Col. Edward Lloyd VI (b.
1798 - d. 1861)
MSA SC 5496-38357
Property Owner, Talbot County, Maryland
Edward Lloyd, the sixth in his
family born with this name, was born into one of the wealthiest
families in Talbot County and in the state of Maryland. He was
born in Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, Maryland on December 27,
1798. 1 Since Edward Lloyd was the eldest son of a large and
successful family, he received opportunities that helped perpetuate his
affluence and guaranteed the success of his children.
The first five Edward Lloyds built a substantial fortune through the African slave trade, the cultivation of tobacco, and their service in various high level political positions. The family hired a private tutor, Mr. Joel Page, who was beloved by the family, to give their son, Edward VI, a head start on his education. 2 However, Edward Lloyd V staunchly believed that attending a university would not be beneficial to his son, mostly because of his own experiences with erudition. 3 According to Edward Lloyd V, this sort of advanced schooling was unnecessary because he wanted his son to be more agriculturally-oriented. 4
Despite his father's wishes, Edward Lloyd VI began his studies in Philadelphia, but when he became seriously ill, he was forced to abandon his scholarly pursuits. 5 However, because of his family's vast resources, it was not imperative for Edward Lloyd VI to receive a degree. He did eventually complete his study of English letters and obtained knowledge on the common practical affairs of life. 6 On November 30, 1824, he married Alicia McBlair, the daughter of a merchant, in the city of Baltimore. 7 Prior to her death in 1838, Alicia gave birth to five children, with the eldest being Edward Lloyd VII. 8
The Lloyd family was prominent on Maryland's Eastern Shore as they were considered one of the largest property owners, both in land and slaves. The Lloyd family owned slaves that were mentioned in runaway ads, pension claims, and their plantation was home to Frederick Augustus Bailey alias Frederick Douglass, an iconic slave. Douglass was born in Talbot County, Maryland and worked on the Lloyd plantation under the control of Aaron Anthony. 9 When Douglass arrived on the Lloyd's plantation in 1824, its slave population was 181. 10 Douglass believed he was owned by Edward Lloyd, however he belonged to Aaron Anthony. Both Douglass and Aaron Anthony resided on Wye Plantation, property that belonged to Lloyd, which may have led to the confusion.
Douglass was only seven to eight years old when he lived on the Lloyd
plantation, so he was not required to participate in much hard
labor. 11 He formed a friendship with Daniel Lloyd, Edward Lloyd V's
son, when he was relegated to finding the birds that Daniel shot. 12
Douglass mentions that Daniel became "quite attached" to him, and "was
a sort of protector of me." 13 Despite making friends with Daniel, Douglass was overwhelmed "with joy" to go to Baltimore. 14
Douglass stated, "I shall never forget the ecstasy with which I
received the intelligence that my old master had determined to let me
go to Baltimore." 15
The Lloyd plantation consisted of more than a dozen outlying farms that made up approximately 9,000 acres. 16 Before Edward Lloyd V passed away in 1834, he acquired eight more farms, giving him a total of 21. 17 Some of these farms included: Wye Town Farm, New Design Farm, Woolmans Farm, White House Farm, New Quarter Farm, Forest Farm, Hammond Farm, Four Hundred Acres Farm, Davises Farm, Timber Neck Farm, Presquille, Blissland, Home House Farm, Hopewell, and Wye Heights. 18
According to the 1832 assessment records for Talbot County, Edward Lloyd V owned 468 slaves that were valued at $26,820 on his various farms. 19 Colonel Edward Lloyd V was considered to be "the greatest and most successful wheat grower and cattle raiser in Maryland." 20 Edward Lloyd VI took over the family plantation in Miles River Neck with expectations of carrying on the family dynasty that had been established. Miles River Neck was a section of Talbot County that consisted of 15,000 acres and the Lloyd family owned the majority of that land. 21
Slavery on the Lloyd farms appeared to be plantation-oriented
rather than domestic-oriented. 22 Talbot County, however, was considerably more
domestic than plantation-oriented. The vast number of slaves that
were owned by the Lloyds made it difficult to keep track of them, as
many of the slaves were as unknown to Lloyd as they were to him. 23
Making personal connections with slaves became difficult due to the
large number of slaves he owned. Thus, a slave with limited
exposure to Lloyd could escape without him being immediately aware.
