course, not all the news items resonate from the grand tableau of history. Leonardtown certainly sounds like it had a lively local political scene as the Young Americans slate faced their rivals from the Old Fogy party in the municipal elections of 1859. Jousting tournaments were a popular source of entertainment in the ante bellum era, and one can always wonder what exactly were the ingredients of patent medicines that went by the names Mexican Mustang Liniment or Negative Electric Fluid. Did the headline, "Monster Gooseberries" refer to a particularly successful crop or the latest horror to emerge from the fetid backwaters feeding into the Potomac River?

In any case, we look forward to future installments from this commendable project. The index will be located in the library under the call number 419 at 3/2/1, while the microfilm copy of the St. Mary's Beacon is found on MdHR M1022.

Vol. 7, No. 30 September 20, 1993

by Greg Stiverson

History of All Saints' Parish, Frederick County. By Ernest Helfenstein. 2nd ed., revised and expanded (1991) Helfenstein's history of this important western Maryland parish, originally published in 1932, with new material updating the history to 1990. Vintage photos, biographies of ministers, and a list of church officials from the colonial era to the present. #1011, casebound, 195 pp., $15.00

Huntia. Vol. 7 (1987) Entire issue of this famed botanical journal devoted to early Maryland botanical history, based on a five-year investigation of colonial flora collections at the British Museum and University of Oxford. Articles discuss botanical explorations and plant collectors in colonial Maryland, 1688-1753; the identification of early plants collected in Maryland; and Maryland plants mentioned in Linnaeus' "Species Plantarum." #1012, paper, 283 pp.

Washington County Genealogical Research Guide. George Ely Russell (1993) A "how-to" book for beginners and others who wish to do research on Washington County families. #1013, paper, 48 pp.,

Early Manor and Plantation Houses of Maryland. By H. Chandlee Forman (1934; reprinted 1984) Revised edition of Forman's monumental architectural and historical study of MD houses, 1634-1800, with 320 vintage photos and 145 plans and sketches. Beautiful printing and binding, a great gift book! #1014, casebound, 269 pp.

Chesapeake Bay Sloops. By Thomas C. Gillmer (1982) Pamphlet history of the preeminent Bay work boat by the noted marine historian and naval architect. #1015, paper, 55 pp.

Lambert Wickes, Pirate or Patriot?. Norman H. Plummer (1991) Pamphlet history of the Revolutionary War ship captain who did many of the same things that John Paul Jones did--but did them first! #1016, paper, 48 pp.

Chesapeake Bay Skipjacks, Notes on. Howard I. Chapelle (1944, reprint) Brief history of the last sail-powered work boats in the U.S., by one of the great marine historians. #1016, paper, c. 40 pp.

Edna E. Lockwood, The by Charles H. Kepner (1979) Story of the Bay's last working bugeye. #1018, paper, 19 pp.

Chesapeake Bay Crabbing Skiffs. By Howard I. Chapelle (1979) Brief history of a unique Bay vessel by an outstanding marine expert. #1018, paper, 20 pp.

Chesapeake Bay Sailing Craft. M.V. Brewington (1966) Delightful pamphlet with drawings and brief descriptions of Bay craft such as the log canoe, pungy, scow, bugeye, and skipjack. #1017, paper, 12 pp.

Maryland's Oyster Navy: The First Fifty Years. By Norman H. Plummer (1993) History of Oyster Navy, created in 1867 to enforce oyster laws, with appendices listing commanders, personnel, and vessels in oyster fleet. #1019, paper, 105 pp.

Eastern Shore's Own Steamboat Company: The Wheeler Transportation Line. By Richard J.S. Dodds (1990) Illustrated history of the only steamship line based on Maryland's Eastern Shore. #1020, paper, 19 pp.

Discovery of the Chesapeake Bay. By Frances d'A. Collings (1988) History of John Smith's 1608 voyage of discovery up Chesapeake Bay. 1021#, paper, 58 pp. Heritage in Wood: The Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum's Small Craft Collection. Ed. by Richard J.S. Dodds and Pete Lesher (1992) Descriptions, drawings, and photos of 76 wooden boats in the collections of the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum. A must for Bay boat buffs. #1022, paper, 132 pp.

From a Lighthouse Window. Recipes and Recollections from the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum. (1989) Award-winning book of recipes, folklore, and vintage photos from Maryland's Eastern Shore. #1023, casebound, 205 pp.

Vol. 7, No. 32 October 4, 1993

SERIES OF THE WEEK by Pat Melville

TALBOT COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Estate Docket) [MSA C1822] may seem like an unlikely candidate for a feature article. Usually an estate docket contains the names of the deceased person and administrator or executor and lists the documents filed during settlement of the estate. More information is then garnered from the documents themselves. The dockets for Talbot County for 1777-1807 contain additional, informative notations about the estates. Deaths of executors and administrators are indicated, as are marriages of female executors and administrators, including the name of the groom and county if different from Talbot. One widow married twice in five years. Some administrators became insolvent and one administratrix was "living in New England." One administrator "has enlisted as a soldier and is now out of the State says [the] Sheriff."

Some docket entries include notes about distribution of estates. "The whole estate is given to the widow." "The administrator is brother and sole Heir to the Deceased - not requisite to pass any Accounts." "This Account finally Settled by the Heirs among themselves"; thus, no administration account was filed. "It is said William Williamson alias Will Chapman, deceased, was a bastard; of course no Distribution of his estate has been made out."

Sometimes the comments concern minors and orphans. "The only child of Lee being now dead the administrators wife is Heir to the Estate." "Some money is expected to be recovered in Virginia. In the meantime administrator keeps the orphan." "John Work has died a minor. The Administrator is to return the amount of said John Work's Estate when the same is recovered from the Executors of Daniel Robinson, formerly his guardian." Some notes mentions the orphans or representatives as being of age.

Even record keeping failures were noted by the Register of Wills. "This Bond was found among the rubbish or loose papers and is therefore entered out of order."

by Doug McElrath

On September 30 Doug Hayman, one of our search room volunteers, demonstrated the video disk system at the USNA Archives. He has been working with the Archives for two years on a project to capture prints and photographs from several collections, including the Robinson Print Collection, on a video disk. The product is a disk containing 19,000 images, with capacity to include 50,000 in future editions. The technology is all analog. Doug photographs the original producing a 35 mm movie-type film which is converted by a lab in Georgetown to video tape. The tape then goes to 3M Corp. who produces the disk. They use a NUTSHELL PLUS II database package to manage the collection on the disk. The set-up includes the capacity to produce a small reference print of any image at the press of a button.

The disk is available for research at the Nimitz and other libraries that have purchased it. It is also being used in Naval ROTC classes across the country.

Doug showed us how he does the actual filming, demonstrated the search capacity of NUTSHELL, and gave us an overview of the variety of images contained on the disk. The Archives is currently beginning a second phase of capturing recently discovered photos from the Academy's Public Works Department, which Mame was excited to see because they include previously unknown shots of parts of Annapolis that no longer exist.

The advantages of the video disk system are obvious. They reduce the handling of the originals and provide quick access to sharp images on a screen (one second retrieval). Reproduction for publication purposes still requires the use of original negatives or photographs.

by Greg Stiverson

In October 1992 the William & Mary Quarterly, the most prestigious journal of early American history, polled its subscribers on what they considered the ten most significant articles published in the journal since 1943. "The Planter's Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth-Century Maryland," co-authored by Lois Green Carr and Lorena Walsh, was one of the winners.

The eleven articles receiving the most votes (there was tie) have been reprinted in a new book entitled In Search of Early America. A copy of the book has been ordered for our library. Congratulations to Lois and Lorena Walsh on this singular honor.

by Greg Stiverson

Flavor of the Chesapeake Bay Cookbook. Whitey Schmidt (1993) New cookbook featuring outstanding regional recipes; illustrated with Marion Warren photos. Signed by the author! #1026, paper, 111 pp.

Abstracts of Worcester County Estate Docket, 17421820. V.L. Skinner, Jr. (1993) Over 3,500 estates; full index. #1027, paper, 118 pp.

William Paca: A Biography. Gregory A. Stiverson and Phebe R. Jacobsen (1976) A limited number of casebound copies of the only full biography of this Maryland Signer recently turned up; long believed out-of-print, and available while they last at the original list price. #1028, casebound, 103 pp.