Edward Lloyd's overseers kept detailed inventories of the slaves on his
various plantations. Overseers, such as Aaron Anthony and John
Hargon, compiled an inventory of slaves that lists them by name on each of Colonel Edward Lloyd's plantations. 24
Edward Lloyd VI wanted to be placed in charge of the plantation and that request was granted by his father. 25 Prior to the death of his father, a large house was built for Edward Lloyd VI at Wye Heights that was paid for by his father. 26 After his father died, Edward VI moved into Wye House, with his brother Daniel taking over the Wye Heights estate. 27 With the help of his father, Edward VI was knowledgeable and experienced in the study and practice of agriculture, which enabled him to continue the success of his family. With his father's tutelage, many "characterized him (Edward VI) as the greatest farmer of the State of Maryland." 28 Edward VI chose not to lead a life of indulgence, as his father did. 29 Instead, he became frugal with his expenditures.
The gradual decline of tobacco threatened the family's great wealth. Edward was forced to adapt to cultivating grain and he made a successful transition. The agricultural depression, lasting from 1820 until Lloyd's death in 1861, contributed to the failure of many farmers in the cultivation of grain. Edward Lloyd VI had the luxury of cultivating thousands of acres of land and was able to establish personal direction and supervision. Each farm had its own overseer, as well as a bailiff or steward. 30 The bailiff or steward had the responsibility of personally reporting to him, but he also found time to pass through each farm to keep a careful eye on tillage and management. 31 Another duty involved looking after the welfare of his many slaves and ordering punishment to provide discipline and maintain control. 32 Edward was a practical farmer, which contributed to his success.
The Lloyd's rarely ever sold slaves from their plantations, which resulted in the slaves being rendered profitless because of increased slaves on the plantation. 33 Edward Lloyd VI sought to remedy that problem by purchasing a property in Madison County, Mississippi in 1837. 34 He also purchased plantations in Arkansas and Louisiana, as well. 35 He first offered the slaves the opportunity to go based on their willingness, and then transported the slaves who he felt deserved to go as punishment for being "difficult" or "uppity." 36 Between the four states where they owned land, it was believed the Lloyd family owned more than 700 slaves, a staggering amount. 37 Rarely did the Lloyd family sell slaves and they never granted manumissions.
The tendencies of the Lloyd family could have led to Emory Roberts escaping from slavery. Roberts ran away in June of 1855 and reached Philadelphia via the Underground Railroad. 38 Upon reaching his destination, Roberts made it known that Lloyd was a harsh slave owner. According to Roberts, slaves were whipped without discrimination as it became common "on women as well as men, old and young." 39 Roberts conceived the possibility that Edward Lloyd owned "about five hundred head." 40 According to Roberts, food and clothing were not commonplace for the slaves and they suffered on a daily basis. 41 Roberts was supposed to be flogged on the coming Monday, which precipitated his escape. 42
Another documented case that reinforces Emory Roberts' claim about the treatment on Lloyd's plantations comes from the wife of former slave, John Johnson. As the Civil War progressed, Abraham Lincoln enacted the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 with the intention of recruiting slaves to join the Union army. 43 The recruitment of slaves resulted in a different way for slaves to escape and to fight for their freedom. Johnson was able to serve in the United States Colored Troops as a private in Company B of the 7th regiment. 44 He enlisted on September 23, 1863 and died on October 11, 1866 in Indianola, Texas while he was in a hospital. 45 Since John's wife, Harriett, and other women encouraged the men to join the war, they were subjected to flogging and harsh treatment for providing "wicked advice," as Harriett recalled. 46 Much to his chagrin, the Union army recruited many of Lloyd's slaves. Among these slaves were John Blackwell, Joseph Gale, Horace Gibson, John H. Gibson, Peter Johnson, and John Johnson (Company A, 7th Regiment).
The Lloyds placed several known runaway advertisements for his escaped slaves. One advertisement was placed in the Easton Star for Henry Seeney, a 22 year old slave, on November 14, 1848, offering $250. 47 Lloyd would pay $50 for his capture within the county, $100 outside of the county and in the state, and $250 out of the state. 48 Seeney was thought to be a "polite and pleasant" man. 49 In the 1832 assessment records for Col. Edward Lloyd V, Seeney was a seven year old boy and valued at $35. 50 His value increased as he became older.