Inventory of Historic Sites in Caroline County. Michael Bourne and Christopher Weeks (1980) Description and photo of every historic building and site in this Eastern Shore county. #1029, paper, 80 pp.

World Turned Upside Down: Children of 1776. The Story of an Annapolis Family During the Revolutionary War. Ann Dowsett Jensen (1993) Lovely story, beautifully illustrated, will help children (and adults!) understand and appreciate life in Annapolis at the time of the Revolution. #1031, paper, 25 pp.

Vol. 7, No. 34 November 1, 1993

by Pat Melville

Juliet Habjan, a college intern at the State Archives in 1992, has sent us a letter written by a relative, Jim Cassel, when he was doing research at the Hall of Records in December 1937. The letter is interesting both for comments about the high level of service at the Hall of Records and for observations about Annapolis. Early annual reports make no mention of reference activity. Cassel's letter does reveal early efforts to accommodate reference demands, especially by Dr. Robertson, the first state archivist. Current staff will immediately note the more personal touches and leisurely pace. Then there is the 35-cent haircut. The letter is found in SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Habjan Collection) [MSA SC 4209] and is reproduced at the end of the Bulldog.

SPA CREEK by Pat Melville

The United States Board on Geographic Names, at its September 10, 1993, meeting discussed a proposal from the Carroll Creek Committee to change the name Spa Creek in Annapolis to Carroll Creek. The board turned down the proposal and reaffirmed a 1904 decision making the name Spa Creek official for usage in federal publications. The board decided that the name Spa Creek was well established locally and on maps and charts.

by Richard Richardson

SOMERSET COUNTY (created 1666, by an Order in Council)
Pocomoke and Marumsco
The Mannyes
Source: SOMERSET COUNTY COURT (Judicial Record) B1, p. 34 [MSA C 1774-1, MdHR 7839-2, 1-45-1-1]

Manokin (Monocan)
Mattaponie (Matopony)
Munney (Manny, Manigh)
Poquetenorton (Boquetonorton)
Pocomoke Wiccocomico
Source: SOMERSET COUNTY COURT (Tax List) 1723/1724 [MSA C1812-1/2, MdHR 20,397-1/2, 1-48-4-22]

Wicomico (District 1)
Princess Anne (District 3)
Nanticoke (District 1)
Great Annamessex (District 4)
Rewastico (District 2)
Little Annamessex (District 4)
Broad Creek (District 2)
Pocomoke (District 4)
Monye (District 3)
Broad Creek (District 4)
Monakin (District 3)
Source: GENERAL ASSEMBLY HOUSE OF DELEGATES (Assessment Record) 1783 Somerset County [MSA S1161-96/106, MdHR 1161-9-2/12, 1-4-5-52]

Little Annamessex
Dividing Creek
Greater Annamessex
Princess Anne
Broad Creek
Source: SOMERSET COUNTY COURT (Assessment Record) 1793 [MSA C 1734-1, MdHR 13,587, 1-53-4-17]

Vol. 7, No. 35 November 8, 1993


Aerial photographs have come to the Archives from numerous sources over the years. As a result, they are scattered both in actual physical location in the building, as well as being accessioned several different ways. This article is an attempt to let all of us know how and where to find these useful research materials.

First, it is important to understand that there are two basic types of aerial photographs:

Vertical aerial photographs are taken from airplanes that fly at a very high altitude. They are equipped with highly specialized cameras that enable the photographer to shoot images at very regular intervals so that every inch of land is included. These photographs show little detail, but they are very useful in determining property lines, areas of forestation, locations of streams, structures, coastlines, etc. They are often used to create tax maps, for highway planning, by developers, and by persons attempting to settle property disputes.

Oblique aerial photographs are usually taken from an airplane or helicopter flying at a much lower altitude. As the name implies, the camera looks out across the landscape (as opposed to the straight down vantage point of the vertical camera). These photographs show more detail in any three-dimensional features such as buildings, walls, bridges, trees, etc.