Another advertisement came from Dixon Stansbury, the warden of the Baltimore County Jail, via the Easton Gazette on April 26, 1828 asking Edward Lloyd to come forward and reclaim his property, namely George Grayson. 51 Grayson was jailed on April 8, 1828, which presumably meant he ran away during Edward Lloyd V's ownership. 52
Edward Lloyd VI was involved politically within the Talbot County community. After being elected as a delegate to the convention in October 1850, he was then elected without opposition as a State senator for Talbot County. 53 He served during the years 1851 and 1852. 54 Once his term expired, his short political career ended. According to the 1860 United States Federal Census, Edward Lloyd VI owned 410 slaves just in Talbot County, Maryland alone (not including his southern plantations). 55 Edward Lloyd VI would have presumably been pro-Southern in his sentiment as he had too much to lose if slavery had been outlawed. Edward Lloyd VI died on August 11, 1861 just before the institution of slavery was challenged during the Civil War. 56 He was buried on August 12, 1861 in the family burial ground at his home. 57
According to Lloyd's will written on November 17, 1856, he wanted his
funeral to be "plain, private, without parade or preaching." 58
Lloyd bequethed to his son, Edward VII, with the farms that
included the "Wye Town Farm, Wye House Farm, 400 acres farm, New Design
Farm, Hopewell Farm, and Blissland farm on the Choptank River." 59
Edward VII was also to receive the items (furniture, paintings,
books, etc.) within the house at Wye at the time of his fathers death. 60
After the death of his father, Edward Lloyd VII was to sell both
the real and personal estate of land in Mississippi and Allegany
County, Maryland. 61 Edward Lloyd VII stood to gain a substantial amount of wealth after his fathers death.
1. Oswald Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland: 1661-1861, Vol. 1, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1915, 210.
2. Ibid., 211.
7. Ibid., 220-221.
8. Ibid., 221.
9. SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Mary A. Dodge Collection), Papers, account books, and other items relating to the Anthony family, Caroline and Talbot counties. [MSA SC 564-1-94]. ;
Frederick Douglass, Frederick Douglass: Autobiographies, New York: Literary Classics of the United States, Inc., 1994, 33.
10. Dickson J. Preston, Young Frederick Douglass: The Maryland Years, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980, 48.
11. Douglass, Frederick Douglass: Autobiographies, 33.
16. Dickson J. Preston, Young Frederick Douglass, 48.
18. H. Furlong Baldwin Library. Maryland Historical Society. "The Lloyd Papers. Edward Lloyd Family (of Talbot Co. MD). 1658-1910. Inventory of Slaves (1826-1861)." Volume 45. Reel 10. Call Number MS 2001.
19. TALBOT COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS (Assessment Record, Slaves) [MSA C1836-1] 1832. Election District 1. Slave owner: Col. Edward Lloyd. Total Number of Slaves and Assessment Value. Page 84.
20. Benjamin Quarles, Frederick Douglass, Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1948, 2.
21. Shephard Krech III, "The Participation of Maryland Blacks in the Civil War: Perpectives from Oral History," Ethnohistory 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1980): 67.
22. Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 215.
24. H. Furlong Baldwin Library. Maryland Historical Society. "The Lloyd Papers. Edward Lloyd Family (of Talbot Co. MD). 1658-1910. Inventory of Slaves (1826-1861)."
25. Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 212.
28. Ibid., 212.
30. Ibid., 214.
33. Ibid., 217.
34. Dickson J. Preston, Talbot County: A History, Tidewater Publishers: Centreville, MD., 1983, 190.
35. Ibid., 190-191.
36. Ibid., 190.
37. Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 224-225.
38. William Still, "Underground Rail Road: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters, etc.," Philadelphia, PA: Porter & Coales, Publishers, 1872, 306.
43. Agnes Kane Callum. Colored Volunteers of Maryland, Civil War: 7th Regiment United States Colored Troops 1863-1866 (Baltimore, MD: Mullac Publishers, 1990.), 1.
44. SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (U.S. Colored Troops Pension File Collection) [MSA SC 4126] John Johnson, Box 24, Folder 518, Page 8.
46. Ibid., 2
47. "$250 Reward," Easton Star, 14 November 1848.
50. TALBOT COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS (Assessment Record, Slaves) [MSA C1836-1] 1832. Election District 1. Slave owner: Col. Edward Lloyd. Slave: Henry Seeney. Page 70.
51. "Notice," Easton Gazette, 26 April 1828.
53. Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 219.
55. Ancestry.com. 1860. United Stated Federal Census. Slave Schedule. "Edward Lloyd." Talbot County, Maryland. Easton District. Line 9. Pages 11-16.
56. Tilghman, History of Talbot County, Maryland, 221.
57. SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Christ Church, St. Michael's Parish Collection) St. Michael's Church: Register 1848-1887, p. 21 [MSA SC 2635 M 1228]
58. TALBOT COUNTY REGISTER OF WILLS (Wills, Original) 1828-1890. Col. Edward Lloyd. August 23 1861. Box 2. MSA T2536-2.
to Col. Edward Lloyd's Introductory Page
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