Collections of vertical aerial photographs have been created for various state agencies, so they appear in both STAGSER and TRANSER. The easiest way to find these photographs is to look in A Guide to Government Records at the Maryland State Archives under Aerial Photographs and follow the usual procedures. As a quick reference guide, here are brief descriptions and locations for the collections listed in the guide:

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOREST, PARK, AND WILDLIFE SERVICE (Aerial Photographs) [MSA T929]. This collection includes two distinct series of vertical photographs taken over the years 1948-1949 and 1957-1958. The earlier series have a beginning location of 2/52/4/37. The photographs are arranged in boxes alphabetically by county, but only the first part of the alphabet (Allegany through Garrett) are on the shelf. The rest of the state is missing. The second series from 1957-58 begin at 2/52/4/29. They are arranged the same way and all counties are there except Allegany and Garrett. Neither collection includes Baltimore City.

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOREST, PARK, AND WILDLIFE SERVICE (Aerial Photographs, AA) [MSA T930]. These are large vertical aerials in folders stored in drawers beginning at B5/11/3/4. They illustrate Anne Arundel County in 1957.

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND TAXATION (Aerial Photographs, Miscellaneous) [MSA S1491]. This collection consists of many boxes of vertical photographs illustrating various counties over various years from 1951 through 1986. See STAGSER 1491 for a complete listing. The collection is stored at 1/34/12 and continues at 1/34/14. Note that some photographs are copyrighted and copies may only be obtained by contacting the photographer as indicated on the reverse of the print.

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND TAXATION (Aerial Photographs, Tax Map) [MSA S1464]. These are real estate atlases for Montgomery, Prince Georges, Howard, and Anne Arundel counties covering the range of years 1980-1989. See S1464 for a complete listing. The collection starts at 1/34/12/1.

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND TAXATION (Aerial Photographs, USDA) [MSA S718]. These are large vertical photographs that were originated by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Ten counties are included in this group (see S718 for a complete list) which is stored in drawers at B5/12/2 through 12. The key for this collection is located at 1/34/12/20.

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND TAXATION (Aerial Photographs, USDA) [MSA T2084]. These are more photographs created by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. They begin at 1/34/14/8. Note that there are oversize materials at 1/34/12/44.

DEPARTMENT OF ASSESSMENTS AND TAXATION (Aerial Photographs, USDA, Key) [MSA S640]. This is the key for using the photographs in S718. It includes all counties except Howard, Montgomery, and Charles which are missing. Baltimore City is not included. This key is a bound book located at 1/34/12/20.

Other places to look for aerial photographs are the PHOTOS WordCruncher file, which will list individual photographs with brief descriptions. Also consult the SPECCOL WordCruncher file for suggestions of collections that include aerial photographs. Note that the aerials in these collections are more likely to be oblique views, although some vertical aerials are included in Special Collections. Be sure to try both "aerial" and "aerials."

A copy of this article is being placed in the PHOTOGRAPHS binder at the circulation desk as well as in the back of the General Guide to Photograph Collections with the finding aids to photographs.

by Phebe Jacobsen

[Phebe presented the following remarks at the 78th annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, held in Baltimore on October 23.]

For a long time I have thought about the topic which concerns us today. What was Alex Haley's legacy?

It would be so easy to say that Haley generated an enormous increase in African-American genealogy. That would certainly be a true statement. But he left a far greater legacy. In 1963 and 1964, Alex assisted Malcolm X in writing Malcom's biography. Soon thereafter he turned his attention to the completion of the saga of his own family story. By this time his friend Malcolm X had been assassinated, presumably by followers of Elijah Muhammad, once Malcolm's mentor. I believe that Alex was touched by his contacts with Malcolm X and his subsequent death, in one way in particular. M.B. Handly writes in the introduction to the Autobiography

"To the very end Malcolm X sought to refashion the broken strands between American Negroes and African culture. He saw in this a sense of group identity, a self conscious role in history, above all a sense of mans own worth, which he claimed the white man had destroyed in the negro."

In 1967 when Alex explained to me his reasons for working on the saga of his family, he said plainly that he wanted to bring pride to his people and give them a new identity.

To that end the tie with Africa in Haley's book was very important. Perhaps he would have touched on Africa anyway had he never known Malcolm X, but I believe his contacts with Malcolm gave added importance to the African scenes in Roots.

Tracing the family story through seven generations of American history was sheer genius. White Americans had done this many times, but it had never been done in a black epic. Now African Americans understood more of their own history and could look with pride on their American heritage despite slavery and its aftermath.

Alex also left a legacy of "brotherhood." This "brotherhood" was interracial and had no religious boundaries. His articles and books included people of different faiths, different backgrounds and different colors. He wrote of them all as individuals included in the human race.

Finally, Alex left the legacy of storytelling to a society that had long scorned that art. No one could tell a tale as well as Alex. He kept his audiences enthralled.

So the reunion with African culture, the new sense of worth among African Americans, the idea of brotherhood and the gift of story telling are Alex's legacy to us.

Vol. 7, No. 38 December 6, 1993

by R.J. Rockefeller

The Maryland Geographic Information Sytems committee (MDGIS), a voluntary organization of private and government institutions, held its fall conference at the State Archives on Monday, November 22. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are advanced computer programs that allow graphics and data to be combined, bringing maps and information together. Dr. John M. (Jay) Morgan of Towson State University, who was responsible for organizing MDGIS, chaired the meeting.

GIS are used for both historical and present purposes. Among the many different applications of this technology is our own location and tracing of individuals to study demographics, mobility, and settlement patterns relating to our research project on soldier who served in the United States Colored Troops and to historic preservation in Baltimore. Water Resources Administration of the Department of Natural Resources uses GIS to monitor water supplies. The State Highway Administration plots transportation systems, while the county land offices track plats and properties. Corporations use the system to identify markets, clients, and business patterns. All state, county, and municipal planning commissions study GIS and rely upon information provided by the systems.

The State Archives is responsible for the preservation of permanant government electronic files as well as records in more traditional formats. The Archives is concerned with GIS data as well, and so supports the work of MDGIS. Our interests in this program include promoting cooperation, and developing our own research applications. Most importantly, however, is our concern for the standardization and preservation of the vast amounts of data and graphics being generated in an electronic environment, for GIS and every other computer application.

This conference focused on reorganizing the MDGIS group around its key objectives of developing data and resources, providing technical assistance, marketing and education, standardizing systems and preservation. The primary goal is to promote communication and cooperation between the various groups using GIS. MDGIS plans to publish a guide to GIS resources: databases, technical applications, and lists of GIS operators and their projects. The first edition of this guide may appear next spring.

The highlight of the conference was a demonstration by a private corporation working for the Office of Planning and with records of the Department of Assessment and Taxation records. Using a projection system that showed the computer screen to the audience, they illustrated how tax maps, highway maps, and databases can be combined to illustrate terrain and provide information about features. In one example, the computer map displayed all the property in a county owned by people living out-of-state. The points (indicating parcels of land) appeared on the screen, relative to the highways and superimposed on the aerial photographs. Information about ownership, tax assessments, acreage, and zoning were all available by "clicking on" any point in question. They then showed growth patterns since 1990. While the scales and relationship to ground varied in precision, the demonstration showed how well GIS combine graphics (including aerial photography), several different map systems, and information from many databases.

by Pat Melville

Paul found a marriage certificate, dated 1942, in which the groom is listed as being two years old, and his occupation is given as "Shoe Factory". Presumably the age designation is missing a digit, and the man simply worked in a shoe factory.

Vol. 7, No. 39 December 13, 1993

by Ed Papenfuse

[In the summer of 1992 the State Archives conducted a teachers institute with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. A description and analysis of the institute is contained in Final Report: Teaching History with Original Sources, NEH Grant ES-22328, by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse, Project Director, November 1, 1993. Portions of the final report are excerpted below.]

The "Documents for the Classroom" initiative at the Maryland State Archives developed from a simple premise: facsimiles of relevant federal, state, and local records can be a vital resource for teachers seeking to improve the study of American history. The staff of the Archives has devoted considerable energy to this program and looked forward to the opportunity to test and refine its ideas by working with teachers in a summer institute. Thanks to the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities, we can report that the "Teaching History With Original Sources" institute held between June 22 and July 10, 1992 has been resounding success.... The twin goals of the institute were to provide an intellectual grounding in the historical issues that were raised in each packet and to assist teachers in the development of methods for introducing primary documents in the classroom....

...Participants [15 teachers] taught at private and public schools, elementary, middle, and high schools, all contributing different and valuable perspectives on the material and its potential use.

There were [some] changes in the list of scholars originally proposed.... For the Is Baltimore Burning? unit, Howard Schneider of the Washington Post replaced [a previously scheduled speaker.] Mr. Schneider had been working at the Archives on a feature article for the Washington Post Sunday Magazine concerning race relations in Cambridge. His willingness to meet with the teachers offered a fascinating contrast in historical approach. Featuring the journalist's perspective on historical events is but one example of our effort to seek diversity among the seminar leaders. In addition to Mr. Schneider, the teachers met with Dr. Ira Berlin, a traditional academic scholar, Dr. Lois Green Carr, a public historian, and Denton Watson, a biographer.

Dr. Edward Papenfuse, State Archivist, hosted the institute, led the discussions, and conducted some of the tours. Dr. Papenfuse presented many of the document packets he developed. He and the Archives' staff spent considerable effort on the challenge of combining digital scanning and desk-top publishing technologies to improve the production quality of the packets.

Dr. M. Mercer Neale, Head of the Upper School at the Gilman School (Baltimore), contributed to the presentations on document packets because of both his participation with Dr. Papenfuse in their design, and his experience using them in the classroom. His expertise in teaching proved invaluable when he advised the teachers during the development of their lesson plans.

Dr. James Adomanis, of Anne Arundel County Schools, was particularly helpful at guiding the teachers in finding ways to fit the packets into that county's curriculum. His affiliations with locals schools greatly aided in recruitment....

Dr. Kay McElvey, one of the participating teachers, is a Dorchester County resident with many connections in the Cambridge community. Her contributions included first-hand accounts of the events in Cambridge during the 1960s and introductions to local inhabitants who shared those experiences. Her own studies of black Civil War veterans also enhanced the teachers' work on that topic....

The historical credentials and educational experience of all three project administrators allowed them to instruct and guide the teachers, and to adapt to the teachers's needs. Archives' staff played critical supporting roles. Douglas McElrath, archivist, filled the role of the project's administrator and organizer, and was always available to assist the teachers. R.J. Rockefeller, also of the State Archives, assisted Dr. Papenfuse and Mr. McElrath in support activities, and was responsible for the research component of the program.

The three-week institute was organized around five units, each corresponding to a document packet designed and produced by the Maryland Archives as part of the Documents for the Classroom series. In general, a unit consisted of three major activities: consideration of the documents in the packet, a field trip to a site or several sites relevant to the subject of the packet, and a seminar-style discussion with a guest scholar.... Each teacher produced two lesson plans.... The institute teachers also participated in a directed research project designed to introduce them to some of the complexities of archival research. ...

The teachers were introduced to research techniques by participating in the biographical research about veterans of the United States Colored Troops. Archives college summer interns instructed the teachers and assisted them in their research. The interaction between the teachers and the interns would continue at various points throughout the program, especially the Cambridge trip and the ensuing discussion. In this manner, the teachers were introduced to research with original sources through a structured application, rather than pursuing their own diverse interests, which would have required a great deal of personal assistance and for which there would not be sufficient time to generate substantial results.

A carefully structured design for doing biographical research allowed first the interns and then the teachers to master some basic research techniques and acquaint them with specific original records. The personal subjects promoted a sense of immediacy and connection between the historical figures and the researchers. Moreover, the teachers glimpsed the intricacies and difficulties of using historical records, but also obtained insight into the past gained from successful original research. The research process, combined with a presentation on materials at the Archives, taught the teachers how they can do their own work in the future, perhaps to supplement the document packets, or to create packets of their own. The teachers' work is available in the Archives' public research files.

The involvement of scholars with the teachers was as successful as that of the teachers and interns. The planned format of visiting locations, discussing the documents and their classroom use, and then having lunch with scholars or journalists worked well for presenting most of the document packets. However, because of scheduling conflicts, the trip to St. Mary's City, associated with the first document packet was not possible on the second day of the workshop. Instead, the teachers spent the afternoon in the company of Dr. Lois Greene Carr, the historian for St. Mary's City, and the foremost expert on life in seventeenth-century Maryland. She provided valuable insights about the documents contained in that packet and answered questions raised by the teachers....

This summer's program also included video presentations for three of the five packets. These included excerpts from the movie "Glory" for the Aftermath of Glory unit, the NEH-sponsored "Grand Army of Starvation" production for the 1877 strike unit, and the "Road to Brown" film for the Donald Murray unit. Dr. Papenfuse showed clips of Spiro Agnew's news conferences during the racial unrest in 1967 - 1968 obtained from the WMAR video archives at the University of Baltimore as part of the unit on the Cambridge riot. The purpose in using video presentations was to expose teachers to supplementary teaching materials that they could use in conjunction with the document packets.

On account of the weather, the added expense of transportation, and the difficulty of presenting much changed modern sites in their historical context, the Annapolis field trip was canceled. As planned in the proposal, Dr. Ira Berlin met with the teachers at the Archives for a very fruitful discussion on the Aftermath packet.... Although no scholar visited the program for the railroad strike discussion, the group toured the B & O Museum and appropriate Baltimore locations, and analyzed the packet. Denton Watson, who has written about the legal efforts of the NAACP, welcomed the opportunity to discuss the historical context for the NAACP's legal strategy to desegregate the Maryland Law School....

While the teachers were inspired by the packets as they were presented, and particularly appreciated the contributions of experts for background, the limited amount of time available prohibited the teachers from developing their own packets and lesson plans. Therefore, the teachers devised their lesson plans from the packets presented, customizing the packets according to their own needs. Future efforts will lengthen the time span of the program to allow for more research and lesson plan development.

The exact requirements of different school systems vary so that the specific nature of lesson plans needs to be defined by the participants, not the organizers. Thus, the prototypes for teacher's daily lesson plans sometimes evolved into "units" wherein the documents were used as components of a week's worth of classroom plans as well as the one- or two-day applications originally envisioned.... The products, as numerous but perhaps not as complete nor elaborate as projected, are on file at the Archives for the use of these teachers, or any others who visit the Hall of Records....

Although the Maryland State Archives' Masterworks Program deviated from the original plan in term of the number of participants, the exact schedule, and the nature of the research project, the final results were outstanding. Enthusiasm replaced the teachers' initial suspicions of the applicability of the program to their particular school systems and classrooms. The fifteen participants became involved, excited, and returned to their schools with new materials and renewed vigor. Those teachers will transmit their new knowledge about the use of original documents in the classroom. They have more resources and new skills for the teaching of history in public and private schools of all levels. The institute provided techniques and materials that should inspire and intrigue their students, instilling a sense of the value and importance of history, particularly local history as it relates to national issues.

The Endowment suggested the elimination of a meeting planned during the school year designed to present a sixth document packet to a much larger audience of teachers. However, the teachers and the NEH evaluator requested a follow-up session to discuss the teachers' experience with the material in the classroom. The Gilman School and the Maryland State Archives were granted an extension and held a meeting with the teachers on Thursday, March 15. The group discussed the successes and set-backs encountered by the teachers when using the educational materials. Archives staff consulted with the teachers on future plans for renewing an application for NEH support for a similar program, and included many of their suggestions in the application for an institute for 1994. [This grant was recently awarded to the Archives.]

Teacher evaluations and reactions were uniformly positive, other than a request to make the institute longer.... Each teacher was able to incorporate the material in the packets into their curriculum. Few teachers were able to use either whole packets or the lesson plans as they had originally envisioned them, but each said that the materials enhanced their usual presentations dramatically. In fact, one teacher's class dramatized the trials of the Murray desegregation case in several skits or plays.

The teachers spoke, not only of how they applied these materials in their own classes, but of how helpful the documents approach is in preparing students for the new aptitude and performance evaluation tests currently being installed in the school systems. Education specialists focus on reasoning skills, student interaction, and analysis more than information retention. The document packets provide fertile ground for such learning exercises.

The Maryland State Archives continued its effort to promote its Documents for the Classroom initiative after the conclusion of this grant. On September 14, 1992, Dr. Adomanis organized a one-day teachers' workshop on the freedom of the press as part of the Maryland We the People project. That meeting for approximately 25 teachers took place at the Hall of Records building and included a presentation by Dr. Papenfuse. In December 1992, Drs. Adomanis, Neale, and Papenfuse described the Documents for the Classroom program at a session of the American Historical Association Annual Meeting in Washington. This program has also been enthusiastically received in sessions at several educational or historical conferences, including the Association of Documentary Editors and the Maryland Council for Social Studies. . .. The most successful application of the Documents for the Classroom program since the institute has been the collaborative effort of the Archives, several private school, and the Baltimore City public school system, supported by a grant from the Abell Foundation. Teachers and their students gather with institute staff to learn the techniques of using original sources so the teams of teachers and their students can return to the classroom to teach their students and classmates. Other efforts are being made to expand the program's contacts to Harford and St. Mary's county schools and to explore the application of these teaching materials to the college level.

The Documents for the Classroom packets themselves have recently improved, often by incorporating teachers' suggestions. Supplemental materials are needed to assist student understanding and interpretation of historical records. Transparencies of documents and poster-sized enlargements produced by the scanning equipment at the Archives proved to be successful when working with difficult to read items. The Archives produced these materials at cost to teachers who attended this institute, and at present this type of supplementary material is routinely available to teachers at the lowest cost possible as part of the Documents for the Classroom program. Detailed lesson plans, both by institute participants and by graduate education students working at the Archives on the document packets, will soon be more readily available to interested instructors.

Enhancement of the production quality of the facsimiles in the packets will continue. New computer hardware and software at the Archives has greatly improved image and printing quality. The format, page size, and cover sheet information have changed for easier classroom use. The goal always is to keep costs as low as possible while creating a product of the highest quality and utility....

The Maryland State Archives considers support for annual teachers institutes as a key goal in its campaign to establish an endowment to support humanities programs. In short term, the Archives will continue to turn to granting agencies such as the NEH for support, but the long-term goal is to fund teachers institutes and the Documents for the Classroom program as part of a permanent endowment-funded Education Initiative at the Archives. In a time when so much emphasis is focused on technical training, the value of a foundation in the humanities is often overlooked. The Maryland State Archives is confident that its institute on "Teaching History with Original Sources" as part of its exceptional Documents for the Classroom program has equipped teachers to meet this challenge and guide students to a better understanding of their own past and that of their nation, and hopes to continue to improve our educational system in the future.

Vol. 7, No. 40 December 20, 1993

by R.J. Rockefeller

The Hall of Records has always been associated with the finest in historical scholarship, particularly in the areas of colonial and family history. The tradition continues among staff and patrons. In an effort to assist researchers and coordinate staff and patron activities, we are tracking the major research projects currently in the works. We are interested in all dissertations, theses, indexing projects, and transcriptions. I hope to have a list of topics and researchers so that we can better share the fine work done here. The Archives also hopes that researchers will be so generous as to donate research notes, electronic files, or final products to Special Collections. In that way, future researchers can benefit from what has gone before, and current researchers and donors can receive the credit they deserve.

Current projects include the Archives' own work on African-American veterans of the United States Colored Troops, especially those from Baltimore. Several students have made their topics known. J. Elliot Russo is studying the effects of colonial settlement and economic patterns on attitudes towards the Revolution for her dissertation. Her focus on Somerset County suggests that economic stagnation and immobility of the population inclined the Eastern Shore residents to Loyalism and resentment of the Western Shore rebels. whose economic and demographic profile was very different. Ms. Russo's work makes extensive use of land and probate records, among others, to identify Somerset residents and trace their economic and geographic mobility (or lack thereof).

Jessica Kaplan's master's thesis is a study of female tavern owners in colonial Annapolis, tracing their careers, and characterizing these women as effective business persons (contrary to former interpretations) whose demise was due to the economic down turns in Annapolis and the advent of boarding houses and other male-dominated competition. Jay Thomas's dissertation studies town development on the Eastern Shore, concentrating on the inhabitants as well as the physical structures. Mary Jeske's dissertation studies tenants of Charles Carroll of Carrollton in Frederick County, exploring the nature of tenant/landlord relations, economic status of renters, and changes in their condition over time.

My own dissertation examines executive government in eighteenth century Maryland, identifying the mechanisms of ruling the colony. Of particular interest are the governor's informal influence, his role as mediator between Marylanders and the Proprietor, and a revisionist view of the relationship between the Lower House of the Assembly and the Upper House or the governor.

This article has been devoted to academic work. Access and genealogical information will be addressed in a future article. Such projects include Agnes Callum's index and description of Civil War Bounty Papers. We know that work is being done on Anne Arundel County Land Record abstracts and on manumissions across the state.

If you have a project, or know of one, whether research or access oriented, please contact me if your are willing to make it known.

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